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1.
  • von Kraemer, Sophie, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of TiO2 as catalyst support in Pt-TiO2/C composite cathodes for the proton exchange membrane fuel cell
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Power Sources. - 0378-7753 .- 1873-2755. ; 180:1, s. 185-190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anatase TiO2 is evaluated as catalyst support material in authentic Pt-TiO2/C composite gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs), as a different approach in the context of improving the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathode stability. A thermal stability study shows high carbon stability as Pt nanoparticles are supported on TiO2 instead of carbon in the Pt-TiO2/C composite material, presumably due to a reduced direct contact between Pt and C. The performance of Pt-TiO2/C cathodes is investigated electrochemically in assembled membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) considering the added carbon fraction and Pt concentration deposited on TiO2. The O-2 reduction current for the Pt-TiO2 alone is expectedly low due to the low electronic conductivity in bulk TiO2. However, the Pt-TiO2/C composite cathodes show enhanced fuel cell cathode performance with growing carbon fraction and increasing Pt concentration deposited on TiO2. The proposed reasons for these observations are improved macroscopic and local electronic conductivity, respectively. Electron micrographs of fuel cell tested Pt-TiO2/C composite cathodes illustrate only a minor Pt migration in the Pt-TiO2/C structure, in which anatase TiO2 is used as Pt support. On the whole, the study demonstrates a stable Pt-TiO2/C Composite material possessing a performance comparable to conventional Pt-C materials when incorporated in a PEMFC cathode.
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2.
  • Calcagno, Giulio, 1990, et al. (författare)
  • Understanding the Operating Mechanism of Aqueous Pentyl Viologen/Bromide Redox-Enhanced Electrochemical Capacitors with Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Electrodes
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. - 1944-8252 .- 1944-8244. ; In Press
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Compared to traditional electric double-layer capacitors, redox-enhanced electrochemical capacitors (redox-ECs) show increased energy density and steadier power output thanks to the use of redox-active electrolytes. The aim of this study is to understand the electrochemical mechanisms of the aqueous pentyl viologen/bromide dual redox system at the interface of an ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-8) and improve the device performance. Cells with CMK-8 carbon electrodes were investigated in several configurations using different charging rates and potential windows. The pentyl viologen electrochemistry shows a mixed behavior between solution-based diffusion and adsorption phenomena, with the reversible formation of an adsorbed layer. The extension of the voltage window allows for full reduction of the viologen molecules during charge and a consequent increase in the specific discharge energy delivered by the cell. Investigation of the mechanism indicates that a 1.5 V charging voltage with a 0.5 A g-1 charging rate and fast discharge rate produces the best overall performance.
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3.
  • Carlsson, Per-Anders, 1972, et al. (författare)
  • A transient in situ FTIR and XANES study of CO oxidation over Pt/Al2O3 catalysts
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Catalysis. - 0021-9517 .- 1090-2694. ; 226:2, s. 422-434
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report experimental results for the oxidation of CO over supported Pt/Al2O3 catalysts operating in oxygen excess at atmospheric pressure. To study the reaction kinetics under transient conditions we have employed step changes of the O2 concentration by intermittently switching off the O2 supply at various temperatures ranging from 523 to 623 K. Detailed in situ FTIR and XANES data for CO coverage and the chemical state of Pt, respectively, are presented together with the CO conversion, which in both cases was monitored by mass spectrometry. A red-shift of the vibrational frequency of linearly bonded CO which correlates with a blue-shift of the Pt LIII binding energy indicates that the Pt catalyst initially is partially oxidised and gradually reduced when the O2 supply is switched off. Control experiments with a NO2 oxidised Pt/Al2O3 catalyst support these findings. A hysteresis in the catalytic activity due to the different rates whereby Pt is oxidised and reduced as a function of gas-phase composition is observed. The activation energy for the Pt oxide reduction (decomposition) process is estimated to be about 50 kJ/mol. The results further emphasise that the conventional three-step Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) scheme used to interpret CO oxidation on Pt surfaces must be complemented by a Pt oxidation and reduction mechanism during transient conditions. Moreover, FTIR data suggest that during the extinction, the partially oxidised platinum surface is reduced by chemisorbed CO which should be explicitly accounted for in the modeling of the reaction mechanism.
