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Sökning: WFRF:(Palm Stefan)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 71
  • [1]234567...8Nästa
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  • Bui, Thuy T., et al. (författare)
  • Estimating uptake of phthalate ester metabolites into the human nail plate using pharmacokinetic modelling
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 100, s. 148-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>There is a lack of knowledge regarding uptake of phthalate esters (PEs) and other chemicals into the human nail plate and thus, clarity concerning the suitability of human nails as a valid alternative matrix for monitoring longterm exposure. In particular, the relative importance of internal uptake of phthalate metabolites (from e.g. blood) compared to external uptake pathways is unknown. This study provides first insights into the partitioning of phthalate-metabolites between blood and nail using pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling and biomonitoring data from a Norwegian cohort. A previously published PK model (Lorber PK model) was used in combination with measured urine data to predict serum concentrations of DEHP and DnBP/DiBP metabolites at steady state. Then, partitioning between blood and nail was assessed assuming equilibrium conditions and treating the nail plate as a tissue, assuming a fixed lipid and water content. Although calculated as a worst-case scenario at equilibrium, the predicted nail concentrations of metabolites were lower than the biomonitoring data by factors of 44 to 1300 depending on the metabolite. It is therefore concluded that internal uptake of phthalate metabolites from blood into nail is a negligible pathway and does not explain the observed nail concentrations. Ingtead, external uptake pathways are more likely to dominate, possibly through deposition of phthalates onto the skin/nail and subsequent metabolism. Modelling gaseous diffusive uptake of PEs from air to nail revealed that this pathway is unlikely to be important. Experimental quantification of internal and external uptake pathways of phthalates and their metabolites into the human nail plate is needed to verify these modelling results. However, based on this model, human nails are not a good indicator of internal human exposure for the phthalate esters studied.</p>
  • Cirino, Glauber, et al. (författare)
  • Observations of Manaus urban plume evolution and interaction with biogenic emissions in GoAmazon 2014/5
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - 1352-2310 .- 1873-2844. ; 191, s. 513-524
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>As part of the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/5) Experiment, detailed aerosol and trace gas measurements were conducted near Manaus, a metropolis located in the central Amazon Basin. Measurements of aerosol particles and trace gases were done downwind Manaus at the sites T2 (Tiwa Hotel) and T3 (Manacapuru), at a distance of 8 and 70 km from Manaus, respectively. Based on in-plume measurements closer to Manaus (site T2), the chemical signatures of city emissions were used to improve the interpretation of pollutant levels at the T3 site. We derived chemical and physical properties for the city's atmospheric emission ensemble, taking into account only air masses impacted by the Manaus plume at both sites, during the wet and dry season Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs). At T2, average concentrations of aerosol number (CN), CO and SO2 were 5500 cm(-3) (between 10 and 490 nm), 145 ppb and 0.60 ppb, respectively, with a typical ratio ACN/ACO of 60-130 particles cm(-3) ppb(-1). The aerosol scattering (at RH &lt; 60%) and absorption at 637 nm at T2 ranged from 10 to 50 M m(-1) and 5-10 M m(-1), respectively, leading to a mean single scattering albedo (SSA) of 0.70. In addition to identifying periods dominated by Manaus emissions at both T2 and T3, the plume transport between the two sampling sites was studied using back trajectory calculations. Results show that the presence of the Manaus plume at site T3 was important mainly during the daytime and at the end of the afternoons. During time periods directly impacted by Manaus emissions, an average aerosol number concentration of 3200 cm(-3) was measured at T3. Analysis of plume evolution between T2 and T3 indicates a transport time of 4-5 h. Changes of submicron organic and sulfate aerosols ratios relative to CO (Delta OA/Delta CO and Delta SO4/Delta CO, respectively) indicate significant production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), corresponding to a 40% mass increase in OA and a 30% in SO4 mass concentration. Similarly, during air mass arrival at T3 the SSA increased to 0.83 from 0.70 at T2, mainly associated with an increase in organic aerosol concentration. Aerosol particle size distributions show a strong decrease in the Aitken nuclei mode (10-100 nm) during the transport from T2 to T3, in particular above 30 nm, as a result of efficient coagulation processes into larger particles. A decrease of 30% in the particle number concentration and an increase of about 50 nm in geometric mean diameter were observed from T2 to T3 sites. The study of the evolution of aerosol properties downwind of the city of Manaus improves our understanding of how coupling of anthropogenic and biogenic sources may be impacting the sensitive Amazonian atmosphere.</p>
  • Dannewitz, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Adaptive divergence in body size overrides the effects of plasticity across natural habitats in the brown trout
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - Wiley Open Access. - 2045-7758. ; 3, s. 1931-1941
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The evolution of life-history traits is characterized by trade-offs between different selection pressures, as well as plasticity across environmental conditions. Yet, studies on local adaptation are often performed under artificial conditions, leaving two issues unexplored: (i) how consistent are laboratory inferred local adaptations under natural conditions and (ii) how much phenotypic variation is attributed to phenotypic plasticity and to adaptive evolution, respectively, across environmental conditions? We reared fish from six locally adapted (domesticated and wild) populations of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in one semi-natural and three natural streams and recorded a key life-history trait (body size at the end of first growth season). We found that population-specific reaction norms were close to parallel across different streams and Q(ST) was similar - and larger than F-ST - within all streams, indicating a consistency of local adaptation in body size across natural environments. The amount of variation explained by population origin exceeded the variation across stream environments, indicating that genetic effects derived from adaptive processes have a stronger effect on phenotypic variation than plasticity induced by environmental conditions. These results suggest that plasticity does not swamp the phenotypic variation, and that selection may thus be efficient in generating genetic change.
