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Sökning: WFRF:(Otonkoski Timo)

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1.
  • Adewumi, Oluseun, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines by the International Stem Cell Initiative
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature Biotechnology. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1696 .- 1087-0156. ; 25:7, s. 803-816
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The International Stem Cell Initiative characterized 59 human embryonic stem cell lines from 17 laboratories worldwide. Despite diverse genotypes and different techniques used for derivation and maintenance, all lines exhibited similar expression patterns for several markers of human embryonic stem cells. They expressed the glycolipid antigens SSEA3 and SSEA4, the keratan sulfate antigens TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, GCTM2 and GCT343, and the protein antigens CD9, Thy1 (also known as CD90), tissue- nonspecific alkaline phosphatase and class 1 HLA, as well as the strongly developmentally regulated genes NANOG, POU5F1 (formerly known as OCT4), TDGF1, DNMT3B, GABRB3 and GDF3. Nevertheless, the lines were not identical: differences in expression of several lineage markers were evident, and several imprinted genes showed generally similar allele-specific expression patterns, but some gene-dependent variation was observed. Also, some female lines expressed readily detectable levels of XIST whereas others did not. No significant contamination of the lines with mycoplasma, bacteria or cytopathic viruses was detected.
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2.
  • Flanagan, Sarah E, et al. (författare)
  • Activating germline mutations in STAT3 cause early-onset multi-organ autoimmune disease.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 46:8, s. 812-814
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Monogenic causes of autoimmunity provide key insights into the complex regulation of the immune system. We report a new monogenic cause of autoimmunity resulting from de novo germline activating STAT3 mutations in five individuals with a spectrum of early-onset autoimmune disease, including type 1 diabetes. These findings emphasize the critical role of STAT3 in autoimmune disease and contrast with the germline inactivating STAT3 mutations that result in hyper IgE syndrome.
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3.
  • Heiskanen, Annamari, et al. (författare)
  • N-glycolylneuraminic acid xenoantigen contamination of human embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells is substantially reversible.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio). - 1066-5099. ; 25:1, s. 197-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell therapies may offer significant benefit to a large number of patients. Recently, however, human embryonic stem cell lines cultured on mouse feeder cells were reported to be contaminated by the xeno-carbohydrate N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and considered potentially unfit for human therapy. To determine the extent of the problem of Neu5Gc contamination for the development of stem cell therapies, we investigated whether it also occurs in cells cultured on human feeder cells and in mesenchymal stem cells, what are the sources of contamination, and whether the contamination is reversible. We found that N-glycolylneuraminic acid was present in embryonic stem cells cultured on human feeder cells, correlating with the presence of Neu5Gc in components of the commercial serum replacement culture medium. Similar contamination occurred in mesenchymal stem cells cultured in the presence of fetal bovine serum. The results suggest that the Neu5Gc is present in both glycoprotein and lipid-linked glycans, as detected by mass spectrometric analysis and monoclonal antibody staining, respectively. Significantly, the contamination was largely reversible in the progeny of both cell types, suggesting that decontaminated cells may be derived from existing stem cell lines. Although major complications have not been reported in the clinical trials with mesenchymal stem cells exposed to fetal bovine serum, the immunogenic contamination may potentially be reflected in the viability and efficacy of the transplanted cells and thus bias the published results. Definition of safe culture conditions for stem cells is essential for future development of cellular therapies.
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4.
  • Ludvigsson, Johnny, et al. (författare)
  • GAD65 antigen therapy in recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 366:5, s. 433-442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The 65-kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) is a major autoantigen in type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that alum-formulated GAD65 (GAD-alum) can preserve beta-cell function in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes.METHODS: We studied 334 patients, 10 to 20 years of age, with type 1 diabetes, fasting C-peptide levels of more than 0.3 ng per milliliter (0.1 nmol per liter), and detectable serum GAD65 autoantibodies. Within 3 months after diagnosis, patients were randomly assigned to receive one of three study treatments: four doses of GAD-alum, two doses of GAD-alum followed by two doses of placebo, or four doses of placebo. The primary outcome was the change in the stimulated serum C-peptide level (after a mixed-meal tolerance test) between the baseline visit and the 15-month visit. Secondary outcomes included the glycated hemoglobin level, mean daily insulin dose, rate of hypoglycemia, and fasting and maximum stimulated C-peptide levels.RESULTS: The stimulated C-peptide level declined to a similar degree in all study groups, and the primary outcome at 15 months did not differ significantly between the combined active-drug groups and the placebo group (P=0.10). The use of GAD-alum as compared with placebo did not affect the insulin dose, glycated hemoglobin level, or hypoglycemia rate. Adverse events were infrequent and mild in the three groups, with no significant differences.CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with GAD-alum did not significantly reduce the loss of stimulated C peptide or improve clinical outcomes over a 15-month period.
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5.
  • Otonkoski, Timo, et al. (författare)
  • Unique basement membrane structure of human pancreatic islets : implications for beta-cell growth and differentiation
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism. - 1462-8902 .- 1463-1326. ; 10 Suppl 4, s. 119-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Basement membranes (BMs) are an important part of the physiological microenvironment of pancreatic islet cells. In mouse islets, beta-cells interact directly with BMs of capillary endothelial cells. We have shown that in the human islets, the capillaries are surrounded by a double BM both in foetal and adult tissues. The endocrine islet cells are facing a BM that is separate from the endothelia. Laminins are the functionally most important component of BMs. The only laminin isoform present in the human endocrine islet BM is laminin-511 (previously known as laminin 10). The islet cells facing this BM have a strong and polarized expression of Lutheran glycoprotein, which is a well-known receptor for the laminin alpha 5 chain. Dispersed human islet cells adhere to purified human laminin-511 and the binding is equally effectively blocked by a soluble form of Lutheran as by antibody against integrin beta1. Our results reveal unique features of the BM structure of human islets, different from rodents. This information has potentially important implications for the generation of an optimal microenvironment for beta-cell function, proliferation and differentiation.