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4.
  • Cavallo, Carmen, 1986, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of the Niobium Doping Concentration on the Charge Storage Mechanism of Mesoporous Anatase Beads as an Anode for High-Rate Li-Ion Batteries
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: ACS Applied Energy Materials. - : AMER CHEMICAL SOC. - 2574-0962. ; 4:1, s. 215-225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A promising strategy to improve the rate performance of Li-ion batteries is to enhance and facilitate the insertion of Li ions into nanostructured oxides like TiO2. In this work, we present a systematic study of pentavalent-doped anatase TiO2 materials for third-generation high-rate Li-ion batteries. Mesoporous niobium-doped anatase beads (Nb-doped TiO2) with different Nb5+ doping (n-type) concentrations (0.1, 1.0, and 10% at.) were synthesized via an improved template approach followed by hydrothermal treatment. The formation of intrinsic n-type defects and oxygen vacancies under RT conditions gives rise to a metallic-type conduction due to a shift of the Fermi energy level. The increase in the metallic character, confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, enhances the performance of the anatase bead electrodes in terms of rate capability and provides higher capacities both at low and fast charging rates. The experimental data were supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations showing how a different n-type doping can be correlated to the same electrochemical effect on the final device. The Nb-doped TiO2 electrode materials exhibit an improved cycling stability at all the doping concentrations by overcoming the capacity fade shown in the case of pure TiO2 beads. The 0.1% Nb-doped TiO2-based electrodes exhibit the highest reversible capacities of 180 mAh g-1 at 1C (330 mA g-1) after 500 cycles and 110 mAh g-1 at 10C (3300 mA g-1) after 1000 cycles. Our experimental and computational results highlight the possibility of using n-type doped TiO2 materials as anodes in high-rate Li-ion batteries.
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5.
  • Esseen, Per-Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Broad-scale distribution of epiphytic hair lichens correlates more with climate and nitrogen deposition than with forest structure
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Forest Research. - : NRC Research Press. - 0045-5067 .- 1208-6037. ; 46:11, s. 1348-1358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hair lichens are strongly influenced by forest structure at local scales, but their broad-scale distributions are less understood. We compared the occurrence and length of Alectoria sarmentosa (Ach.) Ach., Bryoria spp., and Usnea spp. in the lower canopy of > 5000 Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees within the National Forest Inventory across all productive forest in Sweden. We used logistic regression to analyse how climate, nitrogen deposition, and forest variables influence lichen occurrence. Distributions overlapped, but the distribution of Bryoria was more northern and that of Usnea was more southern, with Alectoria's distribution being intermediate. Lichen length increased towards northern regions, indicating better conditions for biomass accumulation. Logistic regression models had the highest pseudo R-2 value for Bryoria, followed by Alectoria. Temperature and nitrogen deposition had higher explanatory power than precipitation and forest variables. Multiple logistic regressions suggest that lichen genera respond differently to increases in several variables. Warming decreased the odds for Bryoria occurrence at all temperatures. Corresponding odds for Alectoria and Usnea decreased in warmer climates, but in colder climates, they increased. Nitrogen addition decreased the odds for Alectoria and Usnea occurrence under high deposition, but under low deposition, the odds increased. Our analyses suggest major shifts in the broad-scale distribution of hair lichens with changes in climate, nitrogen deposition, and forest management.
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6.
