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1.
  • Brudin, L., et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of two commonly used reference materials for exercise bicycle tests with a Swedish clinical database of patients with normal outcome
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. - Wiley Online Library. - 1475-0961. ; 34:4, s. 297-307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Reference values for working capacity, blood pressure, heart rate, perceived exertion, etc. during bicycle exercise tests have been sought after for many years. This is because earlier commonly used reference values for physical work capacity have been either too low or too high when compared to the clinical experience of several Swedish departments of clinical physiology. The aim of the study was to compare two commonly used reference materials with normal outcomes from a clinical database. Methods: Data from a clinical database of standardized exercise tests in Kalmar, Sweden, between 2004 and 2012, and having been judged as normal, were divided into 5-year categories of 5-10 to 75-80 years of age covering people from 7 to 80 years of age. Results: Maximal working capacity (W-max), maximal heart rate, maximal systolic blood pressure and maximal perceived exertion are presented for each of the 15 age categories. Regression equations are also presented for each sex with age and height as independent predictors. Quantitative comparisons of W-max are calculated for the three materials and possible explanations discussed. Conclusions: Values of W-max lie between the two reference materials most commonly used in Sweden. In addition, the present material covers subjects aged 7-19 years.
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3.
  • Pahlm, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of teaching the basic electrocardiographic concept of frontal plane QRS axis using the classical versus the orderly electrocardiogram limb lead displays
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - Mosby. - 1097-6744. ; 134:6, s. 1014-1018
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study compares the effectiveness of teaching the calculation of frontal plane QRS axis with the use of the classical versus the orderly electrocardiographic limb lead display. Eighty-three students from two environments were randomized into two groups and were taught to determine frontal plane axis with one of the methods. The accuracy and time to determine the axis were tested on 10 electrocardiograms. In the United States the group using the classical display achieved 4.2 (+/-2.7) correct answers, whereas those using the orderly method achieved 6.8 (+/-3.0) (p = 0.0006). The classical group used 9.2 (+/-2.8) minutes to complete the test, whereas the orderly group needed 7.2 (+/-2.0) minutes (p = 0.015). The results achieved in Sweden were similar. The use of the orderly electrocardiographic limb lead display results in greater diagnostic accuracy in less time than the classical display when determining the frontal plane QRS axis.
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4.
  • Pahlm, U S, et al. (författare)
  • The standard 11-lead ECG. Neglect of lead aVR in the classical limb lead display
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Journal of Electrocardiology. - Elsevier. - 1532-8430. ; 29 Suppl, s. 270-274
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigates how the format of limb lead display influences electrocardiographic (ECG) interpretation. The positive aspect of lead aVR (included in the classical display) is directed opposite to that of the other leads. This could lead to an ECG interpreter's disregard of lead aVR, thus providing a "standard 11-lead ECG." It is hypothesized that when using the classical limb lead display, ECG interpreters often ignore lead aVR, even when considering complex ECGs. Thirty-five of the participants attending this International Society of Computerized Electrocardiology meeting were asked to interpret five complex ECGs, displayed in the classical format. Lead aVR had been replaced by lead -aVR on all of these recordings. Second, the participants were asked if they (1) used all 12 leads, (2) used lead aVR, and (3) noticed that lead aVR had been changed. The results indicate that a vast majority of interpreters (80-94%) did not detect when lead aVR had been reversed. This suggests that interpreters only use 11 of the standard leads when presented with the classical display method to evaluate clinical problems.
5.
  • Pahlm, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • The 24-lead ECG display for enhanced recognition of STEMI-equivalent patterns in the 12-lead ECG.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Electrocardiology. - Elsevier. - 1532-8430. ; 47:4, s. 425-429
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a patient with chest pain and suspected acute coronary syndrome, the electrocardiogram (ECG) is the only readily available diagnostic tool. It is important to maximize its usefulness to detect acute myocardial ischemia that may evolve to myocardial infarction unless the patient is treated expediently with reperfusion therapy. Since diagnostic guidelines have usually included only ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as the entity that should be diagnosed and treated urgently, a patient with coronary occlusion represented on ECG as ST depression is likely not to be considered a candidate for receiving immediate coronary angiography and coronary intervention. ECG criteria for STEMI detection require that ST elevation meet predetermined millivolt thresholds and appear in at least two spatially contiguous ECG leads. The typical ECG reader recognizes only three contiguous pairs: aVL and I; II and aVF; aVF and III. However, viewing the "orderly sequenced" 12-lead ECG display, two more contiguous pairs become obvious in the frontal plane: +I and -aVR; -aVR and +II. The 24-lead ECG is a display of the standard 12-lead ECG as both the classical positive leads and their negative (inverted) counterparts. Leads +V1, +V2, +V3, +V4, +V5, and +V6 and their inverted counterparts are used to generate a "clock-face display" for the transverse plane. Similarly, +aVL, +I, -aVR, +II, +aVF, +III in the frontal plane and their inverted counterparts are used to generate a clock-face display for the frontal plane. Optimum results, 78% sensitivity and 93% specificity, were obtained using the following 19 ECG leads: frontal plane: +aVR, -III, +aVL, +I, -aVR, +II, +aVF, +III, -aVL; transverse plane: +V1, +V2, +V3, +V4, +V5, +V6, -V1, -V2, -V3.
