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Sökning: WFRF:(Ostrander E. A.)

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1.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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  • Dadaev, Tokhir, et al. (författare)
  • Fine-mapping of prostate cancer susceptibility loci in a large meta-analysis identifies candidate causal variants.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.
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  • Perez-Nadales, Elena, et al. (författare)
  • Predictors of mortality in solid organ transplant recipients with bloodstream infections due to carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales : The impact of cytomegalovirus disease and lymphopenia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Transplantation. - : WILEY. - 1600-6135 .- 1600-6143. ; 20:6, s. 1629-1641
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Treatment of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales bloodstream infections in solid organ transplant recipients is challenging. The objective of this study was to develop a specific score to predict mortality in solid organ transplant recipients with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales bloodstream infections. A multinational, retrospective (2004-2016) cohort study (INCREMENT-SOT, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02852902) was performed. The main outcome variable was 30-day all-cause mortality. The INCREMENT-SOT-CPE score was developed using logistic regression. The global cohort included 216 patients. The final logistic regression model included the following variables: INCREMENT-CPE mortality score >= 8 (8 points), no source control (3 points), inappropriate empirical therapy (2 points), cytomegalovirus disease (7 points), lymphopenia (4 points), and the interaction between INCREMENT-CPE score >= 8 and CMV disease (minus 7 points). This score showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-0.88) and classified patients into 3 strata: 0-7 (low mortality), 8-11 (high mortality), and 12-17 (very-high mortality). We performed a stratified analysis of the effect of monotherapy vs combination therapy among 165 patients who received appropriate therapy. Monotherapy was associated with higher mortality only in the very-high (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.82, 95% CI 1.13-7.06, P = .03) and high (HR 9.93, 95% CI 2.08-47.40, P = .004) mortality risk strata. A score-based algorithm is provided for therapy guidance.
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