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Sökning: WFRF:(Oudin Åström Daniel)

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  • Oudin, A., et al. (författare)
  • The association between daily concentrations of air pollution and visits to a psychiatric emergency unit: a case-crossover study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environmental Health. - : BioMed Central. - 1476-069X. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Air pollution is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Experimental studies, and a few epidemiological studies, suggest that air pollution may cause acute exacerbation of psychiatric disorders, and even increase the rate of suicide attempts, but epidemiological studies on air pollution in association with psychiatric disorders are still few. Our aim was to investigate associations between daily fluctuations in air pollution concentrations and the daily number of visits to a psychiatric emergency unit. Methods: Data from Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden, on the daily number of visits to the Psychiatric emergency unit were combined with daily data on monitored concentrations of respirable particulate matter(PM10), ozone(O-3), nitrogen dioxides(NO2) and temperature between 1st July 2012 and 31st December 2016. We used a case-crossover design to analyze data with conditional Poisson regression models allowing for over-dispersion. We stratified data on season. Results: Visits increased with increasing PM10 levels during the warmer season (April to September) in both single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. For example, an increase of 3.6% (95% Confidence Interval, CI, 0.4-7.0%) was observed with a 10 mu g/m(3) increase in PM10 adjusted for NO2. In the three-pollutant models (adjusting for NO2 and O-3 simultaneously) the increase was 3.3% (95% CI, -0.2-6.9). There were no clear associations between the outcome and NO2, O-3, or PM10 during the colder season (October to March). Conclusions: Ambient air particle concentrations were associated with the number of visits to the Psychiatric emergency unit in the warm season. The results were only borderline statistically significant in the fully adjusted (three-pollutant) models in this small study. The observation could be interpreted as indicative of air pollution as either exacerbating an underlying psychiatric disorder, or increasing mental distress, even in areas with comparatively low levels of air pollution. In combination with the severe impact of psychiatric disorders and mental distress on society and individuals, our results are a strong warrant for future research in this area.
  • Bjursten, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Once after a full moon : acute type A aortic dissection and lunar phases
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery. - : Oxford University Press. - 1569-9293 .- 1569-9285.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is a rare but severe condition, routinely treated with emergent cardiac surgery. Many surgeons have the notion that patients with ATAAD tend to come in clusters, but no studies have examined these observations. This investigation was undertaken to study the potential association between the lunar cycle and the incidence of ATAAD.METHODS: We collected information on 2995 patients who underwent ATAAD surgery at centres from the Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection collaboration. We cross-referenced the time of surgery with lunar phase using a case-crossover design with 2 different definitions of full moon (>99% illumination and the 7-day full moon period).RESULTS: The period when the moon was illuminated the most (99% definition) did not show any significant increase in incidence for ATAAD surgery. However, when the full moon period was compared with all other moon phases, it yielded a relative risk of 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.17, P = 0.057] and, compared to waxing moon, only the relative risk was 1.11 (95% CI 1.01-1.23, P = 0.027). The peak incidence came 4-6 days after the moon was fully illuminated.CONCLUSIONS: This study found an overrepresentation of surgery for ATAAD during the full moon phase. The explanation for this is not known, but we speculate that sleep deprivation during full moon leads to a temporary increase in blood pressure, which in turn could trigger rupture of the aortic wall. While this finding is interesting, it needs to be corroborated and the clinical implications are debateable.
  • Oudin, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Traffic-Related air pollution as a risk factor for dementia : No clear modifying effects of apoe ε4 in the betula cohort
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's Disease and Air Pollution. - : IOS Press. - 2210-5727. - 9781643681597 - 9781643681580 ; , s. 357-364
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is widely known that the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele imposes a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence suggests that exposure to air pollution is also a risk factor for AD, and results from a few studies indicate that the effect of air pollution on cognitive function and dementia is stronger in APOE ε4 carriers than in non-carriers. Air pollution and interaction with APOE ε4 on AD risk thus merits further attention. We studied dementia incidence over a 15-year period from the longitudinal Betula study in Northern Sweden. As a marker for long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution, we used modelled annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at start of follow-up. Nitrogen oxide correlate well with fine particulate air pollution levels in the study area. We had full data on air pollution, incidence of AD and vascular dementia (VaD), APOE ε4 carrier status, and relevant confounding factors for 1,567 participants. As expected, air pollution was rather clearly associated with dementia incidence. However, there was no evidence for a modifying effect by APOE ε4 on the association (p-value for interaction > 0.30 for both total dementia (AD+VaD) and AD). The results from this study do not imply that adverse effects of air pollution on dementia incidence is limited to, or stronger in, APOE ε4 carriers than in the total population.
