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1.
  • Nordin, Erik Z., et al. (författare)
  • Influence of ozone initiated processing on the toxicity of aerosol particles from small scale wood combustion
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - : Elsevier. - 1352-2310 .- 1873-2844. ; 102, s. 282-289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Black carbon containing emissions from biomass combustion are being transformed in the atmosphere upon processing induced by tropospheric ozone and UV. The knowledge today is very limited on how atmospheric processing affects the toxicological properties of the emissions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ozone initiated (dark) atmospheric processing on the physicochemical and toxicological properties of particulate emissions from wood combustion. Emissions from a conventional wood stove operated at two combustion conditions (nominal and hot air starved) were diluted and transferred to a chamber. Particulate matter (PM) was collected before and after ozone addition to the chamber using an impactor. Detailed chemical and physical characterization was performed on chamber air and collected PM. The collected PM was investigated toxicologically in vitro with a mouse macrophage model, endpoints included: cell cycle analysis, viability, inflammation and genotoxicity. The results suggest that changes in the organic fraction, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the main driver for differences in obtained toxicological effects. Fresh hot air starved emissions containing a higher organic and PAH mass-fraction affected cell viability stronger than fresh emissions from nominal combustion. The PAH mass fractions decreased upon aging due to chemical degradation. Dark aging increased genotoxicity, reduced viability and reduced release of inflammatory markers. These differences were statistically significant for single doses and typically less pronounced. We hypothesize that the alterations in toxicity upon simulated dark aging in the atmosphere may be caused by reaction products that form when PAHs and other organic compounds react with ozone and nitrate radicals.
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2.
  • Svensson, C. R., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of an air–liquid interface toxicological set-up using Cu, Pd, and Ag well-characterized nanostructured aggregates and spheres
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of nanoparticle research. - : Springer Netherlands. - 1388-0764 .- 1572-896X. ; 18:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systems for studying the toxicity of metal aggregates on the airways are normally not suited for evaluating the effects of individual particle characteristics. This study validates a set-up for toxicological studies of metal aggregates using an air–liquid interface approach. The set-up used a spark discharge generator capable of generating aerosol metal aggregate particles and sintered near spheres. The set-up also contained an exposure chamber, The Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity (NACIVT). The system facilitates online characterization capabilities of mass mobility, mass concentration, and number size distribution to determine the exposure. By dilution, the desired exposure level was controlled. Primary and cancerous airway cells were exposed to copper (Cu), palladium (Pd), and silver (Ag) aggregates, 50–150 nm in median diameter. The aggregates were composed of primary particles <10 nm in diameter. For Cu and Pd, an exposure of sintered aerosol particles was also produced. The doses of the particles were expressed as particle numbers, masses, and surface areas. For the Cu, Pd, and Ag aerosol particles, a range of mass surface concentrations on the air–liquid interface of 0.4–10.7, 0.9–46.6, and 0.1–1.4 µg/cm2, respectively, were achieved. Viability was measured by WST-1 assay, cytokines (Il-6, Il-8, TNF-a, MCP) by Luminex technology. Statistically significant effects and dose response on cytokine expression were observed for SAEC cells after exposure to Cu, Pd, or Ag particles. Also, a positive dose response was observed for SAEC viability after Cu exposure. For A549 cells, statistically significant effects on viability were observed after exposure to Cu and Pd particles. The set-up produced a stable flow of aerosol particles with an exposure and dose expressed in terms of number, mass, and surface area. Exposure-related effects on the airway cellular models could be asserted.
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3.
  • Yli-Juuti, Taina, et al. (författare)
  • Volatility of Organic Aerosol: Evaporation of Ammonium Sulfate/Succinic Acid Aqueous Solution Droplets
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science & Technology. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1520-5851 .- 0013-936X. ; 47:21, s. 12123-12130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol.
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4.