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6.
  • Virtanen, Ismo, et al. (författare)
  • Blood vessels of human islets of Langerhans are surrounded by a double basement membrane
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 51:7, s. 1181-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Based on mouse study findings, pancreatic islet cells are supposed to lack basement membrane (BM) and interact directly with vascular endothelial BM. Until now, the BM composition of human islets has remained elusive. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry with specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies as well as electron microscopy were used to study BM organisation and composition in human adult islets. Isolated islet cells and function-blocking monoclonal antibodies and recombinant soluble Lutheran peptide were further used to study islet cell adhesion to laminin (Lm)-511. Short-term cultures of islets were used to study Lutheran and integrin distribution. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry revealed a unique organisation for human Lm-511/521 as a peri-islet BM, which co-invaginated into islets with vessels, forming an outer endocrine BM of the intra-islet vascular channels, and was distinct from the vascular BM that additionally contained Lm-411/421. These findings were verified by electron microscopy. Lutheran glycoprotein, a receptor for the Lm alpha5 chain, was found prominently on endocrine cells, as identified by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR, whereas alpha(3) and beta(1) integrins were more diffusely distributed. High Lutheran content was also found on endocrine cell membranes in short-term culture of human islets. The adhesion of dispersed beta cells to Lm-511 was inhibited equally effectively by antibodies to integrin and alpha(3) and beta(1) subunits, and by soluble Lutheran peptide. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The present results disclose a hitherto unrecognised BM organisation and adhesion mechanisms in human pancreatic islets as distinct from mouse islets.
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7.
  • Balboa, Diego, et al. (författare)
  • Genome editing of human pancreatic beta cell models : problems, possibilities and outlook
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 62:8, s. 1329-1336
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind beta cell dysfunction is essential for the development of effective and specific approaches for diabetes care and prevention. Physiological human beta cell models are needed for this work. We review the possibilities and limitations of currently available human beta cell models and how they can be dramatically enhanced using genome-editing technologies. In addition to the gold standard, primary isolated islets, other models now include immortalised human beta cell lines and pluripotent stem cell-derived islet-like cells. The scarcity of human primary islet samples limits their use, but valuable gene expression and functional data from large collections of human islets have been made available to the scientific community. The possibilities for studying beta cell physiology using immortalised human beta cell lines and stem cell-derived islets are rapidly evolving. However, the functional immaturity of these cells is still a significant limitation. CRISPR-Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) has enabled precise engineering of specific genetic variants, targeted transcriptional modulation and genome-wide genetic screening. These approaches can now be exploited to gain understanding of the mechanisms behind coding and non-coding diabetes-associated genetic variants, allowing more precise evaluation of their contribution to diabetes pathogenesis. Despite all the progress, genome editing in primary pancreatic islets remains difficult to achieve, an important limitation requiring further technological development.
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8.
  • Banerjee, Meenal, et al. (författare)
  • Proliferation and plasticity of human beta cells on physiologically occurring laminin isoforms
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. - 0303-7207 .- 1872-8057. ; 355:1, s. 78-86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have previously characterized the molecular composition of human islet basement membranes and shown that human beta cells bind to laminin 511 (LM511) through integrin alpha 3 beta 1 and Lutheran glycoprotein. We have now investigated the impact of physical contact between cultured human beta cells and the laminin isoforms occurring in their natural niche. Human islet preparations derived from 15 donors were used, beta cells and duct cells were purified by magnetic sorting. Overall beta-cell proliferation was low or undetectable. However, in many experiments the only proliferating beta cells were detected in contact with the laminin isoforms that are found in the human islets in vivo (511 and 411). Purified ductal and beta cells underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). LM511 partially blocked this dedifferentiation of purified beta cells, and did not affect purified duct cells. Interactions with the surrounding basement membrane are important for the growth and function of human beta cells. However, only a very limited level of beta-cell proliferation can be induced by exogenous factors. LM511 may be a useful substrate for human beta-cell maintenance in vitro.
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9.
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10.
  • Bondestam, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • cDNA cloning, expression studies and chromosome mapping of human type I serine/threonine kinase receptor ALK7 (ACVR1C)
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. - 0301-0171 .- 1421-9816. ; 95:3-4, s. 157-162
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily related growth factors signal by binding to transmembrane type I and type II receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTK), which phosphorylate intracellular Smad transcription factors in response to ligand binding. Here we describe the cloning of the human type I RSTK activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7), an orthologue of the previously identified rat ALK7. Nodal, a TGF-beta member expressed during embryonic development and implicated in developmental events like mesoderm formation and left-right axis specification, was recently shown to signal through ALK7. We found ALK7 mRNA to be most abundantly expressed in human brain, pancreas and colon. A cDNA encoding the open reading frame of ALK7 was obtained from a human brain cDNA library. Furthermore, a P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clone containing the human ALK7 gene was isolated and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on metaphase chromosomes identified the gene locus as chromosome 2q24.1-->q3. To test the functionality of the ALK7 signaling, we generated recombinant adenoviruses containing a constitutively active form of ALK7 (Ad-caALK7), which is capable of activating downstream targets in a ligand independent manner. Infection with Ad-caALK7 of MIN6 insulinoma cells, in which ALK7 has previously been shown to be endogenously expressed, led to a marked increase in the phosphorylation of Smad2, a signaling molecule also used by TGF-betas and activins.
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