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Sökning: WFRF:(Omerov S.)

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1.
  • Ekman, M., et al. (författare)
  • PMH30 The Societal Cost of Depression: Evidence from 10,000 Swedish Patients in Psychiatric Care
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Value in Health. - 1098-3015. ; 15:4, s. A87-A87
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Depression is a major health problem. Previous studies on the cost of depression have mainly taken a primary care perspective. Such studies do not include all patients with depression, and should be completed by cost estimates from psychiatric care. The objectives of this study were to estimate the annual societal cost of depression per patient in psychiatric care in Sweden, and to relate costs to disease severity, depressive episodes, hospitalization, and patient functioning. Methods Retrospective resource use data in inpatient and outpatient care for 2006-2008, as well as ICD-10 diagnoses and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), were obtained from Northern Stockholm psychiatric clinic with a catchment area including 47% of the adult inhabitants in Stockholm city. This data set was combined with national register data on prescription pharmaceuticals and sick leave to estimate the societal cost of depression. Results The study included 10,593 patients (63% women). The average annual societal cost per patient was around USD 21,000 in 2006-2008. The largest cost item was indirect costs due to productivity losses (89%), and the second largest was outpatient care (6%). Patients with mild, moderate or severe depression had an average cost of approximately USD 18,000, USD 21,000, and USD 29,000, respectively. Total costs were significantly higher during depressive episodes, for patients with co-morbid psychosis or anxiety, for hospitalized patients, and for patients with low GAF scores. Conclusions The largest share of societal costs for patients with depression in psychiatric care is indirect. The total costs were higher than previously reported from a primary care setting, and strongly related to hospitalization, episodes of active depression, and global functioning. This suggests that effective treatment and rehabilitation that avoid depressive episodes and hospitalization may not only improve patient health, but also reduce the societal cost of depression.
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2.
  • Ekman, M., et al. (författare)
  • The societal cost of bipolar disorder in Sweden
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. - 0933-7954. ; 48:10, s. 1601-1610
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a lack of comprehensive cost-of-illness studies in bipolar disorder, in particular studies based on patient-level data. The purpose of this study was to estimate the societal cost of bipolar disorder and to relate costs to disease severity, depressive episodes, hospitalisation and patient functioning. Retrospective resource use data in inpatient and outpatient care during 2006-2008, as well as ICD-10 diagnoses and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, were obtained from the Northern Stockholm psychiatric clinic with a catchment area including 47 % of the adult inhabitants in Stockholm. This dataset was combined with national register data on prescription pharmaceuticals and sick leave to estimate the societal cost of bipolar disorder. The study was conducted from a societal perspective, with indirect costs valued according to the human capital method. The average annual cost per patient was a,not sign28,011 in 2008 (n = 1,846). Indirect costs due to sick leave and early retirement represented 75 %, inpatient costs 13 %, outpatient costs 8 %, pharmaceuticals 2 % and community care another 2 % of the total cost. Total costs were considerably higher during mood episodes (six times higher than in remission), for hospitalised patients (a,not sign55,500 vs. a,not sign22,200) and for patients with low GAF scores. The high cost of bipolar disorder is driven primarily by indirect costs. Costs were strongly associated with mood episodes, hospitalisations and low GAF scores. This suggests that treatment that reduces the risk for relapses and hospitalizations and improve functioning may decrease both the societal cost of bipolar disorder and patient suffering.
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3.
  • Ekman, M., et al. (författare)
  • The societal cost of depression: Evidence from 10,000 Swedish patients in psychiatric care
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - 0165-0327. ; 150:3, s. 790-797
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Depression cost studies have mainly taken a primary care perspective and should be completed with cost estimates from psychiatric care. The objectives of this study were to estimate the societal per-patient cost of depression in specialized psychiatric care in Sweden, and to relate costs to disease severity, depressive episodes, hospitalization, and patient functioning. Methods: Retrospective resource use data in inpatient and outpatient care for 2006-2008, as well as lCD-10 diagnoses and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), were obtained from the Northern Stockholm psychiatric clinic (covering half of Stockholm's population aged 18 years and above). As a complement, data from national registers on pharmaceuticals and sick leave were used in order to estimate the societal cost of depression. Results: Based on 10,430 patients (635, women), the mean annual per patient cost was (sic)17, 279 in 2008. The largest cost item was indirect costs due to productivity losses (88%), followed by outpatient care (6%). Patients with mild and severe depression had average costs of (sic)14,200 and (sic)21,500, respectively. Total costs were substantially higher during depressive episodes, among patients with co-morbid psychosis or anxiety, for hospitalized patients, and for patients with poor functioning. Limitations: Primary care costs and costs for reduced productivity at work were not included. Conclusions: The main cost item among depression patients in psychiatric care was indirect costs. Costs were higher than previously reported for primary care, and strongly related to hospitalization, depressive episodes, and low functioning. This suggests that effective treatment that avoids depressive episodes and hospitalization may reduce society's costs for depression.
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4.
  • Ekman, M., et al. (författare)
  • The Societal Cost of Schizophrenia in Sweden
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics. - 1091-4358. ; 16:1, s. 13-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric disorder that has severe consequences for patients and their families. Moreover, the expensive treatment of schizophrenia imposes a burden on health care providers and the wider society. Existing cost estimates for Sweden, however, are based on relatively small patient populations and need to be confirmed in a large register-based study. Aims of the Study: To investigate the health care resource utilization and cost-of-illness in patients with schizophrenia in Sweden and to relate the costs to hospitalizations and global assessment of functioning (GAF). Methods: Hospital-based registry data were combined with national registry data from a large patient population to get reliable estimates of the costs of schizophrenia in Sweden. Schizophrenia was defined by ICD-10 codes F20; F21; F23.1,2,8,9; F25.1,8,9. Registry data on socio-demographics and disease-related healthcare resource use in outpatient and inpatient care were obtained from Northern Stockholm Psychiatry. Data on pharmaceuticals were obtained from the National Board of Health and Welfare, and data on sick leave and early retirement were obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. Costs for community mental health care were not available at the individual level, but were estimated based on previous studies and aggregate cost data from Stockholm. Resource use data from the registries were combined with unit costs from publicly available sources. The study was conducted from a societal perspective, with indirect costs valued according to the human capital method. Results: The average annual psychiatric cost per patient with schizophrenia in 2008 was 42 700 (95% CI: 41 500 44 000), based on a sample of 2 161 patients. To this should be added costs for community mental health care of 12 400 per patient, giving a total cost of 55 100 per patient. The two largest cost items in the total costs were indirect costs due to lost productivity (60%) and community mental health care (22% of the total cost). Patients who were hospitalized in 2008 had greater psychiatric costs than those who were not, (sic)71 700 vs. (sic)37 700 (p<0.0001). Psychiatric costs were significantly and negatively correlated with GAF (p<0.001). Discussion: The major strengths of the study are the relatively large sample, and the linkage of patient-level clinical data on inpatient and outpatient care with national registry data on prescription pharmaceuticals, and days on social insurance. A limitation was that costs for informal care and primary care were not included in the data, but previous studies suggest that these costs items are small compared to other costs for schizophrenia. Implications for Health Policies and Future Research: Costs were strongly related to hospitalization and GAF, suggesting that attempts to improve global functioning and avoid hospitalizations by means of effective treatment and rehabilitation might not only decrease suffering for patients and relatives, but also reduce the societal cost of schizophrenia. A detailed knowledge of the societal costs can also be helpful in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of new treatment strategies to improve the care for patients with schizophrenia.
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