  • Bilde, M., et al. (författare)
  • Saturation Vapor Pressures and Transition Enthalpies of Low-Volatility Organic Molecules of Atmospheric Relevance: From Dicarboxylic Acids to Complex Mixtures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Chemical Reviews. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0009-2665 .- 1520-6890. ; 115:10, s. 4115-4156
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There are a number of techniques that can be used that differ in terms of whether they fundamentally probe the equilibrium and the temperature range over which they can be applied. The series of homologous, straight-chain dicarboxylic acids have received much attention over the past decade given their atmospheric relevance, commercial availability, and low saturation vapor pressures, thus making them ideal test compounds. Uncertainties in the solid-state saturation vapor pressures obtained from individual methodologies are typically on the order of 50-100%, but the differences between saturation vapor pressures obtained with different methods are approximately 1-4 orders of magnitude, with the spread tending to increase as the saturation vapor pressure decreases. Some of the dicarboxylic acids can exist with multiple solid-state structures that have distinct saturation vapor pressures. Furthermore, the samples on which measurements are performed may actually exist as amorphous subcooled liquids rather than solid crystalline compounds, again with consequences for the measured saturation vapor pressures, since the subcooled liquid phase will have a higher saturation vapor pressure than the crystalline solid phase. Compounds with equilibrium vapor pressures in this range will exhibit the greatest sensitivities in terms of their gas to particle partitioning to uncertainties in their saturation vapor pressures, with consequent impacts on the ability of explicit and semiexplicit chemical models to simulate secondary organic aerosol formation.
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5.
  • Dierschke, K., et al. (författare)
  • Acute respiratory effects and biomarkers of inflammation due to welding-derived nanoparticle aggregates
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. - : Springer. - 0340-0131 .- 1432-1246. ; 90:5, s. 451-463
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Welders are exposed to airborne particles from the welding environment and often develop symptoms work-related from the airways. A large fraction of the particles from welding are in the nano-size range. In this study we investigate if the welders' airways are affected by exposure to particles derived from gas metal arc welding in mild steel in levels corresponding to a normal welding day. In an exposure chamber, 11 welders with and 10 welders without work-related symptoms from the lower airways and 11 non-welders without symptoms, were exposed to welding fumes (1 mg/m(3)) and to filtered air, respectively, in a double-blind manner. Symptoms from eyes and upper and lower airways and lung function were registered. Blood and nasal lavage (NL) were sampled before, immediately after and the morning after exposure for analysis of markers of oxidative stress. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) for analysis of leukotriene B4 (LT-B4) was sampled before, during and immediately after exposure. No adverse effects of welding exposure were found regarding symptoms and lung function. However, EBC LT-B4 decreased significantly in all participants after welding exposure compared to filtered air. NL IL-6 increased immediately after exposure in the two non-symptomatic groups and blood neutrophils tended to increase in the symptomatic welder group. The morning after, neutrophils and serum IL-8 had decreased in all three groups after welding exposure. Remarkably, the symptomatic welder group had a tenfold higher level of EBC LT-B4 compared to the two groups without symptoms. Despite no clinical adverse effects at welding, changes in inflammatory markers may indicate subclinical effects even at exposure below the present Swedish threshold limit (8 h TWA respirable dust).
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6.
  • Eriksson, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Particulate PAH Emissions from Residential Biomass Combustion: Time-Resolved Analysis with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science & Technology. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1520-5851 .- 0013-936X. ; 48:12, s. 7143-7150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Time-resolved emissions of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total organic particulate matter (OA) from a wood log stove and an adjusted pellet stove were investigated with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (ANIS). The highest OA emissions were found during the addition of log wood on glowing embers, that is, slow burning pyrolysis conditions. These emissions contained about 1% PAHs (of OA). The highest PAH emissions were found during fast burning under hot air starved combustion conditions, in both stoves. In the latter case, PAHs contributed up to 40% of OA, likely due to thermal degradation of other condensable species. The distribution of PAHs was also shifted toward larger molecules in these emissions. ANIS signals attributed to PAHs were found at molecular weights up to 600 Da. The vacuum aerodynamic size distribution was found to be bimodal with a smaller mode (D-va similar to 200 nm) dominating under hot air starved combustion and a larger sized mode dominating under slow burning pyrolysis (D-va similar to 600 nm). Simultaneous reduction of PAHs, OA and total particulate matter from residential biomass combustion may prove to be a challenge for environmental legislation efforts as these classes of emissions are elevated at different combustion conditions.
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7.
