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Sökning: WFRF:(Papadogiannakis Nikos)

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  • Amini, Hashem, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of ultrasound and autopsy findings in pregnancies terminated due to fetal anomalies
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6349 .- 1600-0412. ; 85:10, s. 1208-1216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To compare antenatal diagnoses with autopsy findings in pregnancies terminated after ultrasound detection of fetal anomalies. A second aim was to study the quality of antenatal fetal diagnosis over time. Design. Retrospective, multicenter study over two consecutive six-year periods in Uppsala and Stockholm. Setting. Cases were identified through fetal autopsy reports. Subjects. Three hundred and twenty-eight fetuses from pregnancies terminated between 1992 and 2003 because of ultrasonographically diagnosed anomalies. Main outcome measures. The findings at the last ultrasound examination were compared with the autopsy reports. Results. In 299 cases (91.2%) ultrasound findings either exactly matched or were essentially similar to the autopsy findings. In 23 cases (7%) ultrasound findings were not confirmed at autopsy, but the postnatal findings were at least as severe as the antenatal ones. In six cases (1.8%) termination was performed for an anomaly which proved to be less severe than was predicted by ultrasound. The number of such cases was the same in both six-year periods, while the total number of cases increased from 113 in the first to 215 in the second period. Fetal examination provided further diagnostic information in 47% of the cases. In 10% a syndrome was disclosed. Conclusion. Termination of pregnancy was not always based on a correct antenatal diagnosis. All fetuses but one from terminated pregnancies had evident anomalies. In six cases (1.8%) the decision to terminate was based on suboptimal prognostic and diagnostic information. Fetal autopsy by an experienced perinatal pathologist is essential to provide a definitive diagnosis.
  • Björvang, Richelle D., et al. (författare)
  • Mixtures of persistent organic pollutants are found in vital organs of late gestation human fetuses
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Chemosphere. - : Elsevier. - 0045-6535 .- 1879-1298. ; 283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are industrial chemicals with long half-lives. Early life exposure to POPs has been associated with adverse effects. Fetal exposure is typically estimated based on concentrations in maternal serum or placenta and little is known on the actual fetal exposure. We measured the concentrations of nine organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry in maternal serum, placenta, and fetal tissues (adipose tissue, liver, heart, lung and brain) in 20 pregnancies that ended in stillbirth (gestational weeks 36–41). The data were combined with our earlier data on perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the same cohort (Mamsen et al. 2019). HCB, p,p’-DDE, PCB 138 and PCB 153 were quantified in all samples of maternal serum, placenta and fetal tissues. All 22 POPs were detected in all fetal adipose tissue samples, even in cases where they could not be detected in maternal serum or placenta. Tissue:serum ratios were significantly higher in later gestations, male fetuses, and pregnancies with normal placental function. OCPs showed the highest tissue:serum ratios and PFAS the lowest. The highest chemical burden was found in adipose tissue and lowest in the brain. Overall, all studied human fetuses were intrinsically exposed to mixtures of POPs. Tissue:serum ratios were significantly modified by gestational age, fetal sex and placental function. Importantly, more chemicals were detected in fetal tissues compared to maternal serum and placenta, implying that these proxy samples may provide a misleading picture of actual fetal exposures.
  • Chen, Yin Huai, et al. (författare)
  • Absence of GP130 cytokine receptor signaling causes extended Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Journal of experimental medicine. - : Rockefeller University Press. - 1540-9538. ; 217:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The gene IL6ST encodes GP130, the common signal transducer of the IL-6 cytokine family consisting of 10 cytokines. Previous studies have identified cytokine-selective IL6ST defects that preserve LIF signaling. We describe three unrelated families with at least five affected individuals who presented with lethal Stüve-Wiedemann-like syndrome characterized by skeletal dysplasia and neonatal lung dysfunction with additional features such as congenital thrombocytopenia, eczematoid dermatitis, renal abnormalities, and defective acute-phase response. We identified essential loss-of-function variants in IL6ST (a homozygous nonsense variant and a homozygous intronic splice variant with exon skipping). Functional tests showed absent cellular responses to GP130-dependent cytokines including IL-6, IL-11, IL-27, oncostatin M (OSM), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Genetic reconstitution of GP130 by lentiviral transduction in patient-derived cells reversed the signaling defect. This study identifies a new genetic syndrome caused by the complete lack of signaling of a whole family of GP130-dependent cytokines in humans and highlights the importance of the LIF signaling pathway in pre- and perinatal development.
