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Sökning: WFRF:(Orkisz M.)

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1.
  • Kirişli, Hortense, et al. (författare)
  • Standardized evaluation framework for evaluating coronary artery stenosis detection, stenosis quantification and lumen segmentation algorithms in computed tomography angiography
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Medical Image Analysis. - : Elsevier. - 1361-8415 .- 1361-8423. ; 17:8, s. 859-876
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Though conventional coronary angiography (CCA) has been the standard of reference for diagnosing coronary artery disease in the past decades, computed tomography angiography (CIA) has rapidly emerged, and is nowadays widely used in clinical practice. Here, we introduce a standardized evaluation framework to reliably evaluate and compare the performance of the algorithms devised to detect and quantify the coronary artery stenoses, and to segment the coronary artery lumen in CIA data. The objective of this evaluation framework is to demonstrate the feasibility of dedicated algorithms to: (I) (semi-)automatically detect and quantify stenosis on CIA, in comparison with quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and CIA consensus reading, and (2) (semi-)automatically segment the coronary lumen on CIA, in comparison with expert's manual annotation. A database consisting of 48 multicenter multivendor cardiac CIA datasets with corresponding reference standards are described and made available. The algorithms from 11 research groups were quantitatively evaluated and compared. The results show that (1) some of the current stenosis detection/quantification algorithms may be used for triage or as a second-reader in clinical practice, and that (2) automatic lumen segmentation is possible with a precision similar to that obtained by experts. The framework is open for new submissions through the website, at http://coronary.bigr.nl/stenoses/.
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2.
  • Schaap, M., et al. (författare)
  • Standardized evaluation methodology and reference database for evaluating coronary artery centerline extraction algorithms
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Medical Image Analysis. - : Elsevier. - 1361-8415 .- 1361-8423. ; 13:5, s. 701-714
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Efficiently obtaining a reliable coronary artery centerline from computed tomography angiography data is relevant in clinical practice. Whereas numerous methods have been presented for this purpose, up to now no standardized evaluation methodology has been published to reliably evaluate and compare the performance of the existing or newly developed coronary artery centerline extraction algorithms. This paper describes a standardized evaluation methodology and reference database for the quantitative evaluation of coronary artery centerline extraction algorithms. The contribution of this work is fourfold: (1) a method is described to create a consensus centerline with multiple observers, (2) well-defined measures are presented for the evaluation of coronary artery centerline extraction algorithms, (3) a database containing 32 cardiac CTA datasets with corresponding reference standard is described and made available, and (4) 13 coronary artery centerline extraction algorithms, implemented by different research groups, are quantitatively evaluated and compared. The presented evaluation framework is made available to the medical imaging community for benchmarking existing or newly developed coronary centerline extraction algorithms.
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3.
  • Lidayová, K., et al. (författare)
  • Airway-tree segmentation in subjects with acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: 20th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, SCIA 2017. - : Springer. - 9783319591285 ; , s. 76-87
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with a high mortality rate in intensive care units. To lower the number of fatal cases, it is necessary to customize the mechanical ventilator parameters according to the patient’s clinical condition. For this, lung segmentation is required to assess aeration and alveolar recruitment. Airway segmentation may be used to reach a more accurate lung segmentation. In this paper, we seek to improve lung segmentation results by proposing a novel automatic airway-tree segmentation that is able to address the heterogeneity of ARDS pathology by handling various lung intensities differently. The method detects a simplified airway skeleton, thereby obtains a set of seed points together with an approximate radius and intensity range related to each of the points. These seeds are the input for an onion-kernel region-growing segmentation algorithm where knowledge about radius and intensity range restricts the possible leakage in the parenchyma. The method was evaluated qualitatively on 70 thoracic Computed Tomography volumes of subjects with ARDS, acquired at significantly different mechanical ventilation conditions. It found a large proportion of airway branches including tiny poorly-aerated bronchi. Quantitative evaluation was performed indirectly and showed that the resulting airway segmentation provides important anatomic landmarks. Their correspondences are needed to help a registration-based segmentation of the lungs in difficult ARDS cases where the lung boundary contrast is completely missing. The proposed method takes an average time of 43 s to process a thoracic volume which is valuable for the clinical use.
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4.
  • Bron, E., et al. (författare)
  • Tracers of the ionization fraction in dense and translucent gas: I. Automated exploitation of massive astrochemical model grids
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The ionization fraction in the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) plays a key role in the physics and chemistry of the ISM, from controlling the coupling of the gas to the magnetic field to allowing fast ion-neutral reactions that drive interstellar chemistry. Most estimations of the ionization fraction have relied on deuterated species such as DCO+, whose detection is limited to dense cores representing an extremely small fraction of the volume of the giant molecular clouds that they are part of. As large field-of-view hyperspectral maps become available, new tracers may be found. The growth of observational datasets is paralleled by the growth of massive modeling datasets and new methods need to be devised to exploit the wealth of information they contain. Aims. We search for the best observable tracers of the ionization fraction based on a grid of astrochemical models, with the broader aim of finding a general automated method applicable to searching for tracers of any unobservable quantity based on grids of models. Methods. We built grids of models that randomly sample a large range of physical conditions (unobservable quantities such as gas density, temperature, elemental abundances, etc.) and computed the corresponding observables (line intensities, column densities) and the ionization fraction. We estimated the predictive power of each potential tracer by training a random forest model to predict the ionization fraction from that tracer, based on these model grids. Results. In both translucent medium and cold dense medium conditions, we found several observable tracers with very good predictive power for the ionization fraction. Many tracers in cold dense medium conditions are found to be better and more widely applicable than the traditional DCO+/HCO+ ratio. We also provide simpler analytical fits for estimating the ionization fraction from the best tracers, and for estimating the associated uncertainties. We discuss the limitations of the present study and select a few recommended tracers in both types of conditions. Conclusions. The method presented here is very general and can be applied to the measurement of any other quantity of interest (cosmic ray flux, elemental abundances, etc.) from any type of model (PDR models, time-dependent chemical models, etc.).
