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Sökning: WFRF:(Ortqvist E.)

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2.
  • Lindehammer, Sabina, et al. (författare)
  • Temporal trends of HLA genotype frequencies of type 1 diabetes patients in Sweden from 1986 to 2005 suggest altered risk
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Diabetologica. - 1432-5233. ; 45:4, s. 231-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes in 1-18-year-old patients with type 1 diabetes newly diagnosed in 1986-1987 (n = 430), 1996-2000 (n = 342) and in 2003-2005 (n = 171). We tested the hypothesis that the HLA DQ genotype distribution changes over time. Swedish type 1 diabetes patients and controls were typed for HLA using polymerase chain reaction amplification and allele specific probes for DQ A1* and B1* alleles. The most common type 1 diabetes HLA DQA1*-B1*genotype 0501-0201/0301-0302 was 36% (153/430) in 1986-1987 and 37% (127/342) in 1996-2000, but decreased to 19% (33/171) in 2003-2005 (P < 0.0001). The 0501-0201/0501-0201 genotype increased from 1% in 1986-1987 to 7% in 1996-2000 (P = 0.0047) and to 5% in 2003-2005 (P > 0.05). This study in 1-18-year-old Swedish type 1 diabetes patients supports the notion that there is a temporal change in HLA risk.
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  • Hedlund, J., et al. (författare)
  • Management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia treated in hospital in Sweden
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. - 0036-5548. ; 34:12, s. 887-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) treated in hospital in Sweden, a multicentre retrospective cohort study was performed with medical record review of 982 patients (mean age 63 y) at 17 departments of infectious diseases at hospitals in Sweden. Information on antimicrobial therapy, demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, physical examination findings, and laboratory and microbiological test results were recorded. Outcome measures were in-hospital mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS). Cultures were obtained from blood in 80% and from sputum in 22% of the patients. A microbiological aetiology was determined for 23% of the patients, with Streptococcus pneumoniae as the dominating agent (9%). The initial antibiotic treatment was mostly given intravenously (78%). Penicillin (50%) or a cephalosporin (30%) was the most common choice. Both of these drugs were usually given as a single agent. The overall mortality was 3.5% and the mean LOS was 6.4 d. Thus, the outcome was favourable despite the empirical antibiotic treatment having a narrow spectrum compared with the broader approach recommended in most recent guidelines on the management of CAP. These findings suggest that a majority of patients who are hospitalized with moderately severe pneumonia can be treated initially with penicillin alone.
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  • Browall, Sarah, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical manifestations of invasive pneumococcal disease by vaccine and non-vaccine types.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The European respiratory journal. - 1399-3003. ; 44:6, s. 1646-1657
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) have shown protection against invasive pneumococcal disease by vaccine serotypes, but an increase in non-vaccine serotype disease has been observed. Type-specific effects on clinical manifestation need to be explored. Clinical data from 2096 adults and 192 children with invasive pneumococcal disease were correlated to pneumococcal molecular serotypes. Invasive disease potential for pneumococcal serotypes were calculated using 165 invasive and 550 carriage isolates from children. The invasive disease potential was lower for non-PCV13 compared to vaccine-type strains. Patients infected with non-PCV13 strains had more underlying diseases, were less likely to have pneumonia and, in adults, tended to have a higher mortality. Furthermore, patients infected with pneumococci belonging to clonal serotypes only expressing non-PCV13 capsules had a higher risk for septicaemia and mortality. PCV vaccination will probably lead to a decrease in invasive pneumococcal disease but an alteration in the clinical manifestation of invasive pneumococcal disease. Genetic lineages causing invasive pneumococcal disease in adults often express non-vaccine serotypes, which can expand after vaccination with an increased risk of infection in patients with underlying diseases.
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9.
  • Carlsson, Annelie, et al. (författare)
  • A multicenter observational safety study in Swedish children and adolescents using insulin detemir for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Diabetes. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1399-543X. ; 14:5, s. 358-365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This 26-wk observational study in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Sweden investigated the safety and efficacy of insulin detemir (IDet) in newly diagnosed (ND) patients and those with established diabetes (ED) switching to IDet. A total of 159 patients initiated IDet as part of basal-bolus therapy, 59 in the ND stratum (mean age 9.7 yr) and 97 in the ED stratum (mean age 12.5 yr). The primary outcome measure was the incidence of severe adverse drug reactions; just one major hypoglycemic event occurred in a patient in the ND stratum during the study and one patient was withdrawn due to injection-site reactions. All other events were classified as mild. In the ED stratum, there was a reduction in hypoglycemic events in the 4 wk prior to study end from baseline (mean reduction of 2.46 events, not significant) and a significant reduction in nocturnal hypoglycemia (mean reduction of 2.24 events, p = 0.0078). Glycemic control improved in the ND stratum as expected and, in the ED stratum, there was no significant change in HbA1c from baseline (mean reduction of -0.45%). At study end, mean daily IDet doses were 0.39 U/kg (ND) and 0.54 U/kg (ED). Weight increased by 5.7 and 2.0 kg in the ND and ED strata, respectively, and was within the normal limits for growing children. IDet provided good glycemic control and was well tolerated, with a reduced risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia in a heterogeneous cohort of children and adolescents with T1D.
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10.
  • Cerqueiro Bybrant, Mara, et al. (författare)
  • Tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes are related to human leukocyte antigen but not to islet autoantibodies : : A Swedish nationwide prospective population-based cohort study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Autoimmunity. - Taylor & Francis. - 0891-6934. ; 51:5, s. 221-227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: This study explored the association between tissue transglutaminase autoantibody (tTGA), high-risk human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes and islet autoantibodies in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (T1D).PATIENTS AND METHODS: Dried blood spots and serum samples were taken at diagnosis from children <18 years of age participating in Better Diabetes Diagnosis (BDD), a Swedish nationwide prospective cohort study of children newly diagnosed with T1D. We analyzed tTGA, high-risk HLA DQ2 and DQ8 (DQX is neither DQ2 nor DQ8) and islet auto-antibodies (GADA, IA-2A, IAA, and three variants of Zinc transporter; ZnT8W, ZnT8R, and ZnT8QA).RESULTS: Out of 2705 children diagnosed with T1D, 85 (3.1%) had positive tTGA and 63 (2.3%) had borderline values. The prevalence of tTGA was higher in children with the HLA genotypes DQ2/2, DQ2/X or DQ2/8 compared to those with DQ8/8 or DQ8/X (p = .00001) and those with DQX/X (p ≤ .00001). No significant differences were found in relation to islet autoantibodies or age at diagnosis, but the presence of tTGA was more common in girls than in boys (p = .018).CONCLUSION: tTGA at T1D diagnosis (both positive and borderline values 5.4%) was higher in girls and in children homozygous for DQ2/2, followed by children heterozygous for DQ2. Only children with DQ2 and/or DQ8 had tTGA. HLA typing at the diagnosis of T1D can help to identify those without risk for CD.
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