  • Pfeifer, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating Mortality Response Associated with Two Different Nordic Heat Warning Systems in Riga, Latvia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 17:21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and objectives: Progressing climate change is accompanied by a worldwide increase in the intensity, frequency, and duration of heat wave events. Research has shown that heat waves are an emerging public health problem, as they have a significant impact on mortality. As studies exploring this relationship are scarce for Latvia, this study aims to investigate the short-term associations between heat waves and all-cause mortality as well as cause-specific mortality, during the summer months (May-September) in Riga. Materials and Methods: An ecological time series study using daily reported mortality and temperature data from Riga between 2009 and 2015 was employed. Heat waves were defined based on the categories of the Latvian and Swedish heat warning system. Using a Quasi-Poisson regression, the relationships between heat waves and all-cause as well as cause-specific mortality were investigated. Results: Heat waves in Riga were associated with a 10% to 20% increase in the risk of all-cause mortality, depending on the applied heat wave definition, compared to days with normal temperature. In addition, heat-related mortality was found to increase significantly in the ≥65 age group between 12% and 22% during heat waves. In terms of cause-specific mortality, a significant increase of approximately 15% to 26% was observed for cardiovascular mortality. No significant associations were found between heat waves and respiratory or external causes of mortality. Conclusion: These results indicate that there are short-term associations between heat waves and all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality in Riga and that heat waves therefore represent a public health problem in this Baltic city.
  • Taj, Tahir, et al. (författare)
  • Short-Term Associations between Air Pollution Concentrations and Respiratory Health-Comparing Primary Health Care Visits, Hospital Admissions, and Emergency Department Visits in a Multi-Municipality Study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - : MDPI AG. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 14:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Acute effects of air pollution on respiratory health have traditionally been investigated with data on inpatient admissions, emergency room visits, and mortality. In this study, we aim to describe the total acute effects of air pollution on health care use for respiratory symptoms (ICD10-J00-J99). This will be done by investigating primary health care (PHC) visits, inpatient admissions, and emergency room visits together in five municipalities in southern Sweden, using a case-crossover design. Between 2005 and 2010, there were 81,019 visits to primary health care, 38,217 emergency room visits, and 25,271 inpatient admissions for respiratory symptoms in the study area. There was a 1.85% increase (95% CI: 0.52 to 3.20) in the number of primary health care visits associated with a 10 mu g/m(3) increase in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels in Malmo, but not in the other municipalities. Air pollution levels were generally not associated with emergency room visits or inpatient admissions, with one exception (in Helsingborg there was a 2.52% increase in emergency room visits for respiratory symptoms associated with a 10 mu g/m(3) increase in PM10). In conclusion, the results give weak support for short-term effects of air pollution on health care use associated with respiratory health symptoms in the study area.
  • Åström, Daniel Oudin, et al. (författare)
  • High summer temperatures and mortality in Estonia
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 11:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events - such as heat waves - throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia. Methods: We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia. Results: We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement. Discussion: We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed.
  • Åström, Daniel Oudin, et al. (författare)
  • On the association between weather variability and total and cause-specific mortality before and during industrialization in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Demographic Research. - : Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research. - 1435-9871. ; 35, s. 991-1009
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: While there is ample evidence for health risks associated with heat and other extreme weather events today, little is known about the impact of weather patterns on population health in preindustrial societies.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of weather patterns on population health in Sweden before and during industrialization.METHODS: We obtained records of monthly mortality and of monthly mean temperatures and precipitation for Skelleftea parish, northern Sweden, for the period 1800-1950. The associations between monthly total mortality, as well as monthly mortality due to infectious and cardiovascular diseases, and monthly mean temperature and cumulative precipitation were modelled using a time series approach for three separate periods, 1800-1859, 1860-1909, and 1910-1950.RESULTS: We found higher temperatures and higher amounts of precipitation to be associated with lower mortality both in the medium term (same month and two-months lag) and in the long run (lag of six months up to a year). Similar patterns were found for mortality due to infectious and cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and precipitation decreased over time.CONCLUSIONS: Higher temperature and precipitation amounts were associated with reduced death counts with a lag of up to 12 months. The decreased effect over time may be due to improvements in nutritional status, decreased infant deaths, and other changes in society that occurred in the course of the demographic and epidemiological transition.CONTRIBUTION: The study contributes to a better understanding of the complex relationship between weather and mortality and, in particular, historical weather-related mortality.