  • Farfaras, Stefanos, et al. (författare)
  • More histologic and ultrastructural degenerative signs in the subscapularis tendon and the joint capsule in male patients with shoulder impingement
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. - 0942-2056 .- 1433-7347. ; 26:1, s. 79-87
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to analyze biopsy samples from the subscapularis tendon and from the joint capsule from male patients with shoulder impingement syndrome (SAIS) and compare them with samples from male patients with post-traumatic recurrent shoulder instability. The hypothesis of the study was that patients with SAIS would have more histologic and ultrastructural degenerative changes in their subscapularis tendon and joint capsule than patients with post-traumatic recurrent shoulder instability. Methods: Male patients scheduled for surgery, with either subacromial decompression or Bankart reconstruction, were included. Four biopsies from each patient were obtained from the capsule and four from the subscapularis tendon during arthroscopic surgery. The histologic characteristics and the presence of glycosaminoglycans were assessed using the light microscope, and the ultrastructure was assessed using a transmission electron microscope. Results: Eight patients, median age 53 (45–74) years (p < 0.0001), were included in the impingement group, and 12 patients, median age 27 (22–48) years, were included in the instability group. The histologic assessment revealed significantly higher cellularity and total degeneration score in the capsule (p = 0.016 and p = 0.014 respectively) in patients with subacromial impingement compared with the instability patients. The corresponding finding was not made for the subscapularis tendon. The ultrastructural evaluation revealed that the instability patients had more fibrils with a large diameter (indicating less degeneration) in both the subscapularis tendon and the capsule compared with the impingement patients (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Male patients with subacromial impingement have more histologic and ultrastructural degenerative changes in their shoulder compared with patients with post-traumatic recurrent shoulder instability. Clinical relevance: It appears that in patients with subacromial impingement, the whole shoulder joint is affected and not only the subacromial space. It is the opinion of the authors that intra-articular therapeutic injections could be tried more often in these patients. Level of evidence: III.
  • Ghazi, Sam, et al. (författare)
  • Colorectal cancer susceptibility loci in a population-based study : associations with morphological parameters
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Pathology. - 0002-9440 .- 1525-2191. ; 177:6, s. 2688-2693
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with either increased or decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, our objective was to determine whether 11 of the new susceptibility CRC loci are associated with tumor morphology and to confirm these loci as distinct and etiologically different risk factors in the development of CRC. The following clinical and morphological parameters were analyzed in 1572 samples: tumor size, T-stage, lymph node metastases, degree of differentiation, mucin production, Crohn-like peritumoral lymphocytic infiltration, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, desmoplastic reaction, necrosis, invasion of blood or lymph vessels, perineural growth, medullary type, budding, and tumor margin. One SNP from each of the 11 loci (rs6983267 on 8q24.21, rs16892766 on 8q23.3, rs719725 on 9p24.1, rs10795668 on 10p14, rs3802842 on 11q23.1, rs4444235 on 14q22.2, rs4779584 on 15q13.3, rs9929218 on 16q22.1, rs4939827 on 18q21.1, rs10411210 on 19q13.11, and rs961253 on 20p12.3) was genotyped for all cases. Odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and the corresponding P values were calculated for the 11 SNPs identified above. A cross tabulation between SNPs and morphology was performed. Several loci showed statistically significant associations with specific phenotypes. The findings are consistent with pathogenic variants in several loci that act in distinct CRC and morphogenetic pathways. Further large-scale studies are required to validate these findings.
  • Holste, Carola, et al. (författare)
  • Mothers' attitudes towards perinatal autopsy after stillbirth
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6349 .- 1600-0412. ; 90:11, s. 1287-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated mothers' attitudes to autopsy of their stillborn baby and their experiences concerning information and treatment in relation to their loss in an observational study. Data were collected by postal questionnaires and telephone calls. Fifty-four of 72 mothers (76%) replied. Fifty-one (94%) received information from a physician about the possibility of having an autopsy; three (6%) did not get any information. The autopsy rate was 83% (n= 45). Thirty-six of 45 (80%) received adequate information about results. Twenty-five (56%) were pleased with how results were presented. Eleven (24%) were positive about individual contact with the pathologist who performed the autopsy. Fifty-one (94%) stated that their decision concerning autopsy was right. Mothers do not regret their decision concerning perinatal autopsy but they do not always receive thorough and timely information concerning autopsy and its results. Personal contact with the perinatal pathologist might help with specific questions both before and after autopsy.
  • Honkaniemi, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Acquired aplastic anaemia in seven children with severe hepatitis with or without liver failure
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 96:11, s. 1660-1664
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Aplastic anaemia following hepatitis may develop in as many as 1 of 3 patients with non-A, non-B and non-C hepatitis. Several causative factors have been discussed, such as viral infections and autoimmunity. Here we describe the natural history of this condition in 7 children and investigate possible hepatitis-causing agents. Methods: We reviewed the medical records, bone marrow and liver biopsies of 7 children with severe hepatitis, with or without liver failure, who subsequently had developed aplastic anaemia. Results: The median time from onset of hepatic symptoms until diagnosed onset of aplasia was 54 days. No associated viral infections could be identified. On liver biopsy, a majority had lobular inflammation but lacked signs of autoimmune hepatitis, findings compatible with a viral aetiology. Three of 6 children had low reticulocyte counts already at onset of hepatitis. All, but one patient is alive at median follow-up of 8 years. Conclusion: The unknown pathogenetic mechanism appears to target liver and bone marrow simultaneously, because half of the children concomitantly had low reticulocyte counts and severe liver failure.
