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1.
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2.
  • Gusev, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Atlas of prostate cancer heritability in European and African-American men pinpoints tissue-specific regulation
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature communications. - 2041-1723. ; 7, s. 10979
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa.
3.
  • Tsilidis, K. K., et al. (författare)
  • Oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors and risk of ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1532-1827. ; 105:9, s. 1436-1442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: It is well established that parity and use of oral contraceptives reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, but the associations with other reproductive variables are less clear. METHODS: We examined the associations of oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors with ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 327 396 eligible women, 878 developed ovarian cancer over an average of 9 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models stratified by centre and age, and adjusted for smoking status, body mass index, unilateral ovariectomy, simple hysterectomy, menopausal hormone therapy, and mutually adjusted for age at menarche, age at menopause, number of full-term pregnancies and duration of oral contraceptive use. RESULTS: Women who used oral contraceptives for 10 or more years had a significant 45% (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.75) lower risk compared with users of 1 year or less (P-trend, <0.01). Compared with nulliparous women, parous women had a 29% (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59-0.87) lower risk, with an 8% reduction in risk for each additional pregnancy. A high age at menopause was associated with a higher risk of ovarian cancer (>52 vs <= 45 years: HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.06-1.99; P-trend, 0.02). Age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, incomplete pregnancies and breastfeeding were not associated with risk. CONCLUSION: This study shows a strong protective association of oral contraceptives and parity with ovarian cancer risk, a higher risk with a late age at menopause, and no association with other reproductive factors. British Journal of Cancer (2011) 105, 1436-1442. doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.371 www.bjcancer.com Published online 13 September 2011 (C) 2011 Cancer Research UK
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4.
  • Uusitupa, M., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and inflammation markers in metabolic syndrome - a randomized study (SYSDIET)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1365-2796. ; 274:1, s. 52-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Different healthy food patterns may modify cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and inflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome. Methods We conducted a randomized dietary study lasting for 18-24weeks in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome (mean age 55years, BMI 31.6kgm-2, 67% women). Altogether 309 individuals were screened, 200 started the intervention after 4-week run-in period, and 96 (proportion of dropouts 7.9%) and 70 individuals (dropouts 27%) completed the study, in the Healthy diet and Control diet groups, respectively. Healthy diet included whole-grain products, berries, fruits and vegetables, rapeseed oil, three fish meals per week and low-fat dairy products. An average Nordic diet served as a Control diet. Compliance was monitored by repeated 4-day food diaries and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids. Results Body weight remained stable, and no significant changes were observed in insulin sensitivity or blood pressure. Significant changes between the groups were found in non-HDL cholesterol (-0.18, mmolL-1 95% CI -0.35; -0.01, P=0.04), LDL to HDL cholesterol (-0.15, -0.28; -0.00, P=0.046) and apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratios (-0.04, -0.07; -0.00, P=0.025) favouring the Healthy diet. IL-1 Ra increased during the Control diet (difference -84, -133; -37ngL-1, P= 0.00053). Intakes of saturated fats (E%, beta estimate 4.28, 0.02; 8.53, P=0.049) and magnesium (mg, -0.23, -0.41; -0.05, P=0.012) were associated with IL-1 Ra. Conclusions Healthy Nordic diet improved lipid profile and had a beneficial effect on low-grade inflammation.
5.
  • Elena, J. W., et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes and risk of pancreatic cancer : a pooled analysis from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - 0957-5243. ; 24:1, s. 13-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Diabetes is a suspected risk factor for pancreatic cancer, but questions remain about whether it is a risk factor or a result of the disease. This study prospectively examined the association between diabetes and the risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in pooled data from the NCI pancreatic cancer cohort consortium (PanScan). Methods: The pooled data included 1,621 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases and 1,719 matched controls from twelve cohorts using a nested case-control study design. Subjects who were diagnosed with diabetes near the time (&lt;2 years) of pancreatic cancer diagnosis were excluded from all analyses. All analyses were adjusted for age, race, gender, study, alcohol use, smoking, BMI, and family history of pancreatic cancer. Results: Self-reported diabetes was associated with a forty percent increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI: 1.07, 1.84). The association differed by duration of diabetes; risk was highest for those with a duration of 2-8 years (OR = 1.79, 95 % CI: 1.25, 2.55); there was no association for those with 9+ years of diabetes (OR = 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.68, 1.52). Conclusions: These findings provide support for a relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer risk. The absence of association in those with the longest duration of diabetes may reflect hypoinsulinemia and warrants further investigation.
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6.
