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Sökning: WFRF:(Papenberg Goran)

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1.
  • Davies, G., et al. (författare)
  • Study of 300,486 individuals identifies 148 independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • General cognitive function is a prominent and relatively stable human trait that is associated with many important life outcomes. We combine cognitive and genetic data from the CHARGE and COGENT consortia, and UK Biobank (total N = 300,486; age 16-102) and find 148 genome-wide significant independent loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with general cognitive function. Within the novel genetic loci are variants associated with neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, physical and psychiatric illnesses, and brain structure. Gene-based analyses find 709 genes associated with general cognitive function. Expression levels across the cortex are associated with general cognitive function. Using polygenic scores, up to 4.3% of variance in general cognitive function is predicted in independent samples. We detect significant genetic overlap between general cognitive function, reaction time, and many health variables including eyesight, hypertension, and longevity. In conclusion we identify novel genetic loci and pathways contributing to the heritability of general cognitive function.
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2.
  • Davies, G., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic contributions to variation in general cognitive function : a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in the CHARGE consortium (N=53 949)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 20:2, s. 183-192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • General cognitive function is substantially heritable across the human life course from adolescence to old age. We investigated the genetic contribution to variation in this important, health-and well-being-related trait in middle-aged and older adults. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of 31 cohorts (N = 53 949) in which the participants had undertaken multiple, diverse cognitive tests. A general cognitive function phenotype was tested for, and created in each cohort by principal component analysis. We report 13 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations in three genomic regions, 6q16.1, 14q12 and 19q13.32 (best SNP and closest gene, respectively: rs10457441, P = 3.93 x 10(-9), MIR2113; rs17522122, P = 2.55 x 10(-8), AKAP6; rs10119, P = 5.67 x 10(-9), APOE/TOMM40). We report one gene-based significant association with the HMGN1 gene located on chromosome 21 (P = 1x10(-6)). These genes have previously been associated with neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Meta-analysis results are consistent with a polygenic model of inheritance. To estimate SNP-based heritability, the genome-wide complex trait analysis procedure was applied to two large cohorts, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (N = 6617) and the Health and Retirement Study (N = 5976). The proportion of phenotypic variation accounted for by all genotyped common SNPs was 29% (s.e. = 5%) and 28% (s.e. = 7%), respectively. Using polygenic prediction analysis, similar to 1.2% of the variance in general cognitive function was predicted in the Generation Scotland cohort (N = 5487; P = 1.5 x 10(-17)). In hypothesis-driven tests, there was significant association between general cognitive function and four genes previously associated with Alzheimer's disease: TOMM40, APOE, ABCG1 and MEF2C.
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3.
  • Salami, Alireza, et al. (författare)
  • Neurocognitive Profiles of Older Adults with Working-Memory Dysfunction
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex. - : Oxford University Press. - 1047-3211 .- 1460-2199. ; 28:7, s. 2525-2539
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Individuals differ in how they perceive, remember, and think. There is evidence for the existence of distinct subgroups that differ in cognitive performance within the older population. However, it is less clear how individual differences in cognition in old age are linked to differences in brain-based measures. We used latent-profile analysis on n-back working-memory (WM) performance to identify subgroups in a large sample of older adults (n = 181; age = 64-68 years). Our analysis identified one larger normal subgroup with higher performance (n = 113; 63%), and a second smaller subgroup (n = 55; 31%) with lower performance. The low-performing subgroup showed weaker load-dependent BOLD modulation and lower connectivity within the fronto-parietal network (FPN) as well as between FPN and striatum during n-back, along with lower FPN connectivity at rest. This group also exhibited lower FPN structural integrity, lower frontal dopamine D2 binding potential, inferior performance on offline WM tests, and a trend-level genetic predisposition for lower dopamine-system efficiency. By contrast, this group exhibited relatively intact episodic memory and associated brain measures (i.e., hippocampal volume, structural, and functional connectivity within the default-mode network). Collectively, these data provide converging evidence for the existence of a group of older adults with impaired WM functioning characterized by reduced cortico-striatal coupling and aberrant cortico-cortical integrity within FPN.
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4.
