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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Pálsson Gunnar Karl) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Pálsson Gunnar Karl)

  • Resultat 1-9 av 9
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  • Dabkowska, A. P., et al. (författare)
  • Temperature responsive lipid liquid crystal layers with embedded nanogels
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Chemical Communications. - : Royal Society of Chemistry. - 1359-7345 .- 1364-548X. ; 53:8, s. 1417-1420
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polymer nanogels are embedded within layers consisting of a nonlamellar liquid crystalline lipid phase to act as thermoresponsive controllers of layer compactness and hydration. As the nanogels change from the swollen to the collapsed state via a temperature trigger, they enable on-demand release of water from the mixed polymer-lipid layer while the lipid matrix remains intact. Combining stimuli-responsive polymers with responsive lipid-based mesophase systems opens up new routes in biomedical applications such as functional biomaterials, bioanalysis and drug delivery.
  • Folkersen, Lasse, et al. (författare)
  • Genomic and drug target evaluation of 90 cardiovascular proteins in 30,931 individuals.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature metabolism. - : Springer Nature. - 2522-5812. ; 2:10, s. 1135-1148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Circulating proteins are vital in human health and disease and are frequently used as biomarkers for clinical decision-making or as targets for pharmacological intervention. Here, we map and replicate protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) for 90 cardiovascular proteins in over 30,000 individuals, resulting in 451 pQTLs for 85 proteins. For each protein, we further perform pathway mapping to obtain trans-pQTL gene and regulatory designations. We substantiate these regulatory findings with orthogonal evidence for trans-pQTLs using mouse knockdown experiments (ABCA1 and TRIB1) and clinical trial results (chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5), with consistent regulation. Finally, we evaluate known drug targets, and suggest new target candidates or repositioning opportunities using Mendelian randomization. This identifies 11 proteins with causal evidence of involvement in human disease that have not previously been targeted, including EGF, IL-16, PAPPA, SPON1, F3, ADM, CASP-8, CHI3L1, CXCL16, GDF15 and MMP-12. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the utility of large-scale mapping of the genetics of the proteome and provide a resource for future precision studies of circulating proteins in human health.
  • Moubah, Reda, et al. (författare)
  • Discrete Layer-by-Layer Magnetic Switching in Fe/MgO(001) Superlattices
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Applied. - : American physical society. - 2331-7019. ; 5:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on a discrete layer-by-layer magnetic switching in Fe/MgO superlattices driven by an antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling. The strong interlayer coupling is mediated by tunneling through MgO layers with thicknesses up to at least 1.8 nm, and the coupling strength varies with MgO thickness. Furthermore, the competition between the interlayer coupling and magnetocrystalline anisotropy stabilizes both 90 degrees and 180 degrees periodic alignment of adjacent layers throughout the entire superlattice. The tunable layer-by-layer switching, coupled with the giant tunneling magnetoresistance of Fe/MgO/Fe junctions, is an appealing combination for three-dimensional spintronic memories and logic devices.
  • Adlmann, Franz A., et al. (författare)
  • Överlåtaren : a fast way to transfer and orthogonalize two-dimensional off-specular reflectivity data
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of applied crystallography. - 0021-8898 .- 1600-5767. ; 49, s. 2091-2099
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reflectivity measurements offer unique opportunities for the study of surfaces and interfaces, and specular reflectometry has become a standard tool in materials science to resolve structures normal to the surface of a thin film. Off-specular scattering, which probes lateral structures, is more difficult to analyse, because the Fourier space being probed is highly anisotropic and the scattering pattern is truncated by the interface. As a result, scattering patterns collected with (especially time-of-flight) neutron reflectometers are difficult to transform into reciprocal space for comparison with model calculations. A program package is presented for a generic two-dimensional transformation of reflectometry data into q space and back. The data are represented on an orthogonal grid, allowing cuts along directions relevant for theoretical modelling. This treatment includes background subtraction as well as a full characterization of the resolution function. The method is optimized for computational performance using repeatable operations and standardized instrument settings.
  • Kapaklis, Vassilios, et al. (författare)
  • Temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity and electronic structure of amorphous Fe100-xZrx films and multilayers
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics. - 0953-8984 .- 1361-648X. ; 24:49, s. 495402-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The electrical resistivity of amorphous Fe100-xZrx metal alloy films and multilayers has been investigated in a wide temperature and composition range. The overall behavior of the resistivity is consistent with bulk measurements, exhibiting prominent semiconductor-like changes at low temperatures. The transition from positive (metallic) to negative temperature coefficient of resistivity behavior is accompanied by minute changes in magnetoresistance and we can therefore rule out magnetic phase changes as being the cause for the observed changes in the resistivity. Using x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies we are able to probe the unoccupied and occupied electronic densities of states. The corresponding spectra are found to significantly overlap, as expected for a metallic-like electronic structure and the absence of a band gap. Besides a broadening of the x-ray emission lines expected from an amorphous material, remarkably small differences are observed in the electronic structures when changing the amount of Zr. The resistivity data were modeled and agreement with the Mott variable range hopping model was found, indicating localized electronic states due the disordered structure of the Fe100-xZrx alloys.
