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Sökning: WFRF:(Orange Jordan S.)

  • Resultat 1-4 av 4
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1.
  • Fresard, Laure, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of rare-disease genes using blood transcriptome sequencing and large control cohorts
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1078-8956 .- 1546-170X. ; 25:6, s. 911-919
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is estimated that 350 million individuals worldwide suffer from rare diseases, which are predominantly caused by mutation in a single gene(1). The current molecular diagnostic rate is estimated at 50%, with whole-exome sequencing (WES) among the most successful approaches(2-5). For patients in whom WES is uninformative, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has shown diagnostic utility in specific tissues and diseases(6-8). This includes muscle biopsies from patients with undiagnosed rare muscle disorders(6,9), and cultured fibroblasts from patients with mitochondrial disorders(7). However, for many individuals, biopsies are not performed for clinical care, and tissues are difficult to access. We sought to assess the utility of RNA-seq from blood as a diagnostic tool for rare diseases of different pathophysiologies. We generated whole-blood RNA-seq from 94 individuals with undiagnosed rare diseases spanning 16 diverse disease categories. We developed a robust approach to compare data from these individuals with large sets of RNA-seq data for controls (n = 1,594 unrelated controls and n = 49 family members) and demonstrated the impacts of expression, splicing, gene and variant filtering strategies on disease gene identification. Across our cohort, we observed that RNA-seq yields a 7.5% diagnostic rate, and an additional 16.7% with improved candidate gene resolution.
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2.
  • Stray-Pedersen, Asbjorg, et al. (författare)
  • Primary immunodeficiency diseases : Genomic approaches delineate heterogeneous Mendelian disorders
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 139:1, s. 232-245
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders thus far associated with mutations in more than 300 genes. The clinical phenotypes derived from distinct genotypes can overlap. Genetic etiology can be a prognostic indicator of disease severity and can influence treatment decisions. Objective: We sought to investigate the ability of whole-exome screening methods to detect disease-causing variants in patients with PIDDs. Methods: Patients with PIDDs from 278 families from 22 countries were investigated by using whole-exome sequencing. Computational copy number variant (CNV) prediction pipelines and an exome-tiling chromosomal microarray were also applied to identify intragenic CNVs. Analytic approaches initially focused on 475 known or candidate PIDD genes but were nonexclusive and further tailored based on clinical data, family history, and immunophenotyping. Results: A likely molecular diagnosis was achieved in 110 (40%) unrelated probands. Clinical diagnosis was revised in about half (60/ 110) and management was directly altered in nearly a quarter (26/ 110) of families based on molecular findings. Twelve PIDD-causing CNVs were detected, including 7 smaller than 30 Kb that would not have been detected with conventional diagnostic CNV arrays. Conclusion: This high-throughput genomic approach enabled detection of disease-related variants in unexpected genes; permitted detection of low-grade constitutional, somatic, and revertant mosaicism; and provided evidence of a mutational burden in mixed PIDD immunophenotypes.
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3.
  • Hsu, Hsiang-Ting, et al. (författare)
  • NK cells converge lytic granules to promote cytotoxicity and prevent bystander killing
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cell Biology. - : Rockefeller University Press. - 0021-9525 .- 1540-8140. ; 215:6, s. 875-889
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Natural killer (NK) cell activation triggers sequential cellular events leading to destruction of diseased cells. We previously identified lytic granule convergence, a dynein-and integrin signal-dependent movement of lysosome-related organelles to the microtubule-organizing center, as an early step in the cell biological process underlying NK cell cytotoxicity. Why lytic granules converge during NK cell cytotoxicity, however, remains unclear. We experimentally controlled the availability of human ligands to regulate NK cell signaling and promote granule convergence with either directed or nondirected degranulation. By the use of acoustic trap microscopy, we generated specific effector-target cell arrangements to define the impact of the two modes of degranulation. NK cells with converged granules had greater targeted and less nonspecific "bystander" killing. Additionally, NK cells in which dynein was inhibited or integrin blocked under physiological conditions demonstrated increased nondirected degranulation and bystander killing. Thus, NK cells converge lytic granules and thereby improve the efficiency of targeted killing and prevent collateral damage to neighboring healthy cells.
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4.
  • Orange, Jordan S, et al. (författare)
  • IL-2 induces a WAVE2-dependent pathway for actin reorganization that enables WASp-independent human NK cell function.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical investigation. - 1558-8238. ; 121:4, s. 1535-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a primary immunodeficiency associated with an increased susceptibility to herpesvirus infection and hematologic malignancy as well as a deficiency of NK cell function. It is caused by defective WAS protein (WASp). WASp facilitates filamentous actin (F-actin) branching and is required for F-actin accumulation at the NK cell immunological synapse and NK cell cytotoxicity ex vivo. Importantly, the function of WASp-deficient NK cells can be restored in vitro after exposure to IL-2, but the mechanisms underlying this remain unknown. Using a WASp inhibitor as well as cells from patients with WAS, we have defined a direct effect of IL-2 signaling upon F-actin that is independent of WASp function. We found that IL-2 treatment of a patient with WAS enhanced the cytotoxicity of their NK cells and the F-actin content at the immunological synapses formed by their NK cells. IL-2 stimulation of NK cells in vitro activated the WASp homolog WAVE2, which was required for inducing WASp-independent NK cell function, but not for baseline activity. Thus, WAVE2 and WASp define parallel pathways to F-actin reorganization and function in human NK cells; although WAVE2 was not required for NK cell innate function, it was accessible through adaptive immunity via IL-2. These results demonstrate how overlapping cytoskeletal activities can utilize immunologically distinct pathways to achieve synonymous immune function.
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