  • Dohrn, Ing-Mari, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of dopamine-related genetic variants on physical activity in old age - a cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. - 1479-5868 .- 1479-5868. ; 17:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives The beneficial effects of a physically active lifestyle in aging are well documented. Understanding the factors of importance for physical activity in older adults are therefore essential. Informed by animal and human data linking the dopamine system to motivation and reward processes, we investigated the associations between variations in dopamine genes and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Further, we aimed to verify whether higher age may exacerbate the impact of dopamine genes on physical activity. Methods We analyzed data from 504 older adults, 66-87 years, from the population-based Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K). Physical activity was measured with activPAL accelerometers and DNA was extracted from blood samples for genotyping. We assessed the effects of three dopamine relevant genetic variations (DRD1, DRD2, and DRD3) on daily time in sedentary behavior, light-intensity physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity using analyses of covariance, adjusting for sex, age and physical function. Results Higher dopamine receptor efficacy was related to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, but not to light-intensity physical activity or sedentary time. DRD1 explained 2.7% of variance in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, with more pronounced effect in people aged >= 80 years, about 10% of explained variance. Conclusion Stronger genetic effects in older adults are in line with the well-established nonlinear effects of dopamine signaling on performance, expected to be exacerbated with aging. Individuals over 80 years, genetically predisposed to lower dopamine receptor efficacy, engaged on average 100 min/week in moderate-to-high physical activity, below the recommended levels beneficial for healthy aging. Our findings highlight that some individuals might need extra support to maintain a physically active lifestyle.
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5.
  • Karalija, Nina, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • A common polymorphism in the dopamine transporter gene predicts working memory performance and in vivo dopamine integrity in aging
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Academic Press. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 245
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dopamine (DA) integrity is suggested as a potential cause of individual differences in working memory (WM) performance among older adults. Still, the principal dopaminergic mechanisms giving rise to WM differences remain unspecified. Here, 61 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, located in or adjacent to various dopamine-related genes, were assessed for their links to WM performance in a sample of 1313 adults aged 61–80 years from the Berlin Aging Study II. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression was conducted to estimate associations between polymorphisms and WM. Rs40184 in the DA transporter gene, SLC6A3, showed allelic group differences in WM, with T-carriers performing better than C homozygotes (p<0.01). This finding was replicated in an independent sample from the Cognition, Brain, and Aging study (COBRA; baseline: n = 181, ages: 64–68 years; 5-year follow up: n = 129). In COBRA, in vivo DA integrity was measured with 11C-raclopride and positron emission tomography. Notably, WM as well as in vivo DA integrity was higher for rs40184 T-carriers at baseline (p<0.05 for WM and caudate and hippocampal D2-receptor availability) and at the 5-year follow-up (p<0.05 for WM and hippocampal D2 availability). Our findings indicate that individual differences in DA transporter function contribute to differences in WM performance in old age, presumably by regulating DA availability.
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6.
  • Karalija, Nina, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiovascular factors are related to dopamine integrity and cognition in aging
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2328-9503. ; 6:11, s. 2291-2303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aging brain undergoes several changes, including reduced vascular, structural, and dopamine (DA) system integrity. Such brain changes have been associated with age‐related cognitive deficits. However, their relative importance, interrelations, and links to risk factors remain elusive.Methods: The present work used magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography with 11C‐raclopride to jointly examine vascular parameters (white‐matter lesions and perfusion), DA D2‐receptor availability, brain structure, and cognitive performance in healthy older adults (n = 181, age: 64–68 years) from the Cognition, Brain, and Aging (COBRA) study.Results: Covariance was found among several brain indicators, where top predictors of cognitive performance included caudate and hippocampal integrity (D2DR availability and volumes), and cortical blood flow and regional volumes. White‐matter lesion burden was negatively correlated with caudate DA D2‐receptor availability and white‐matter microstructure. Compared to individuals with smaller lesions, individuals with confluent lesions (exceeding 20 mm in diameter) had reductions in cortical and hippocampal perfusion, striatal and hippocampal D2‐receptor availability, white‐matter microstructure, and reduced performance on tests of episodic memory, sequence learning, and processing speed. Higher cardiovascular risk as assessed by treatment for hypertension, systolic blood pressure, overweight, and smoking was associated with lower frontal cortical perfusion, lower putaminal D2DR availability, smaller grey‐matter volumes, a larger number of white‐matter lesions, and lower episodic memory performance.Interpretation: Taken together, these findings suggest that reduced cardiovascular health is associated with poorer status for brain variables that are central to age‐sensitive cognitive functions, with emphasis on DA integrity.
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7.
