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Sökning: WFRF:(Pakstis AJ)

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  • DeYoung, Colin G., et al. (författare)
  • Variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val(158)Met polymorphism associated with conduct disorder and ADHD symptoms, among adolescent male delinquents
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Psychiatric Genetics. - 0955-8829 .- 1473-5873. ; 20:1, s. 20-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) has been associated with antisocial behavior in populations with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined whether COMT would predict antisocial behavior in a sample with high levels of behavior problems, not necessarily ADHD. In addition, because previous research suggests that COMT may be associated with ADHD in males, association between COMT and ADHD symptoms was examined. Method This study tested whether variation in three polymorphisms of the COMT gene was predictive of symptoms of conduct disorder and ADHD, in a sample of 174 incarcerated Russian adolescent male delinquents. Results The Val allele of the Val(158)Met polymorphism was significantly associated with conduct disorder diagnosis and symptoms, whereas the Met allele was associated with ADHD symptoms. Conclusion The Val(158)Met polymorphism of the COMT gene shows a complex relation to behavior problems, influencing conduct disorder and ADHD symptoms in opposite directions in a high-risk population. Psychiatr Genet 20:20-24 (C) 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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  • Grigorenko, Elena L., et al. (författare)
  • Aggressive Behavior, Related Conduct Problems, and Variation in Genes Affecting Dopamine Turnover
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Aggressive Behavior. - 0096-140X .- 1098-2337. ; 36:3, s. 158-176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A number of dopamine-related genes have been implicated in the etiology of violent behavior and conduct problems. Of these genes, the ones that code for the enzymes that influence the turnover of dopamine (DA) have received the most attention. In this study, we investigated 12 genetic polymorphisms in four genes involved with DA functioning (COMT, MAOA and MAOB, and D beta H in 179 incarcerated male Russian adolescents and two groups of matched controls: boys without criminal records referred to by their teachers as (a) "troubled-behavior-free" boys, n = 182; and (b) "troubled-behavior" boys, n = 60. The participants were classified as (1) being incarcerated or not, (2) having the DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) or not, and (3) having committed violent or nonviolent crimes (for the incarcerated individuals only). The findings indicate that, although no single genetic variant in any of the four genes differentiated individuals in the investigated groups, various linear combinations (i.e., haplotypes) and nonlinear combinations (i.e., interactions between variants within and across genes) of genetic variants resulted in informative and robust classifications for two of the three groupings. These combinations of genetic variants differentiated individuals in incarceration vs. nonincarcerated and CD vs. no-CD groups; no informative combinations were established consistently for the grouping by crime within the incarcerated individuals. This study underscores the importance of considering multiple rather than single markers within candidate genes and their additive and interactive combinations, both with themselves and with nongenetic indicators, while attempting to understand the genetic background of such complex behaviors as serious conduct problems.
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  • Grigorenko, Elena L., et al. (författare)
  • Exploring interactive effects of genes and environments in etiology of individual differences in reading comprehension
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Development and psychopathology (Print). - 0954-5794 .- 1469-2198. ; 19:4, s. 1089-1103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is established that reading and reading-related processes are heritable; genes thus play an important role in the foundation of individual differences in reading. In this article, we focus on one facet of reading-comprehension. Comprehension is a higher order cognitive skill that requires many other cognitive processes for it to unfold completely and successfully. One such process is executive functioning, which has been associated with genetic variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Genotypes and haplotypes of four single nucleotide polymorphisms in COMT were investigated in 179 incarcerated adolescent delinquents. Four hierarchical logistic regression models predicting the presence/absence of comprehension difficulties were fitted to the data; genetic variation in COMT and the presence/absence of maternal rejection were investigated as main effects and as effects acting interactively. Three out of four interaction terms were found to be important predictors of individual differences in comprehension. These findings were supported by the results of the haplotype analyses, in which the four investigated polymorphisms were considered simultaneously.
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