  • Lischner, Johannes, et al. (författare)
  • Accurate determination of the valence band edge in hard x-ray photoemission spectra using GW theory
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics. - 0021-8979 .- 1089-7550. ; 119:16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We introduce a new method for determining accurate values of the valence-band maximum in x-ray photoemission spectra. Specifically, we align the sharpest peak in the valence-band region of the experimental spectrum with the corresponding feature of a theoretical valence-band density of states curve from ab initio GW theory calculations. This method is particularly useful for soft and hard x-ray photoemission studies of materials with a mixture of valence-band characters, where strong matrix element effects can render standard methods for extracting the valence-band maximum unreliable. We apply our method to hydrogen-terminated boron-doped diamond, which is a promising substrate material for novel solar cell devices. By carrying out photoemission experiments with variable light polarizations, we verify the accuracy of our analysis and the general validity of the method. Published by AIP Publishing.
  • Marinova, Maya, et al. (författare)
  • Depth Profiling Charge Accumulation from a Ferroelectric into a Doped Mott Insulator
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nano letters (Print). - 1530-6984 .- 1530-6992. ; 15:4, s. 2533-2541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The electric field control of functional properties is a crucial goal in oxide-based electronics. Nonvolatile switching between different resistivity or magnetic states in an oxide channel can be achieved through charge accumulation or depletion from an adjacent ferroelectric. However, the way in which charge distributes near the interface between the ferroelectric and the oxide remains poorly known, which limits our understanding of such switching effects. Here, we use a first-of-a-kind combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron energy loss spectroscopy, near-total-reflection hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and ab initio theory to address this issue. We achieve a direct, quantitative, atomic-scale characterization of the polarization-induced charge density changes at the interface between the ferroelectric BiFeO3 and the doped Mott insulator Ca1-xCexMnO3, thus providing insight on how interface-engineering can enhance these switching effects.
  • Pálsson, Gunnar Karl (författare)
  • Influence of Self-trapping, Clamping and Confinement on Hydrogen Absorption
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The dissociation of hydrogen molecules at surfaces is the first step in the absorption process. If the absorbing material is covered by an oxide, this layer will determine the effective uptake rate of an underlying absorbing material. This effect is illustrated when determining the rate of transport of hydrogen through amorphous aluminium oxide layers. The transport rate was determined to be strongly thickness dependent. Hydrogen absorbed in a transition metal causes a volume expansion generated by a strain field around the absorbed hydrogen. This strain field causes a self-trapping of the hydrogen and a temperature dependent distribution in the atomic distances. The local strain field generated by the self-trapping process is found to be crucial for understanding both the hydrogen induced volume expansion as well as the diffusion of hydrogen. Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations were used to reveal the temperature dependence of the unbinding of the hydrogen and the local strain field and its influence on the diffusion rate. The symmetry of the local strain field is also important for phase formation in metallic films and superlattices which are clamped to a substrate. As the thicknesses reduced from 50 to 10 nm thick vanadium films, substantial finite size effects become apparent in the phase diagrams. The volume change associated with the strain field cannot be accurately measured using x-ray diffraction because of its sensitivity to local arrangements of atoms. X-ray and neutron reflectivity were found to be more reliable probes of global effects of the sumof the local strainfields. Finite size effects in extremely thin V layers were also explored in metallic superlattices composed of iron and vanadium. The co-existence region, composed of a hydrogen gas and a solid-like phase, was found to be suppressed by at least 100 K to below 300 K. The hydrogen-hydrogen interaction can also be influenced by the electronic states in the non hydrogen absorbing layers, as demonstrated when comparing hydrogen absorption in Fe/V and Cr/V superlattices.  
  • Xin, Xiao, et al. (författare)
  • Finite-Size Effects : Hydrogen in Fe/V(001) Superlattices
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 113:4, s. 046103-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigate the effect of finite size on phase boundaries of hydride formation in ultrathin metallic films, using Fe/V(001) superlattices as a model system. The critical temperature is determined to scale linearly with the inverse thickness of the V layers. The decrease of the ordering temperature with decreasing layer thickness arises from the missing H neighbors at the interfaces, analogous to observed finite-size effects in magnetic layers and nanosized ice crystals.
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  • Resultat 1-9 av 9

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