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Sökning: WFRF:(Orlando Ludovic)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 28
  • [1]23Nästa
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1.
  • Allentoft, M. E., et al. (författare)
  • Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 522:7555, s. 167-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Bronze Age of Eurasia (around 3000-1000 BC) was a period of major cultural changes. However, there is debate about whether these changes resulted from the circulation of ideas or from human migrations, potentially also facilitating the spread of languages and certain phenotypic traits. We investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia. We show that the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic structure in both Europe and Asia. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized spread of Indo-European languages during the Early Bronze Age. We also demonstrate that light skin pigmentation in Europeans was already present at high frequency in the Bronze Age, but not lactose tolerance, indicating a more recent onset of positive selection on lactose tolerance than previously thought.
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2.
  • Muhlemann, B., et al. (författare)
  • Ancient hepatitis B viruses from the Bronze Age to the Medieval period
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 557:7705, s. 418-423
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of human hepatitis. There is considerable uncertainty about the timescale of its evolution and its association with humans. Here we present 12 full or partial ancient HBV genomes that are between approximately 0.8 and 4.5 thousand years old. The ancient sequences group either within or in a sister relationship with extant human or other ape HBV clades. Generally, the genome properties follow those of modern HBV. The root of the HBV tree is projected to between 8.6 and 20.9 thousand years ago, and we estimate a substitution rate of 8.04 x 10(-6-)1.51 x 10(-5) nucleotide substitutions per site per year. In several cases, the geographical locations of the ancient genotypes do not match present-day distributions. Genotypes that today are typical of Africa and Asia, and a subgenotype from India, are shown to have an early Eurasian presence. The geographical and temporal patterns that we observe in ancient and modern HBV genotypes are compatible with well-documented human migrations during the Bronze and Iron Ages(1,2). We provide evidence for the creation of HBV genotype A via recombination, and for a long-term association of modern HBV genotypes with humans, including the discovery of a human genotype that is now extinct. These data expose a complexity of HBV evolution that is not evident when considering modern sequences alone.
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3.
  • Orlando, Ludovic, et al. (författare)
  • Recalibrating Equus evolution using the genome sequence of an early Middle Pleistocene horse
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 499:7456, s. 74-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The rich fossil record of equids has made them a model for evolutionary processes(1). Here we present a 1.12-times coverage draft genome from a horse bone recovered from permafrost dated to approximately 560-780 thousand years before present (kyr BP)(2,3). Our data represent the oldest full genome sequence determined so far by almost an order of magnitude. For comparison, we sequenced the genome of a Late Pleistocene horse (43 kyr BP), and modern genomes of five domestic horse breeds (Equus ferus caballus), a Przewalski's horse (E. f. prze-walskii) and a donkey (E. asinus). Our analyses suggest that the Equus lineage giving rise to all contemporary horses, zebras and donkeys originated 4.0-4.5 million years before present (Myr BP), twice the conventionally accepted time to the most recent common ancestor of the genus Equus(4,5). We also find that horse population size fluctuated multiple times over the past 2 Myr, particularly during periods of severe climatic changes. We estimate that the Przewalski's and domestic horse populations diverged 38-72 kyr BP, and find no evidence of recent admixture between the domestic horse breeds and the Przewalski's horse investigated. This supports the contention that Przewalski's horses represent the last surviving wild horse population(6). We find similar levels of genetic variation among Przewalski's and domestic populations, indicating that the former are genetically viable and worthy of conservation efforts. We also find evidence for continuous selection on the immune system and olfaction throughout horse evolution. Finally, we identify 29 genomic regions among horse breeds that deviate from neutrality and show low levels of genetic variation compared to the Przewalski's horse. Such regions could correspond to loci selected early during domestication.
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4.
