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Sökning: WFRF:(Ostberg P)

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  • [1]234567...9Nästa
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  • Cederlöf, M, et al. (författare)
  • Language and mathematical problems as precursors of psychotic-like experiences and juvenile mania symptoms.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Psychological medicine. - Stockholm : Cambridge University Press. - 1469-8978. ; 44:6, s. 1293-1302
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and juvenile mania in adolescence index risk for severe psychopathology in adulthood. The importance of childhood problems with communication, reading, speech and mathematics for the development of PLEs and juvenile mania is not well understood. Method. Through the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, we identi fi ed 5812 children. The parents were interviewed about their children ’ s development at age 9 or 12 years. At age 15 or 18 years, children and parents com- pleted questionnaires targeting current PLEs and juvenile mania symptoms. Logistic regressions were used to assess associations between problems with communication, reading, speech and mathematics and PLEs/juvenile mania symp- toms. To evaluate the relative importance of genes and environment in these associations, we used bivariate twin ana- lyses based on structural equation models. Results. Children with parent-endorsed childhood problems with communication, reading and mathematics had an increased risk of developing auditory hallucinations and parental-reported juvenile mania symptoms in adolescence. The most consistent fi nding was that children with childhood problems with communication, reading and mathematics had an increased risk of developing auditory hallucinations [for example, the risk for self-reported auditory hallucina- tions at age 15 was increased by 96% for children with communication problems: OR (odds ratio) 1.96, 95% con fi dence interval (CI) 1.33 – 2.88]. The twin analyses showed that genetic effects accounted for the increased risk of PLEs and juven- ile mania symptoms among children with communication problems. Conclusions. Childhood problems with communication, reading and mathematics predict PLEs and juvenile mania symptoms in adolescence. Similar to the case for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, PLEs and juvenile mania may share genetic aetiological factors.
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  • Milton, A, et al. (författare)
  • Development of an ICU discharge instrument predicting psychological morbidity : a multinational study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Intensive Care Medicine. - : Springer. - 0342-4642 .- 1432-1238. ; 44:12, s. 2038-2047
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To develop an instrument for use at ICU discharge for prediction of psychological problems in ICU survivors.METHODS: Multinational, prospective cohort study in ten general ICUs in secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands. Adult patients with an ICU stay ≥ 12 h were eligible for inclusion. Patients in need of neurointensive care, with documented cognitive impairment, unable to communicate in the local language, without a home address or with more than one limitation of therapy were excluded. Primary outcome was psychological morbidity 3 months after ICU discharge, defined as Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) subscale score ≥ 11 or Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms Checklist-14 (PTSS-14) part B score > 45.RESULTS: A total of 572 patients were included and 78% of patients alive at follow-up responded to questionnaires. Twenty percent were classified as having psychological problems post-ICU. Of 18 potential risk factors, four were included in the final prediction model after multivariable logistic regression analysis: symptoms of depression [odds ratio (OR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.50], traumatic memories (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.13-1.82), lack of social support (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.47-7.32) and age (age-dependent OR, peak risk at age 49-65 years). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) for the instrument was 0.76 (95% CI 0.70-0.81).CONCLUSIONS: We developed an instrument to predict individual patients' risk for psychological problems 3 months post-ICU, http://www.imm.ki.se/biostatistics/calculators/psychmorb/ . The instrument can be used for triage of patients for psychological ICU follow-up.TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02679157.
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  • Aronsson, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Is cognitive impairment associated with reduced syntactic complexity in writing? Evidence from automated text analysis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Aphasiology. - : ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 0268-7038 .- 1464-5041.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Written language impairments are common in Alzheimers disease and reduced syntactic complexity in written discourse has been observed decades before the onset of dementia. The validity of average dependency distance (ADD), a measure of syntactic complexity, in cognitive decline needs to be studied further to evaluate its clinical relevance. Aims: The aim of the study was to determine whether ADD is associated with levels of cognitive impairment in memory clinic patients. Methods & procedures: We analyzed written texts collected in clinical practice from 114 participants with subjective cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimers disease during routine assessment at a memory clinic. ADD was measured using automated analysis methods consisting of a syntactic parser and a part-of-speech tagger. Outcomes & results: Our results show a significant association between ADD and levels of cognitive impairment, using ordinal logistic regression models. Conclusion: These results suggest that ADD is clinically relevant with regard to levels of cognitive impairment and indicate a diagnostic potential for ADD in cognitive assessment.
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  • Blom Johansson, Monica, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Self-reported changes in everyday life and health of significant others of people with aphasia : a quantitative approach
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Aphasiology. - : Routledge. - 0268-7038 .- 1464-5041.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Changes in the everyday life and health of the significant others (SOs) of people living with stroke sequalae have been widely investigated. However, information regarding the frequency of the changes in daily life and the variables most associated with these perceived life changes is limited.Aims: To examine the extent to which SOs of persons with aphasia (PWAs) experience changes in everyday life and health after the stroke event and how they evaluate these changes and to identify which variables are associated with these perceived life changes.Methods & Procedures: A study-specific questionnaire about perceived changes in everyday life and health was completed by 173 SOs of PWAs living in Sweden (response rate 67.8%). The items concerned the SO’s working and financial situation, leisure time and social life, relationship with the PWA, household work and responsibility, and health and quality of life.Outcomes & Results: The everyday life and health of the SOs were greatly affected by the stroke event. The changes the SOs experienced were mainly appraised negatively. The relationships with the PWA and immediate family were least affected by the stroke. The perceived existence and severity of physical, cognitive, and language impairments of the PWA were the variables most strongly associated with the everyday life situation of the participants. The sex and age of the participants and the nature of the relationship with the PWA were only marginally associated with the experience of the situation.Conclusions: SOs’ perceptions of the PWA’s stroke-related disabilities and need for assistance may be a key factor in identifying SOs who may require support and guidance to help them cope with their new life situation.
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  • Broberg, Gudrun, et al. (författare)
  • Socio-economic and demographic determinants affecting participation in the Swedish cervical screening program: A population-based case-control study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - San Francisco, CA, USA : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Cervical screening programs are highly protective for cervical cancer, but only for women attending screening procedure. Identify socio-economic and demographic determinants for non-attendance in cervical screening. Population: Source population was all women eligible for screening. Based on complete screening records, two groups of women aged 30-60 were compared. The case group, non-attending women, (N = 314,302) had no smear registered for 6-8 years. The control group (N = 266,706) attended within 90 days of invitation. Main outcome measures: Risk of non-attendance by 9 groups of socioeconomic and demographic variables. Analysis: Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and OR after adjustment for all variables in logistic regression models were calculated. Women with low disposable family income (adjOR 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01-2.11), with low education (adjOR 1.77; CI 1.73-1.81) and not cohabiting (adjOR 1.47; CI 1.45-1.50) were more likely to not attend cervical screening. Other important factors for non-attendance were being outside the labour force and receiving welfare benefits. Swedish counties are responsible for running screening programs; adjusted OR for non-participation in counties ranged from OR 4.21 (CI 4.06-4.35) to OR 0.54 (CI 0.52-0.57), compared to the reference county. Being born outside Sweden was a risk factor for non-attendance in the unadjusted analysis but this disappeared in certain large groups after adjustment for socioeconomic factors. County of residence and socio-economic factors were strongly associated with lower attendance in cervical screening, while being born in another country was of less importance. This indicates considerable potential for improvement of cervical screening attendance in several areas if best practice of routines is adopted.
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