  • Hulten, Maj A., et al. (författare)
  • On the paternal origin of trisomy 21 Down syndrome
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Molecular Cytogenetics. - London, UK : BioMed Central. - 1755-8166 .- 1755-8166. ; 3, s. 4-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Down syndrome (DS), characterized by an extra free chromosome 21 is the most common genetic cause for congenital malformations and learning disability. It is well known that the extra chromosome 21 originates from the mother in more than 90% of cases, the incidence increases with maternal age and there is a high recurrence in young women. In a previous report we have presented data to indicate that maternal trisomy 21 (T21) ovarian mosaicism might provide the major causative factor underlying these patterns of DS inheritance. One important outstanding question concerns the reason why the extra chromosome 21 in DS rarely originates from the father, i.e. in less than 10% of T21 DS cases. We here report data indicating that one reason for this parental sex difference is a very much lower degree of fetal testicular in comparison to ovarian T21 mosaicism. Results: We used fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with two chromosome 21-specific probes to determine the copy number of chromosome 21 in fetal testicular cell nuclei from four male fetuses, following termination of pregnancy for a non-medical/social reason at gestational age 14-19 weeks. The cells studied were selected on the basis of their morphology alone, pending immunological specification of the relevant cell types. We could not detect any indication of testicular T21 mosaicism in any of these four male fetuses, when analysing at least 2000 cells per case (range 2038-3971, total 11.842). This result is highly statistically significant (p < 0.001) in comparison to the average of 0.54% ovarian T21 mosaicism (range 0.20-0.88%) that we identified in eight female fetuses analysing a total of 12.634 cells, as documented in a previous report in this journal. Conclusion: Based on these observations we suggest that there is a significant sex difference in degrees of fetal germ line T21 mosaicism. Thus, it would appear that most female fetuses are T21 ovarian mosaics, while in sharp contrast most male fetuses may be either very low grade T21 testicular mosaics or they may be non-mosaics. We further propose that this sex difference in germ line T21 mosaicism may explain the much less frequent paternal origin of T21 DS than maternal. The mechanisms underlying the DS cases, where the extra chromosome 21 does originate from the father, remains unknown and further studies in this respect are required.
  • Mamsen, Linn Salto, et al. (författare)
  • Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human embryonic and fetal organs from first, second, and third trimester pregnancies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 124, s. 482-492
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The persistent environmental contaminants perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have gained attention due to their potential adverse health effects, in particular following early life exposure. Information on human fetal exposure to PFASs is currently limited to one report on first trimester samples. There is no data available on PFAS concentrations in fetal organs throughout all three trimesters of pregnancy. Methods: We measured the concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) in human embryos and fetuses with corresponding placentas and maternal serum samples derived from elective pregnancy terminations and cases of intrauterine fetal death. A total of 78 embryos and fetuses aged 7–42 gestational weeks were included and a total of 225 fetal organs covering liver, lung, heart, central nervous system (CNS), and adipose tissue were analyzed, together with 71 placentas and 63 maternal serum samples. PFAS concentrations were assayed by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Results: All evaluated PFASs were detected and quantified in maternal sera, placentas and embryos/fetuses. In maternal serum samples, PFOS was detected in highest concentrations, followed by PFOA > PFNA > PFDA = PFUnA = PFHxS. Similarly, PFOS was detected in highest concentrations in embryo/fetal tissues, followed by PFOA > PFNA = PFDA = PFUnA. PFHxS was detected in very few fetuses. In general, PFAS concentrations in embryo/fetal tissue (ng/g) were lower than maternal serum (ng/ml) but similar to placenta concentrations. The total PFAS burden (i.e. the sum of all PFASs) was highest in lung tissue in first trimester samples and in liver in second and third trimester samples. The burden was lowest in CNS samples irrespective of fetal age. The placenta:maternal serum ratios of PFOS, PFOA and PFNA increased across gestation suggesting bioaccumulation in the placenta. Further, we observed that the ratios were higher in pregnancies with male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Conclusions: Human fetuses were intrinsically exposed to a mixture of PFASs throughout gestation. The compounds were detected in all analyzed tissues, suggesting that PFASs reach and may affect many types of organs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PFASs pass the placenta and deposit to embryo and fetal tissues, calling for risk assessment of gestational exposures.
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