  • Dannewitz, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Both predation and feeding opportunities may explain changes in survival of Baltic salmon post-smolts
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: ICES Journal of Marine Science. - Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy B - Oxford Open Option A / Elsevier. - 1054-3139 .- 1095-9289. ; 69, s. 1574-1579
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The survival of wild and hatchery-reared post-smolts of salmon (Salmo salar) in the Baltic Sea has declined since the 1990s. Direct observations of the processes affecting survival are, however, lacking. Here, the importance of food availability and predation in regulating post-smolt survival is analysed. Based on previous studies, the following explanatory variables were selected: (i) availability of herring (Clupea harengus membras) recruits in the Gulf of Bothnia (Bothnian Sea, Bothnian Bay) in the northern Baltic Sea; (ii) sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) and herring abundance in the southern Baltic Sea; and (iii) abundance of grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) along the post-smolt migration route. Bayesian analysis was used to estimate the relative probability of each of the 32 combinations of these variables and revealed that the model including grey seal abundance and herring recruits per post-smolt had the highest posterior probability and a high coefficient of determination. The results suggest that the declining trend in post-smolt survival is explained by the increased number of grey seals, whereas the annual variation in survival coincides with variation in the recruitment of Bothnian Sea herring. However, it remains uncertain whether the observed correlations arise from direct causalities or other mechanisms.
  • Dannewitz, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Genetisk kartläggning av öring i Mjörn
  • 2012
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I sj&ouml;n Mj&ouml;rn, som &auml;r bel&auml;gen i S&auml;ve&aring;ns vattensystem i V&auml;sterg&ouml;tland, f&ouml;rekommer ett best&aring;nd av storvuxen insj&ouml;&ouml;ring som klassats som genuint och skyddsv&auml;rt. &Ouml;ringreproduktion f&ouml;rekommer i flera av sj&ouml;ns tillfl&ouml;den, men f&ouml;rekomsten av storvuxen, sj&ouml;vandrande &ouml;ring har minskat under senare &aring;rtionden. Det s&auml;tts ocks&aring; ut odlad &ouml;ring i Mj&ouml;rn enligt vattendom. Den odlade stam som anv&auml;nds f&ouml;r att producera s&auml;ttfisk till sj&ouml;n grundades 1969 med lekfisk fr&aring;n ett av Mj&ouml;rns viktigare tillfl&ouml;den, och har sedan dess h&aring;llits genetiskt isolerad, d.v.s. inget nytt avelsmaterial har tillf&ouml;rts. Syftet med denna studie var att g&ouml;ra en genetisk kartl&auml;ggning av &ouml;ringen i Mj&ouml;rn, vilket inkluderar identifiering av distinkta lekbest&aring;nd, skattningar av best&aring;ndens genetiskt effektiva storlekar samt ett f&ouml;rs&ouml;k att utreda Mj&ouml;rn&ouml;ringens ursprung genom j&auml;mf&ouml;relser med &ouml;ring fr&aring;n andra omr&aring;den i Sverige. Resultaten visar att Mj&ouml;rns &ouml;ringbest&aring;nd &auml;r sm&aring; med relativt l&aring;g grad av genetisk variation. Den vilda &ouml;ring som idag finns i sj&ouml;ns tillfl&ouml;den bildar en separat och tydlig grupp i analyser som inkluderar &ouml;ring fr&aring;n andra omr&aring;den i Sverige, &auml;ven om subtila likheter med havsvandrande &ouml;ring fr&aring;n v&auml;stkusten framtr&auml;der i vissa analyser. Samtidigt f&ouml;religger tydliga genetiska skillnader inom Mj&ouml;rn vilket indikerar att genfl&ouml;det mellan de olika tillfl&ouml;dena &auml;r begr&auml;nsat. Uts&auml;ttningar av fr&auml;mmande &ouml;ringstammar, samt f&ouml;rflyttningar av &ouml;ring mellan vattendrag som mynnar i Mj&ouml;rn b&ouml;r d&auml;rf&ouml;r undvikas. Den odlade stammen avviker markant fr&aring;n den vilda &ouml;ringen i sj&ouml;n, och p&aring;minner genetiskt sett mest om &ouml;ring fr&aring;n Gullsp&aring;ngs&auml;lven i V&auml;nern. I kombination med uppgifter om tidigare uts&auml;ttningar pekar de genetiska resultaten p&aring; att den lekfisk som anv&auml;ndes f&ouml;r att starta upp den odlade stammen i &Aring;landa sannolikt hade ett stort inslag av Gullsp&aring;ngs&ouml;ring som tidigare satts ut i sj&ouml;n. Bevarandev&auml;rdet p&aring; den odlade stammen kan d&auml;rf&ouml;r ifr&aring;gas&auml;ttas. Det finns dock alternativa, om &auml;n mindre sannolika, f&ouml;rklaringar till de observerade resultaten som inte helt kan uteslutas och b&ouml;r utredas vidare.
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