  • Schubert, Mikkel, et al. (författare)
  • Prehistoric genomes reveal the genetic foundation and cost of horse domestication
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 111:52, s. E5661-E5669
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The domestication of the horse similar to 5.5 kya and the emergence of mounted riding, chariotry, and cavalry dramatically transformed human civilization. However, the genetics underlying horse domestication are difficult to reconstruct, given the near extinction of wild horses. We therefore sequenced two ancient horse genomes from Taymyr, Russia (at 7.4- and 24.3-fold coverage), both predating the earliest archeological evidence of domestication. We compared these genomes with genomes of domesticated horses and the wild Przewalski's horse and found genetic structure within Eurasia in the Late Pleistocene, with the ancient population contributing significantly to the genetic variation of domesticated breeds. We furthermore identified a conservative set of 125 potential domestication targets using four complementary scans for genes that have undergone positive selection. One group of genes is involved in muscular and limb development, articular junctions, and the cardiac system, and may represent physiological adaptations to human utilization. A second group consists of genes with cognitive functions, including social behavior, learning capabilities, fear response, and agreeableness, which may have been key for taming horses. We also found that domestication is associated with inbreeding and an excess of deleterious mutations. This genetic load is in line with the "cost of domestication" hypothesis also reported for rice, tomatoes, and dogs, and it is generally attributed to the relaxation of purifying selection resulting from the strong demographic bottlenecks accompanying domestication. Our work demonstrates the power of ancient genomes to reconstruct the complex genetic changes that transformed wild animals into their domesticated forms, and the population context in which this process took place.
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5.
  • Campos, Paula F, et al. (författare)
  • Ancient DNA analyses exclude humans as the driving force behind late Pleistocene musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) population dynamics
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 107:12, s. 5675-5680
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The causes of the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions are poorly understood. Different lines of evidence point to climate change, the arrival of humans, or a combination of these events as the trigger. Although many species went extinct, others, such as caribou and bison, survived to the present. The musk ox has an intermediate story: relatively abundant during the Pleistocene, it is now restricted to Greenland and the Arctic Archipelago. In this study, we use ancient DNA sequences, temporally unbiased summary statistics, and Bayesian analytical techniques to infer musk ox population dynamics throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Our results reveal that musk ox genetic diversity was much higher during the Pleistocene than at present, and has undergone several expansions and contractions over the past 60,000 years. Northeast Siberia was of key importance, as it was the geographic origin of all samples studied and held a large diverse population until local extinction at approximately 45,000 radiocarbon years before present ((14)C YBP). Subsequently, musk ox genetic diversity reincreased at ca. 30,000 (14)C YBP, recontracted at ca. 18,000 (14)C YBP, and finally recovered in the middle Holocene. The arrival of humans into relevant areas of the musk ox range did not affect their mitochondrial diversity, and both musk ox and humans expanded into Greenland concomitantly. Thus, their population dynamics are better explained by a nonanthropogenic cause (for example, environmental change), a hypothesis supported by historic observations on the sensitivity of the species to both climatic warming and fluctuations.
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6.
  • Campos, Paula F., et al. (författare)
  • Ancient DNA sequences point to a large loss of mitochondrial genetic diversity in the saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) since the Pleistocene
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Molecular Ecology. - 0962-1083 .- 1365-294X. ; 19:22, s. 4863-4875
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prior to the Holocene, the range of the saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) spanned from France to the Northwest Territories of Canada. Although its distribution subsequently contracted to the steppes of Central Asia, historical records indicate that it remained extremely abundant until the end of the Soviet Union, after which its populations were reduced by over 95%. We have analysed the mitochondrial control region sequence variation of 27 ancient and 38 modern specimens, to assay how the species' genetic diversity has changed since the Pleistocene. Phylogenetic analyses reveal the existence of two well-supported, and clearly distinct, clades of saiga. The first, spanning a time range from >49 500 C-14 ybp to the present, comprises all the modern specimens and ancient samples from the Northern Urals, Middle Urals and Northeast Yakutia. The second clade is exclusive to the Northern Urals and includes samples dating from between 40 400 to 10 250 C-14 ybp. Current genetic diversity is much lower than that present during the Pleistocene, an observation that data modelling using serial coalescent indicates cannot be explained by genetic drift in a population of constant size. Approximate Bayesian Computation analyses show the observed data is more compatible with a drastic population size reduction (c. 66-77%) following either a demographic bottleneck in the course of the Holocene or late Pleistocene, or a geographic fragmentation (followed by local extinction of one subpopulation) at the Holocene/Pleistocene transition.
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7.