  • Odhiambo Sewe, Maquins, et al. (författare)
  • Estimated Effect of Temperature on Years of Life Lost : A Retrospective Time-Series Study of Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Regions
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - : Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 126:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported a strong association between temperature and mortality. Additional insights can be gained from investigating the effects of temperature on years of life lost (YLL), considering the life expectancy at the time of death.OBJECTIVES: The goal of this work was to assess the association between temperature and YLL at seven low-, middle-, and high-income sites.METHODS: We obtained meteorological and population data for at least nine years from four Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites in Kenya (western Kenya, Nairobi), Burkina Faso (Nouna), and India (Vadu), as well as data from cities in the United States (Philadelphia, Phoenix) and Sweden (Stockholm). A distributed lag nonlinear model was used to estimate the association of daily maximum temperature and daily YLL, lagged 0-14 d. The reference value was set for each site at the temperature with the lowest YLL.RESULTS: Generally, YLL increased with higher temperature, starting day 0. In Nouna, the hottest location, with a minimum YLL temperature at the first percentile, YLL increased consistently with higher temperatures. In Vadu, YLL increased in association with heat, whereas in Nairobi, YLL increased in association with both low and high temperatures. Associations with cold and heat were evident for Phoenix (stronger for heat), Stockholm, and Philadelphia (both stronger for cold). Patterns of associations with mortality were generally similar to those with YLL.CONCLUSIONS: Both high and low temperatures are associated with YLL in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. Policy guidance and health adaptation measures might be improved with more comprehensive indicators of the health burden of high and low temperatures such as YLL.
  • Oudin Åström, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Local Contrasts in Concentration of Ambient Particulate Air Pollution (PM2.5) and Incidence of Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia : Results from the Betula Cohort in Northern Sweden
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 81:1, s. 83-85
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is emerging as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but existing studies are still limited and heterogeneous. We have previously studied the association between dementia (AD and vascular dementia) and PM2.5 stemming from vehicle exhaust and wood-smoke in the Betula cohort in Northern Sweden. The aim of this commentary is to estimate the association between total PM2.5 and dementia in the Betula cohort, which is more relevant to include in future meta-estimates than the source-specific estimates. The hazard ratio for incident dementia associated with a 1μg/m3 increase in local PM2.5 was 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 0.99 -1.92). The interpretation of our results is that they indicate an association between local contrasts in concentration of PM2.5 at the residential address and incidence of dementia in a low-level setting.
  • Carlsen, Hanne Krage, et al. (författare)
  • Ambient Temperature and Associations with Daily Visits to a Psychiatric Emergency Unit in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Int J Environ Res Public Health. - : MDPI. - 1660-4601 .- 1661-7827. ; 16:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High or low ambient temperatures pose a risk factor for the worsening or onset of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ambient temperature and psychiatric emergency visits in an urban region in a temperate climate. The daily number of visits to a psychiatric emergency room (PEVs) at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden and the daily mean temperature were extracted for the study period 1 July 2012 to 31 December 2017. Case-crossover analysis with distributed lag non-linear models was used to analyse the data by season. The warm season was defined as May to August and the cold season as November to February. Shorter lags periods were used for the warm season than the cold season. In the analysis, temperatures at the 95th percentile was associated with 14% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2%, 28%) increase in PEVs at lag 0-3 and 22% (95%CI: 6%, 40%) for lags 0-14 during the warm season, relative to the seasonal minimum effect temperature (MET). During the cold season temperatures at the 5th percentile were associated with 25% (95% CI: -8%, 13%) and 18% (95% CI: -30%, 98%) increase in PEVs at lags 0-14 and 0-21 respectively. We observed an increased number of PEVs at high and low temperatures; however, not to a statistically significant extent for low temperatures. Our findings are similar to what has been found for somatic diseases and in studies of other mental health outcomes in regions with more extreme climates. This merits the inclusion of individuals with psychiatric disorders in awareness planning for climate warning systems.
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