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Sökning: WFRF:(Ontiri Enoch)

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  • Bett, Bernard, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of flood irrigation on the risk of selected zoonotic pathogens in an arid and semi-arid area in the eastern Kenya
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1932-6203. ; 12:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate the effects of irrigation on land cover changes and the risk of selected zoonotic pathogens, we carried out a study in irrigated, pastoral and riverine areas in the eastern Kenya. Activities implemented included secondary data analyses to determine land use and land cover (LULC) changes as well as human, livestock and wildlife population trends; entomological surveys to characterize mosquitoes population densities and species distribution by habitat and season; and serological surveys in people to determine the risk of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), West Nile fever virus (WNV), dengue fever virus (DFV), Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. Results demonstrate a drastic decline in vegetation cover over R approximate to 25 years particularly in the irrigated areas where cropland increased by about 1,400% and non-farm land (under closed trees, open to closed herbaceous vegetation, bushlands and open trees) reduced by 30-100%. The irrigated areas had high densities of Aedes mcintoshi, Culexspp. and Mansonia spp. (important vectors for multiple arboviruses) during the wet and dry season while pastoral areas had high densities of Ae. tricholabis specifically in the wet season. The seroprevalences of RVFV, WNV and DFV were higher in the irrigated compared to the pastoral areas while those for Leptospira spp and Brucella spp. were higher in the pastoral compared to the irrigated areas. It is likely that people in the pastoral areas get exposed to Leptospira spp by using water fetched from reservoirs that are shared with livestock and wildlife, and to Brucella spp. by consuming raw or partially cooked animal source foods such as milk and meat. This study suggests that irrigation increases the risk of mosquito-borne infections while at the same time providing a protective effect against zoonotic pathogens that thrive in areas with high livestock population densities.
  • Kairu-Wanyoike, Salome, et al. (författare)
  • Positive association between Brucella spp. seroprevalences in livestock and humans from a cross-sectional study in Garissa and Tana River Counties, Kenya.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. - 1935-2727 .- 1935-2735. ; 13:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Brucella spp. is a zoonotic bacterial agent of high public health and socio-economic importance. It infects many species of animals including wildlife, and people may get exposed through direct contact with an infected animal or consumption of raw or undercooked animal products. A linked livestock-human cross-sectional study to determine seroprevalences and risk factors of brucellosis in livestock and humans was designed. Estimates were made for intra-cluster correlation coefficients (ICCs) for these observations at the household and village levels.METHODOLOGY: The study was implemented in Garissa (specifically Ijara and Sangailu areas) and Tana River (Bura and Hola) counties. A household was the unit of analysis and the sample size was derived using the standard procedures. Serum samples were obtained from selected livestock and people from randomly selected households. Humans were sampled in both counties, while livestock could be sampled only in Tana River County. Samples obtained were screened for anti-Brucella IgG antibodies using ELISA kits. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed effects logistic regression models with the household (herd) and village being used as random effects.RESULTS: The overall Brucella spp. seroprevalences were 3.47% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.72-4.36%) and 35.81% (95% CI: 32.87-38.84) in livestock and humans, respectively. In livestock, older animals and those sampled in Hola had significantly higher seroprevalences than younger ones or those sampled in Bura. Herd and village random effects were significant and ICC estimates associated with these variables were 0.40 (95% CI: 0.22-0.60) and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.08-0.52), respectively. In humans, Brucella spp. seroprevalence was significantly higher in older people, males, and people who lived in pastoral areas than younger ones, females or those who lived in irrigated or riverine areas. People from households that had at least one seropositive animal were 3.35 (95% CI: 1.51-7.41) times more likely to be seropositive compared to those that did not. Human exposures significantly clustered at the household level; the ICC estimate obtained was 0.21 (95% CI: 0.06-0.52).CONCLUSION: The presence of a Brucella spp.-seropositive animal in a household significantly increased the odds of Brucella spp. seropositivity in humans in that household. Exposure to Brucella spp. of both livestock and humans clustered significantly at the household level. This suggests that risk-based surveillance measures, guided by locations of primary cases reported, either in humans or livestock, can be used to detect Brucella spp. infections in livestock or humans, respectively.
  • Nyamwaya, Doris, et al. (författare)
  • Detection of West Nile virus in wild birds in Tana River and Garissa Counties, Kenya.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMC Infectious Diseases. - 1471-2334 .- 1471-2334. ; 16:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: West Nile fever virus is a zoonotic arboviral infection maintained in a sylvatic cycle involving mosquito vectors and birds. It is one the arboviruses whose geographical range is expanding because of climate and land use changes that enhance the densities of mosquitoes and promote mosquito-bird-human interactions. We carried out a survey to determine the reservoirs of WNV among wild birds in Tana River and Garissa counties, Kenya.METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 361 randomly trapped wild birds. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), all samples were screened for WNV using gene specific primer sets amplifying a portion of the E region of the genome encoding the envelope protein.RESULTS: Sixty five (65) out of 361 birds screened tested positive for WNV on real-time PCR assay. Sequencing of the selected positive samples reveals that the isolated WNV were most closely related to strains isolated from China (2011). A regression analysis indicated that sampling location influenced the occurrence of WNV while species, age, weight and sex of the birds did not have any effect.CONCLUSIONS: This study provides baseline information on the existing circulation of WNV in this region among wild bird reservoirs that could spill over to the human population and points to the need for implementation of surveillance programs to map the distribution of the virus among reservoirs. Awareness creation about West Nile fever in this region is important to improve its detection and management.
  • Wainaina, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • \textlessi\textgreaterLeptospira\textless/i\textgreater bacteria detected in rodents in Tana River and Garissa counties of Kenya
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2000-8686 .- 2000-8686. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACTIntroduction: Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease with wide geographical spread. Its presence in Kenya and some of the neighbouring countries has been documented before and it is thought to contribute significantly to the number of febrile cases in human populations and abortions in livestock. This study investigated Leptospira spp. presence in rodents collected in both a pastoral and irrigated region of Kenya.Materials and methods: Blood and kidney samples were screened for leptospiral DNA by PCR, and ELISA was used to detect antibodies in tissue fluid.Results and discussion: Almost 42% (28/67) of the rodents were found to be PCR positive and 25% (14/56) by the ELISA test. Focus group discussions revealed that the local population perceived an increase in the rodent population and febrile illnesses not responsive to malarial treatment, a possible attestation of importance of non-malarial acute febrile illnesses such as leptospirosis in the communities.Conclusion: While the study was sma...
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