  • Cappellini, Enrico, et al. (författare)
  • Early Pleistocene enamel proteome from Dmanisi resolves Stephanorhinus phylogeny
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 574:7776, s. 103-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The sequencing of ancient DNA has enabled the reconstruction of speciation, migration and admixture events for extinct taxa(1). However, the irreversible post-mortem degradation(2) of ancient DNA has so far limited its recovery-outside permafrost areasto specimens that are not older than approximately 0.5 million years (Myr)(3). By contrast, tandem mass spectrometry has enabled the sequencing of approximately 1.5-Myr-old collagen type I-4. and suggested the presence of protein residues in fossils of the Cretaceous period(5)-although with limited phylogenetic use(6). In the absence of molecular evidence, the speciation of several extinct species of the Early and Middle Pleistocene epoch remains contentious. Here we address the phylogenetic relationships of the Eurasian Rhinocerotidae of the Pleistocene epoch(7-9), using the proteome of dental enamel from a Stephanorhinus tooth that is approximately 1.77-Myr old, recovered from the archaeological site of Dmanisi (South Caucasus, Georgia)(10). Molecular phylogenetic analyses place this Stephanorhinus as a sister group to the Glade formed by the woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) and Merck's rhinoceros (Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis). We show that Coelodonta evolved from an early Stephanorhinus lineage, and that this latter genus includes at least two distinct evolutionary lines. The genus Stephanorhinus is therefore currently paraphyletic, and its systematic revision is needed. We demonstrate that sequencing the proteome of Early Pleistocene dental enamel overcomes the limitations of phylogenetic inference based on ancient collagen or DNA. Our approach also provides additional information about the sex and taxonomic assignment of other specimens from Dmanisi. Our findings reveal that proteomic investigation of ancient dental enamel-which is the hardest tissue in vertebrates(11), and is highly abundant in the fossil record-can push the reconstruction of molecular evolution further back into the Early Pleistocene epoch, beyond the currently known limits of ancient DNA preservation.
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8.
  • Dalen, Love, et al. (författare)
  • Partial Genetic Turnover in Neandertals : Continuity in the East and Population Replacement in the West
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - : Oxford University Press (OUP): Molecular Biology and Evolution. - 0737-4038 .- 1537-1719. ; 29:8, s. 1893-1897
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Remarkably little is known about the population-level processes leading up to the extinction of the neandertal. To examine this, we use mitochondrial DNA sequences from 13 neandertal individuals, including a novel sequence from northern Spain, to examine neandertal demographic history. Our analyses indicate that recent western European neandertals (< 48 kyr) constitute a tightly defined group with low mitochondrial genetic variation in comparison with both eastern and older (> 48 kyr) European neandertals. Using control region sequences, Bayesian demographic simulations provide higher support for a model of population fragmentation followed by separate demographic trajectories in subpopulations over a null model of a single stable population. The most parsimonious explanation for these results is that of a population turnover in western Europe during early Marine Isotope Stage 3, predating the arrival of anatomically modern humans in the region.
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9.
  • Der Sarkissian, Clio, et al. (författare)
  • Unveiling the Ecological Applications of Ancient DNA from Mollusk Shells
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 2296-701X. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The shells of marine mollusks represent promising metagenomic archives of the past, adding to bones, teeth, hairs, and environmental samples most commonly examined in ancient DNA research. Seminal work has established that DNA recovery from marine mollusks depends on their shell microstructure, preservation and disease state, and that authentic ancient DNA could be retrieved from specimens as old as 7,000 years. Here, we significantly push the temporal limit for shell DNA recovery to 100,000 years with the successful genetic characterization of one Portlandia arctica and one Mytilus mussel sample collected within a dated permafrost layer from the Taimyr Peninsula, Russia. We expand the analysis of ancient DNA in carbonate shells to a larger number of genera (Arctica, Cernuella, Crassostrea, Dreissena, Haliotis, Lymnaea, Margaritifera, Pecten, Ruditapes, Venerupis) from marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. We demonstrate that DNA from ancient shells can provide sufficient resolution for taxonomic, phylogenetic and/or population assignment. Our results confirm mollusk shells as long-term DNA reservoirs, opening new avenues for the investigation of environmental changes, commercial species management, biological invasion, and extinction. This is especially timely in light of modern threats to biodiversity and ecosystems.
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10.
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