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7.
  • Perron, Annick, et al. (författare)
  • Maximal increase in sensitivity with minimal loss of specificity for diagnosis of acute coronary occlusion achieved by sequentially adding leads from the 24-lead electrocardiogram to the orderly sequenced 12-lead electrocardiogram
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Electrocardiology. - Elsevier. - 1532-8430. ; 40:6, s. 463-469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: This study investigates whether sequential addition of inverted, (negative) leads from the 24-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) to the orderly sequenced 12-lead ECG would identify a number of leads with which the sensitivity for diagnosis of acute transmural ischemia is significantly increased with minimal loss of specificity. Background: Acute transmural ischemia due to thrombotic coronary occlusion typically progresses to infarction. Its recognition is based on currently accepted ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) criteria with suboptimal sensitivity, which could be potentially increased by consideration of the principle that each of the 12 ECG leads can be inverted to provide an additional lead with the opposite (180 degrees) orientation, generating a 24-lead ECG. Methods: The study population included 162 patients who underwent prolonged coronary occlusion during elective percutaneoas transluminal coronary angioplasty. Balloon occlusion was performed in the left anterior descending coronary artery (51 patients), in the right coronary artery (67 patients), or in the left circumflex coronary artery (44 patients). To be classified as indicative of the epicardial injury current of acute ischemia, the ECGs had to fulfill either the criteria of a consensus document from the American College of Cardiology or the European Society of Cardiology or thresholds for the inverted leads based on a population study from Scotland. Results: The addition of -V1, -V2, -V3, -aVL, -I, aVR, and -III increased sensitivity from 61% to 78% (P <= .01) and decreased specificity from 96% to 93% (P = .06). Conclusions: Addition of 7 leads from the 24-lead ECG, thus creating a 19-lead ECG, was found optimal for attaining high sensitivity while retaining high specificity when compared with the performance of the standard 12-lead ECG. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Wagner, Galen S, et al. (författare)
  • Use of the 24-lead "standard" electrocardiogram to identify the site of acute coronary occlusion
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Electrocardiology. - Elsevier. - 1532-8430. ; 41:3, s. 238-244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This review presents the added value for diagnosis of acute ischemia/infarction of considering ST elevation in the 12 inverted leads (-I, -II, -II, -aVR, etc) of the standard electrocardiogram in addition to ST elevation in 12 positive leads. A small number of studies have been published showing substantial increases in sensitivity at the "cost of' slight decreases in specificity. One recent study indicated that only 7 of the inverted leads should be considered, yielding a "19-lead electrocardiogram" encompassing the following leads (presented here in the logical secquences): -III, aVL, I, -aVR, II, aVF, III, -aVL, -I, aVR; and V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, -V1, -V2, -V3. Studies have to be performed to establish the thresholds that should be applied to these leads for achievement of sensitivity/specificity.
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10.
  • Akil, Shahnaz, et al. (författare)
  • Gender aspects on exercise-induced ECG changes in relation to scintigraphic evidence of myocardial ischaemia
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. - Wiley Online Library. - 1475-0961. ; 38:5, s. 798-807
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: This retrospective study aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of exercise-induced ST response in relation to findings by myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS), with focus on gender differences, in patients with suspected or established stable ischemic heart disease. Methods: MPS findings of 1 021 patients (518 females) were related to the exercise-induced ST response alone (blinded and unblinded to gender) and ST response together with additional exercise stress test (EST) variables (exercise capacity, blood pressure and heart rate response). Results: Exercise-induced ischaemia by MPS was found in 9% of females and 23% of males. Diagnostic performance of exercise-induced ST response in relation to MPS findings in females versus males was: sensitivity = 48%,70%; specificity = 67%, 64%; PPV = 13%, 38%; NPV = 93%, 87%. Adding more EST variables to the ST response interpretation yielded in females vs males: sensitivity = 44%, 51%; specificity = 84%, 83%; PPV = 22%, 48% and NPV = 93%, 85%. Conclusions: In patients who have performed EST in conjunction with MPS, there is a gender difference in the diagnostic performance of ST response at stress, with a significantly lower PPV in females compared to males. For both genders, specificity can be significantly improved, and a higher PPV can be obtained, while the sensitivity might be compromised by considering more EST variables, in addition to the ST response.
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