  • Kiselev, A., et al. (författare)
  • Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of diisopropyl fluorophosphate and dimethyl methylphosphonate over dry and wet rutile TiO2
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A. - : Elsevier B.V.. - 1010-6030 .- 1873-2666. ; 184:1-2, s. 125-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nanosized, crystalline rutile TiO2 was synthesized at room temperature using a microemulsion-mediated system followed by hydrothermal treatment. The formed rutile had a specific surface area of about 40 m(2) g(-1) and the rutile crystals had dimensions of about 10 nm x 150 nm, which aggregated into 200-1000nm sized bundles. The adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) over these rutile TiO2 nanoparticles in dry and wet synthetic air was investigated by in situ diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DRIFT) spectroscopy during simulated solar light illumination. The methyl and isopropyl groups do not dissociate upon adsorption on either dry or humidified rutile nanoparticles. The F atom in DFP is, however, easily hydrolyzed and is readily dissociated upon interaction with hydroxyls on the TiO2 surfaces and leads to a destabilization of the DFP molecule. The initial solar light induced photodegradation rate for DFP and DMMP is 5.9 x 10(-4) and 1.0 x 10(-4) s(-1) in dry conditions and 8.1 x 10(-4) and 0.7 x 10(-4) s(-1) in wet conditions (corresponding to 2-3 monolayers (ML) water coverage), respectively. The main intermediate partial oxidation surface products are found to be surface bound formate-carboxylate-carbonate (R-COO-) and phosphate (R-POO-) species. Among them eta(1)-coordinated acetone and mu-formate, bicarbonate, and bidentate R-POO- moieties are detected. These surface species accumulate on the surface during the entire illumination period (60 min), and lead to a decreased total oxidation rate. Controlled humidification of the rutile surface leads to a reduction of the concentration of R-COO- intermediates, while at the same time maintaining approximately the same rate of DFP and DMMP photooxidation. The latter is due to blocking of Ti surface cation sites, which prevents the formation of strongly bonded surface compounds, in particular mu-coordinated R-COO- and R-POO- species. The findings show that, it is possible to optimize the sustained photocatalytic degradation of organic phosphorous compounds by controlled humidification of the reaction gas. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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7.
  • Valencia, Luis, et al. (författare)
  • Bio-based Micro-/Meso-/Macroporous Hybrid Foams with Ultrahigh Zeolite Loadings for Selective Capture of Carbon Dioxide
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. - 1944-8252 .- 1944-8244. ; 11, s. 40424-40431
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microporous (<2 nm) crystalline aluminosilicates in the form of zeolites offer a great potential as efficient adsorbents for atmospheric CO2 in the eminent battle against global warming and climate change. The processability of conventional zeolite powders is, however, poor, which limits their implementation in many applications, such as in gas filtration industrial systems. In this work, we overcome this issue through the preparation of hybrid foams using mesoporous/macroporous supporting materials based on the strong network properties of gelatin/nanocellulose, which can support ultrahigh loadings of silicalite-1, used as a model sorbent nanomaterial. We achieved up to 90 wt % of zeolite content and a microporous/mesoporous/macroporous hybrid material. The application of hybrid foams for selective CO2 sorption exhibits a linear relationship between the zeolite content and CO2 adsorption capacity and high selectivity over N2, where the gelatin/nanocellulose foam efficiently supports the zeolite crystals without apparently blocking their pores.
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8.
  • Arnby, Karl, 1974, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of platinum distribution in monolithic catalysts on the oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Catalysis. - 0021-9517 .- 1090-2694. ; 233:1, s. 176-185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Monolithic Pt/gamma-Al2O3 catalysts were prepd. by depositing of the platinum phase, either homogeneously or heterogeneously (i.e., local high platinum concn.), in the washcoat. The influence of the platinum distribution on the ignition and extinction processes for oxidn. of CO, propene, and propane, resp., was investigated by both temp.-programmed and oxygen step-response flow-reactor expts. In addn., in situ XANES spectroscopy was used to follow changes in the chem. state of platinum during propane oxidn. For samples with heterogeneous platinum distribution, the results show an improved low-temp. activity for CO oxidn., whereas no clear improvement is obsd. for oxidn. of propene or propane. Comparison of the results for CO and hydrocarbon oxidn. shows that the improved activity cannot be explained by thermal effects. Moreover, calcns. indicate that the enhanced activity for CO oxidn. can be due to mass-transfer phenomena. This could not be confirmed by our expts., however. Instead, the improved activity for CO oxidn. can be due to varying platinum particle size between the samples. Furthermore, the oxidn. of propane is shown to be highly influenced by the oxygen concn., showing an activity max. for gas compositions close to the stoichiometric. High oxygen levels result most probably in a predominantly oxygen-covered surface, which inhibits the reaction and, as supported by the in situ XANES experiments, passivates the surface by forming platinum oxide.
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