  • Hagerman, Inger, et al. (författare)
  • Effects on heart rate variability by artificially generated indoor nano-sized particles in a chamber study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - : Elsevier. - 1352-2310. ; 88, s. 165-171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Airborne particles are associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in polluted areas. There is a growing interest in nano-sized particles with diameter < 100 nm and their potential health effects. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive method for cardiovascular risk prediction in high prevalent groups. Aim of study: The aim was to evaluate the impact of nano-sized indoor air particles on HRV for healthy and adult females. Methods: All exposures were performed as controlled chamber experiments with particle exposure from burning candles, terpene + ozone reactions or filtered air in a double-blind cross over design. Twenty-two healthy females were investigated during 10 min periods at different exposures and the reactivity in high frequency (HF) spectral band of HRV were computed. Results: Heart rate was unchanged from baseline values in all groups during all experimental settings. HF power of HRV tended to increase during exposure to particles from burning candle while particles from terpene + ozone reactions tended to decrease HF power. Conclusions: Exposure to nano-sized particles of burning candles or terpene + ozone reactions results in different patterns of heart rate variability, with signs of altered autonomic cardiovascular control. Practical implications: This study indicates that the HRV method may be used for information on physiological responses of exposure to different nano-sized particles and contribute to the understanding of mechanisms behind health effects of particle exposures. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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8.
  • Isaxon, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • A Novel System for Source Characterization and Controlled Human Exposure to Nanoparticle Aggregates Generated During Gas–Metal Arc Welding
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Aerosol Science and Technology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1521-7388 .- 0278-6826. ; 47:1, s. 52-59
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract in Undetermined The aim of this study was to achieve a method to perform detailed characterization and human exposure studies of nanosized and nanostructured aerosol particles. The source chosen was mild steel, active gas, arc welding fume. The setup consisted of a generation chamber, where welding can be performed, connected to an airtight stainless steel 22 m(3) exposure chamber. Instrumentation, consisting of a tapered element oscillating microbalance, a scanning mobility particle sizer, and a sampler for electron microscopy and particle-induced X-ray emission analysis was connected to the stainless steel chamber. The feasibility of the system for human exposure studies was evaluated by exposing 31 human volunteers, in groups of three, to a test aerosol containing 1 mg/m(3) welding fumes and to conditioned, filtered air. The results show that an aerosol that accurately represents dilute welding fume exposures that occur in workplaces can be produced in a controlled manner, and that the experimental setup can be used for 6 h, double-blind, exposures of human subjects. Particle mass concentration levels could be varied from <5 mu g/m(3) to more than 1000 mu g/m(3). Fumes from metal active gas welding showed a unimodal size distribution with a mean mobility diameter of 160 nm, transmission electron microscopy showed aggregates with a clearly nanosized structure.
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9.
  • Isaxon, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Realistic indoor nano-aerosols for a human exposure facility
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Aerosol Science. - : Elsevier. - 0021-8502. ; 60, s. 55-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to achieve realistic levels of two different types of aerosols commonly abundant in indoor environments in an experimental chamber intended for human exposure studies and aerosol characterization. The aerosols chosen were particles from candle lights (in particle number dominated by inorganic water soluble particles) and from ozone-terpene reactions (organic particles). The aerosol generation and characterization system consisted of a controlled air tight stainless steel 22 m(3) chamber, to which the generation set-ups were connected. No air could enter or leave the chamber except through a conditioning system by which temperature, relative humidity and air exchange rate could be controlled. Candle smoke aerosol was generated from ten candles burning in a 1.33 m(3) glass and stainless steel chamber. The aerosol was diluted by clean air from the conditioning system before entering the chamber. Terpene vapor was generated by passing pure nitrogen through a glass bottle containing limonene oil. Ozone was generated by a spark discharge using pure O-2, and was added to the ventilation air flow downstream the inlet for terpene vapors and upstream the inlet to the chamber. Both aerosols were characterized with respect to number and mass concentrations, size distribution and chemical composition. Particle number concentration in the size range 10-650 nm could be varied from <10 cm(-3) to more than 900,000 cm(-3) (for candle smoke) or to more than 30,000 cm(-3) (for particles formed in a 160 ppb terpene/40 ppb ozone mixture). Furthermore, the set-ups were evaluated by, for each source, repeating the generation at six three-hour long events. For both aerosols repeatable generations at pre-determined concentration levels, that were stable over time, could be achieved. The results show that realistic concentrations of aerosols from real-world environments could be reproduced in a well-controlled manner and that this set-up could be used both for aerosol characterization and for human exposures. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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10.
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