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5.
  • Riener, M., et al. (författare)
  • Autonomous Gaussian decomposition of the Galactic Ring Survey I. Global statistics and properties of the (CO)-C-13 emission data
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The analysis of large molecular line surveys of the Galactic plane is essential for our understanding of the gas kinematics on Galactic scales and, in particular, its link with the formation and evolution of dense structures in the interstellar medium. An approximation of the emission peaks with Gaussian functions allows for an efficient and straightforward extraction of useful physical information contained in the shape and Doppler-shifted frequency of the emission lines contained in these enormous data sets. In this work, we present an overview and the first results of a Gaussian decomposition of the entire Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) (CO)-C-13 (1-0) data that consists of about 2.3 million spectra. We performed the decomposition with the fully automated GAUSSPY+ algorithm and fitted about 4.6 million Gaussian components to the GRS spectra. These decomposition results enable novel and unexplored ways to interpret and study the gas velocity structure. We discuss the statistics of the fit components and relations between the fitted intensities, velocity centroids, and velocity dispersions. We find that the magnitude of the velocity dispersion values increase towards the inner Galaxy and around the Galactic midplane, which we speculate is partly due to the influence of the Galactic bar and regions with higher non-thermal motions located in the midplane, respectively. We also used our decomposition results to infer global properties of the gas emission and find that the number of fit components used per spectrum is indicative of the amount of structure along the line of sight. We find that the emission lines from regions located on the far side of the Galaxy show increased velocity dispersion values, which are likely due to beam averaging effects. We demonstrate how this trend has the potential to aid in characterising Galactic structure by disentangling emission that belongs to the nearby Aquila Rift molecular cloud from emission that is more likely associated with the Perseus and Outer spiral arms. With this work, we also make our entire decomposition results available.
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6.
  • Riener, M., et al. (författare)
  • GAUSSPY+: A fully automated Gaussian decomposition package for emission line spectra
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 628
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Our understanding of the dynamics of the interstellar medium is informed by the study of the detailed velocity structure of emission line observations. One approach to study the velocity structure is to decompose the spectra into individual velocity components; this leads to a description of the data set that is significantly reduced in complexity. However, this decomposition requires full automation lest it become prohibitive for large data sets, such as Galactic plane surveys. We developed GAUSSPY+, a fully automated Gaussian decomposition package that can be applied to emission line data sets, especially large surveys of HI and isotopologues of CO. We built our package upon the existing GAUSSPY algorithm and significantly improved its performance for noisy data. New functionalities of GAUSSPY+ include: (i) automated preparatory steps, such as an accurate noise estimation, which can also be used as stand-alone applications; (ii) an improved fitting routine; (iii) an automated spatial refitting routine that can add spatial coherence to the decomposition results by refitting spectra based on neighbouring fit solutions. We thoroughly tested the performance of GAUSSPY+ on synthetic spectra and a test field from the Galactic Ring Survey. We found that GAUSSPY+ can deal with cases of complex emission and even low to moderate signal-to-noise values.
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7.
  • Roueff, Antoine, et al. (författare)
  • C18O, 13CO, and 12CO abundances and excitation temperatures in the Orion B molecular cloud: Analysis of the achievable precision in modeling spectral lines within the approximation of the local thermodynamic equilibrium
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. CO isotopologue transitions are routinely observed in molecular clouds for the purpose of probing the column density of the gas and the elemental ratios of carbon and oxygen, in addition to tracing the kinematics of the environment. Aims. Our study is aimed at estimating the abundances, excitation temperatures, velocity field, and velocity dispersions of the three main CO isotopologues towards a subset of the Orion B molecular cloud, which includes IC 434, NGC 2023, and the Horsehead pillar. Methods. We used the Cramer Rao bound (CRB) technique to analyze and estimate the precision of the physical parameters in the framework of local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (LTE) excitation and radiative transfer with added white Gaussian noise. We propose a maximum likelihood estimator to infer the physical conditions from the 1-0 and 2-1 transitions of CO isotopologues. Simulations show that this estimator is unbiased and proves efficient for a common range of excitation temperatures and column densities (Tex > 6 K, N > 1014-1015 cm-2). Results. Contrary to general assumptions, the various CO isotopologues have distinct excitation temperatures and the line intensity ratios between different isotopologues do not accurately reflect the column density ratios. We find mean fractional abundances that are consistent with previous determinations towards other molecular clouds. However, significant local deviations are inferred, not only in regions exposed to the UV radiation field, but also in shielded regions. These deviations result from the competition between selective photodissociation, chemical fractionation, and depletion on grain surfaces. We observe that the velocity dispersion of the C18O emission is 10% smaller than that of 13CO. The substantial gain resulting from the simultaneous analysis of two different rotational transitions of the same species is rigorously quantified. Conclusions. The CRB technique is a promising avenue for analyzing the estimation of physical parameters from the fit of spectral lines. Future works will generalize its application to non-LTE excitation and radiative transfer methods.
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  • Resultat 1-7 av 7

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