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Sökning: WFRF:(Otto Markus)

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1.
  • Kattge, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:1, s. 119-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
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2.
  • Brenner, David, et al. (författare)
  • Hot-spot KIF5A mutations cause familial ALS
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain. - : Oxford University Press. - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156. ; 141, s. 688-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heterozygous missense mutations in the N-terminal motor or coiled-coil domains of the kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) gene cause monogenic spastic paraplegia (HSP10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Moreover, heterozygous de novo frame-shift mutations in the C-terminal domain of KIF5A are associated with neonatal intractable myoclonus, a neurodevelopmental syndrome. These findings, together with the observation that many of the disease genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disrupt cytoskeletal function and intracellular transport, led us to hypothesize that mutations in KIF5A are also a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using whole exome sequencing followed by rare variant analysis of 426 patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 6137 control subjects, we detected an enrichment of KIF5A splice-site mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (2/426 compared to 0/6137 in controls; P = 4.2 x 10-3), both located in a hot-spot in the C-terminus of the protein and predicted to affect splicing exon 27. We additionally show co-segregation with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of two canonical splice-site mutations in two families. Investigation of lymphoblast cell lines from patients with KIF5A splice-site mutations revealed the loss of mutant RNA expression and suggested haploinsufficiency as the most probable underlying molecular mechanism. Furthermore, mRNA sequencing of a rare non-synonymous missense mutation (predicting p. Arg1007Gly) located in the C-terminus of the protein shortly upstream of the splice donor of exon 27 revealed defective KIF5A pre-mRNA splicing in respective patient-derived cell lines owing to abrogation of the donor site. Finally, the non-synonymous single nucleotide variant rs113247976 (minor allele frequency = 1.00% in controls, n = 6137), also located in the C-terminal region [p.(Pro986Leu) in exon 26], was significantly enriched in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (minor allele frequency = 3.40%; P = 1.28 x 10-7). Our study demonstrates that mutations located specifically in a C-terminal hotspot of KIF5A can cause a classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotype, and underline the involvement of intracellular transport processes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis.
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5.
  • Freischmidt, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Haploinsufficiency of TBK1 causes familial ALS and fronto-temporal dementia
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 18:5, s. 631-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative syndrome hallmarked by adult-onset loss of motor neurons. We performed exome sequencing of 252 familial ALS (fALS) and 827 control individuals. Gene-based rare variant analysis identified an exome-wide significant enrichment of eight loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in TBK1 (encoding TANK-binding kinase 1) in 13 fALS pedigrees. No enrichment of LoF mutations was observed in a targeted mutation screen of 1,010 sporadic ALS and 650 additional control individuals. Linkage analysis in four families gave an aggregate LOD score of 4.6. In vitro experiments confirmed the loss of expression of TBK1 LoF mutant alleles, or loss of interaction of the C-terminal TBK1 coiled-coil domain (CCD2) mutants with the TBK1 adaptor protein optineurin, which has been shown to be involved in ALS pathogenesis. We conclude that haploinsufficiency of TBK1 causes ALS and fronto-temporal dementia.
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6.
  • Gazzina, Stefano, et al. (författare)
  • Education modulates brain maintenance in presymptomatic frontotemporal dementia.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. - 1468-330X. ; 90:10, s. 1124-1130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cognitively engaging lifestyles have been associated with reduced risk of conversion to dementia. Multiple mechanisms have been advocated, including increased brain volumes (ie, brain reserve) and reduced disease progression (ie, brain maintenance). In cross-sectional studies of presymptomatic frontotemporal dementia (FTD), higher education has been related to increased grey matter volume. Here, we examine the effect of education on grey matter loss over time.Two-hundred twenty-nine subjects at-risk of carrying a pathogenic mutation leading to FTD underwent longitudinal cognitive assessment and T1-weighted MRI at baseline and at 1 year follow-up. The first principal component score of the graph-Laplacian Principal Component Analysis on 112 grey matter region-of-interest volumes was used to summarise the grey matter volume (GMV). The effects of education on cognitive performances and GMV at baseline and on the change between 1 year follow-up and baseline (slope) were tested by Structural Equation Modelling.Highly educated at-risk subjects had better cognition and higher grey matter volume at baseline; moreover, higher educational attainment was associated with slower loss of grey matter over time in mutation carriers.This longitudinal study demonstrates that even in presence of ongoing pathological processes, education may facilitate both brain reserve and brain maintenance in the presymptomatic phase of genetic FTD.
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7.