  • Gonzalez, C. A., et al. (författare)
  • Helicobacter pylori infection assessed by ELISA and by immunoblot and noncardia gastric cancer risk in a prospective study: the Eurgast-EPIC project
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - Oxford University Press. - 1569-8041. ; 23:5, s. 1320-1324
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In epidemiological studies, Helicobacter pylori infection is usually detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, infection can spontaneously clear from the mucosa during the progression of atrophy and could lead to substantial under-detection of infection and underestimation of its effect on gastric cancer (GC) risk. Antibodies detected by western blot are known to persist longer after the loss of the infection. In a nested case-control study from the Eurogast-EPIC cohort, including 88 noncardia GC cases and 338 controls, we assessed the association between noncardia GC and H. pylori infection comparing antibodies detected by western blot (HELICOBLOT2.1) to those detected by ELISA (Pyloriset EIA-GIII((R))). By immunoblot, 82 cases (93.2%) were H. pylori positive, 10 of these cases (11.4%) were negative by ELISA and only 6 cases (6.8%) were negative by both ELISA and immunoblot. Multivariable odds ratio (OR) for noncardia GC comparing immunoglobulin G positive versus negative by ELISA was 6.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-15.1], and by immunoblot, the OR was 21.4 (95% CI 7.1-64.4). Using a western blot assay, nearly all noncardia GC were classified as H. pylori positive and the OR was more than threefold higher than the OR assessed by ELISA, supporting the hypothesis that H. pylori infection is a necessary condition for noncardia GC.
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7.
  • Key, T J, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of 13 studies
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1532-1827. ; 105:5, s. 709-722
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone concentrations in more than 6000 postmenopausal women controls in 13 prospective studies. RESULTS: Concentrations of all hormones were lower in older than younger women, with the largest difference for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was higher in the older women. Androgens were lower in women with bilateral ovariectomy than in naturally postmenopausal women, with the largest difference for free testosterone. All hormones were higher in obese than lean women, with the largest difference for free oestradiol, whereas SHBG was lower in obese women. Smokers of 15+ cigarettes per day had higher levels of all hormones than non-smokers, with the largest difference for testosterone. Drinkers of 20+ g alcohol per day had higher levels of all hormones, but lower SHBG, than non-drinkers, with the largest difference for DHEAS. Hormone concentrations were not strongly related to age at menarche, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy or family history of breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Sex hormone concentrations were strongly associated with several established or suspected risk factors for breast cancer, and may mediate the effects of these factors on breast cancer risk. British Journal of Cancer (2011) 105, 709-722. doi:10.1038/bjc.2011.254 www.bjcancer.com Published online 19 July 2011 (C) 2011 Cancer Research UK
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8.
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9.
  • Pischon, T., et al. (författare)
  • General and Abdominal Adiposity and Risk of Death in Europe
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793. ; 359:20, s. 2105-2120
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Previous studies have relied predominantly on the body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) to assess the association of adiposity with the risk of death, but few have examined whether the distribution of body fat contributes to the prediction of death. METHODS We examined the association of BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio with the risk of death among 359,387 participants from nine countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We used a Cox regression analysis, with age as the time variable, and stratified the models according to study center and age at recruitment, with further adjustment for educational level, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and height. RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 9.7 years, 14,723 participants died. The lowest risks of death related to BMI were observed at a BMI of 25.3 for men and 24.3 for women. After adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were strongly associated with the risk of death. Relative risks among men and women in the highest quintile of waist circumference were 2.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80 to 2.33) and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.56 to 2.04), respectively, and in the highest quintile of waist-to-hip ratio, the relative risks were 1.68 (95% CI, 1.53 to 1.84) and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.66), respectively. BMI remained significantly associated with the risk of death in models that included waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that both general adiposity and abdominal adiposity are associated with the risk of death and support the use of waist circumference or waist-tohip ratio in addition to BMI in assessing the risk of death.
10.
  • Tsilidis, K K, et al. (författare)
  • Oral contraceptives, reproductive history and risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1532-1827. ; 103:11, s. 1755-1759
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors may initiate long-term changes to the hormonal milieu and thereby, possibly influence colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We examined the association of hormonal and reproductive factors with risk of colorectal cancer among 337 802 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, of whom 1878 developed colorectal cancer. RESULTS: After stratification for center and age, and adjustment for body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, physical activity and alcohol consumption, ever use of oral contraceptives was marginally inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR), 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-1.02), although this association was stronger among post-menopausal women (HR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.74-0.95). Duration of oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors, including age at menarche, age at menopause, type of menopause, ever having an abortion, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy and breastfeeding, were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide limited support for a potential inverse association between oral contraceptives and colorectal cancer risk. British Journal of Cancer (2010) 103, 1755-1759. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605965 www.bjcancer.com Published online 2 November 2010 (C) 2010 Cancer Research UK
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