  • Karalija, Nina, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • High long-term test-retest reliability for extrastriatal 11C-raclopride binding in healthy older adults
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. - : Sage Publications. - 0271-678X .- 1559-7016. ; 40:9, s. 1859-1868
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In vivo dopamine D2-receptor availability is frequently assessed with 11C-raclopride and positron emission tomography. Due to low signal-to-noise ratios for 11C-raclopride in areas with low D2 receptor densities, the ligand has been considered unreliable for measurements outside the dopamine-dense striatum. Intriguingly, recent studies show that extrastriatal 11C-raclopride binding potential (BPND) values are (i) reliably higher than in the cerebellum (where D2-receptor levels are negligible), (ii) correlate with behavior in the expected direction, and (iii) showed good test-retest reliability in a sample of younger adults. The present work demonstrates high seven-month test-retest reliability of striatal and extrastriatal 11C-raclopride BPND values in healthy, older adults (n = 27, age: 64-78 years). Mean 11C-raclopride BPND values were stable between test sessions in subcortical nuclei, and in frontal and temporal cortices (p > 0.05). Across all structures analyzed, intraclass correlation coefficients were high (0.85-0.96), absolute variability was low (mean: 4-8%), and coefficients of variance ranged between 9 and 25%. Furthermore, regional 11C-raclopride BPND values correlated with previously determined 18F-fallypride BPND values (rho = 0.97 and 0.92 in correlations with and without striatal values, respectively, p < 0.01) and postmortem determined D2-receptor densities (including striatum: rho = 0.92; p < 0.001; excluding striatum: rho = 0.75; p = 0.067). These observations suggest that extrastriatal 11C-raclopride measurements represent a true D2 signal.
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8.
  • Karalija, Nina, 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Sex differences in dopamine integrity and brain structure among healthy older adults : Relationships to episodic memory
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 105, s. 272-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Normal brain aging is a multidimensional process that includes deterioration in various brain structures and functions, with large heterogeneity in patterns and rates of decline. Sex differences have been reported for various cognitive and brain parameters, but little is known in relation to neuromodulatory aspects of brain aging. We examined sex differences in dopamine D2-receptor (D2DR) availability in relation to episodic memory, but also, grey-matter volumes, white-matter lesions, and cerebral perfusion in healthy older adults (n = 181, age: 64-68 years) from the Cognition, Brain, and Aging study. Women had higher D2DR availability in midbrain and left caudate and putamen, as well as superior episodic memory performance. Controlling for left caudate D2DR availability attenuated sex differences in memory performance. In men, lower left caudate D2DR levels were associated with lower cortical perfusion and higher burden of white-matter lesions, as well as with episodic memory performance. However, sex was not a significant moderator of the reported links to D2DR levels. Our findings suggest that sex differences in multiple associations among DA receptor availability, vascular factors, and structural connectivity contribute to sex differences in episodic memory. Future longitudinal studies need to corroborate these patterns by lead-lag associations. This manuscript is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Neuroscience of Healthy and Pathological Aging' edited by Drs. M. N. Rajah, S. Belleville, and R. Cabeza. 
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9.
  • Korkki, Saana M., et al. (författare)
  • Fronto-striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability is associated with cognitive variability in older individuals with low dopamine integrity
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Within-person, moment-to-moment, variability in behavior increases with advancing adult age, potentially reflecting the influence of reduced structural and neurochemical brain integrity, especially that of the dopaminergic system. We examined the role of dopamine D2 receptor (D2DR) availability, grey-, and white-matter integrity, for between-person differences in cognitive variability in a large sample of healthy older adults (n = 181; 64–68 years) from the Cognition, Brain, and Aging (COBRA) study. Intra-individual variability (IIV) in cognition was measured as across-trial variability in participants’ response times for tasks assessing perceptual speed and working memory, as well as for a control task of motor speed. Across the whole sample, no associations of D2DR availability, or grey- and white-matter integrity, to IIV were observed. However, within-person variability in cognition was increased in two subgroups of individuals displaying low mean-level cognitive performance, one of which was characterized by low subcortical and cortical D2DR availability. In this latter group, fronto-striatal D2DR availability correlated negatively with within-person variability in cognition. This finding suggests that the influence of D2DR availability on cognitive variability may be more easily disclosed among individuals with low dopamine-system integrity, highlighting the benefits of large-scale studies for delineating heterogeneity in brain-behavior associations in older age.
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10.
  • Larsson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Olfactory memory in the old and very old : relations to episodic and semantic memory and APOE genotype
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 38, s. 118-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The neuroanatomical organization that underlies olfactory memory is different from that of other memory types. The present work examines olfactory memory in an elderly population-based sample (Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen) aged 60-100 years (n = 2280). We used structural equation modeling to investigate whether olfactory memory in old age is best conceptualized as a distinct category, differentiated from episodic and semantic memory. Further, potential olfactory dedifferentiation and genetic associations (APOE) to olfactory function in late senescence were investigated. Results are in support of a 3-factor solution where olfactory memory, as indexed by episodic odor recognition and odor identification, is modeled separately from episodic and semantic memory for visual and verbal information. Increasing age was associated with poorer olfactory memory performance, and observed age-related deficits were further exacerbated for carriers of the APOE epsilon 4 allele; these effects tended to be larger for olfactory memory compared to episodic and semantic memory pertaining to other sensory systems (vision, auditory). Finally, stronger correlations between olfactory and episodic memory, indicating dedifferentiation, were observed in the older age groups.
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