  • Heller, Carolin, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein is raised in progranulin-associated frontotemporal dementia.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. - 1468-330X. ; 91:3, s. 263-270
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There are few validated fluid biomarkers in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a measure of astrogliosis, a known pathological process of FTD, but has yet to be explored as potential biomarker.Plasma GFAP and neurofilament light chain (NfL) concentration were measured in 469 individuals enrolled in the Genetic FTD Initiative: 114 C9orf72 expansion carriers (74 presymptomatic, 40 symptomatic), 119 GRN mutation carriers (88 presymptomatic, 31 symptomatic), 53 MAPT mutation carriers (34 presymptomatic, 19 symptomatic) and 183 non-carrier controls. Biomarker measures were compared between groups using linear regression models adjusted for age and sex with family membership included as random effect. Participants underwent standardised clinical assessments including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration-Clinical Dementia Rating scale and MRI. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to investigate the relationship of plasma GFAP to clinical and imaging measures.Plasma GFAP concentration was significantly increased in symptomatic GRN mutation carriers (adjusted mean difference from controls 192.3 pg/mL, 95% CI 126.5 to 445.6), but not in those with C9orf72 expansions (9.0, -61.3 to 54.6), MAPT mutations (12.7, -33.3 to 90.4) or the presymptomatic groups. GFAP concentration was significantly positively correlated with age in both controls and the majority of the disease groups, as well as with NfL concentration. In the presymptomatic period, higher GFAP concentrations were correlated with a lower cognitive score (MMSE) and lower brain volume, while in the symptomatic period, higher concentrations were associated with faster rates of atrophy in the temporal lobe.Raised GFAP concentrations appear to be unique to GRN-related FTD, with levels potentially increasing just prior to symptom onset, suggesting that GFAP may be an important marker of proximity to onset, and helpful for forthcoming therapeutic prevention trials.
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8.
  • Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa, et al. (författare)
  • Recommendations for cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer's disease biomarkers in the diagnostic evaluation of mild cognitive impairment.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - 1552-5279. ; 13:3, s. 285-295
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article presents recommendations, based on the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation method, for the clinical application of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β1-42, tau, and phosphorylated tau in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The recommendations were developed by a multidisciplinary working group and based on the available evidence and consensus from focused group discussions for 1) prediction of clinical progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, 2) cost-effectiveness, 3) interpretation of results, and 4) patient counseling. The working group recommended using CSF AD biomarkers in the diagnostic workup of MCI patients, after prebiomarker counseling, as an add-on to clinical evaluation to predict functional decline or conversion to AD dementia and to guide disease management. Because of insufficient evidence, it was uncertain whether CSF AD biomarkers outperform imaging biomarkers. Furthermore, the working group provided recommendations for interpretation of ambiguous CSF biomarker results and for pre- and post-biomarker counseling.
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9.
  • Leuzy, Antoine, et al. (författare)
  • Pittsburgh compound B imaging and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β in a multicentre European memory clinic study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Brain : a journal of neurology. - 1460-2156. ; 139:Pt 9, s. 2540-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between data on cerebral amyloidosis, derived using Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography and (i) multi-laboratory INNOTEST enzyme linked immunosorbent assay derived cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of amyloid-β42; (ii) centrally measured cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 using a Meso Scale Discovery enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; and (iii) cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 centrally measured using an antibody-independent mass spectrometry-based reference method. Moreover, we examined the hypothesis that discordance between amyloid biomarker measurements may be due to interindividual differences in total amyloid-β production, by using the ratio of amyloid-β42 to amyloid-β40 Our study population consisted of 243 subjects from seven centres belonging to the Biomarkers for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease Initiative, and included subjects with normal cognition and patients with mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. All had Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography data, cerebrospinal fluid INNOTEST amyloid-β42 values, and cerebrospinal fluid samples available for reanalysis. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were reanalysed (amyloid-β42 and amyloid-β40) using Meso Scale Discovery electrochemiluminescence enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technology, and a novel, antibody-independent, mass spectrometry reference method. Pittsburgh compound B standardized uptake value ratio results were scaled using the Centiloid method. Concordance between Meso Scale Discovery/mass spectrometry reference measurement procedure findings and Pittsburgh compound B was high in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, while more variable results were observed for cognitively normal and non-Alzheimer's disease groups. Agreement between Pittsburgh compound B classification and Meso Scale Discovery/mass spectrometry reference measurement procedure findings was further improved when using amyloid-β42/40 Agreement between Pittsburgh compound B visual ratings and Centiloids was near complete. Despite improved agreement between Pittsburgh compound B and centrally analysed cerebrospinal fluid, a minority of subjects showed discordant findings. While future studies are needed, our results suggest that amyloid biomarker results may not be interchangeable in some individuals.
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10.
  • Lewczuk, Piotr, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid and blood biomarkers for neurodegenerative dementias: An update of the Consensus of the Task Force on Biological Markers in Psychiatry of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The world journal of biological psychiatry : the official journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry. - 1814-1412. ; 19:4, s. 244-328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the 12 years since the publication of the first Consensus Paper of the WFSBP on biomarkers of neurodegenerative dementias, enormous advancement has taken place in the field, and the Task Force takes now the opportunity to extend and update the original paper. New concepts of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the conceptual interactions between AD and dementia due to AD were developed, resulting in two sets for diagnostic/research criteria. Procedures for pre-analytical sample handling, biobanking, analyses and post-analytical interpretation of the results were intensively studied and optimised. A global quality control project was introduced to evaluate and monitor the inter-centre variability in measurements with the goal of harmonisation of results. Contexts of use and how to approach candidate biomarkers in biological specimens other than cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), e.g. blood, were precisely defined. Important development was achieved in neuroimaging techniques, including studies comparing amyloid-β positron emission tomography results to fluid-based modalities. Similarly, development in research laboratory technologies, such as ultra-sensitive methods, raises our hopes to further improve analytical and diagnostic accuracy of classic and novel candidate biomarkers. Synergistically, advancement in clinical trials of anti-dementia therapies energises and motivates the efforts to find and optimise the most reliable early diagnostic modalities. Finally, the first studies were published addressing the potential of cost-effectiveness of the biomarkers-based diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders.
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