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Sökning: WFRF:(Parker Geoff A.)

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1.
  • Birney, Ewan, et al. (författare)
  • Identification and analysis of functional elements in 1% of the human genome by the ENCODE pilot project
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 447:7146, s. 799-816
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the generation and analysis of functional data from multiple, diverse experiments performed on a targeted 1% of the human genome as part of the pilot phase of the ENCODE Project. These data have been further integrated and augmented by a number of evolutionary and computational analyses. Together, our results advance the collective knowledge about human genome function in several major areas. First, our studies provide convincing evidence that the genome is pervasively transcribed, such that the majority of its bases can be found in primary transcripts, including non-protein-coding transcripts, and those that extensively overlap one another. Second, systematic examination of transcriptional regulation has yielded new understanding about transcription start sites, including their relationship to specific regulatory sequences and features of chromatin accessibility and histone modification. Third, a more sophisticated view of chromatin structure has emerged, including its inter-relationship with DNA replication and transcriptional regulation. Finally, integration of these new sources of information, in particular with respect to mammalian evolution based on inter- and intra-species sequence comparisons, has yielded new mechanistic and evolutionary insights concerning the functional landscape of the human genome. Together, these studies are defining a path for pursuit of a more comprehensive characterization of human genome function.
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2.
  • Blunden, Jessica, et al. (författare)
  • State of the Climate in 2012
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS). - 0003-0007 .- 1520-0477. ; 94:8, s. S1-S258
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For the first time in serveral years, the El Nino-Southern Oscillation did not dominate regional climate conditions around the globe. A weak La Ni a dissipated to ENSOneutral conditions by spring, and while El Nino appeared to be emerging during summer, this phase never fully developed as sea surface temperatures in the eastern conditions. Nevertheless, other large-scale climate patterns and extreme weather events impacted various regions during the year. A negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation from mid-January to early February contributed to frigid conditions in parts of northern Africa, eastern Europe, and western Asia. A lack of rain during the 2012 wet season led to the worst drought in at least the past three decades for northeastern Brazil. Central North America also experienced one of its most severe droughts on record. The Caribbean observed a very wet dry season and it was the Sahel's wettest rainy season in 50 years. Overall, the 2012 average temperature across global land and ocean surfaces ranked among the 10 warmest years on record. The global land surface temperature alone was also among the 10 warmest on record. In the upper atmosphere, the average stratospheric temperature was record or near-record cold, depending on the dataset. After a 30-year warming trend from 1970 to 1999 for global sea surface temperatures, the period 2000-12 had little further trend. This may be linked to the prevalence of La Ni a-like conditions during the 21st century. Heat content in the upper 700 m of the ocean remained near record high levels in 2012. Net increases from 2011 to 2012 were observed at 700-m to 2000-m depth and even in the abyssal ocean below. Following sharp decreases in to the effects of La Ni a, sea levels rebounded to reach records highs in 2012. The increased hydrological cycle seen in recent years continued, with more evaporation in drier locations and more precipitation in rainy areas. In a pattern that has held since 2004, salty areas of the ocean surfaces and subsurfaces were anomalously salty on average, while fresher areas were anomalously fresh. Global tropical cyclone activity during 2012 was near average, with a total of 84 storms compared with the 1981-2010 average of 89. Similar to 2010 and 2011, the North Atlantic was the only hurricane basin that experienced above-normal activity. In this basin, Sandy brought devastation to Cuba and parts of the eastern North American seaboard. All other basins experienced either near-or below-normal tropical cyclone activity. Only three tropical cyclones reached Category 5 intensity-all in Bopha became the only storm in the historical record to produce winds greater than 130 kt south of 7 N. It was also the costliest storm to affect the Philippines and killed more than 1000 residents. Minimum Arctic sea ice extent in September and Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent in June both reached new record lows. June snow cover extent is now declining at a faster rate (-17.6% per decade) than September sea ice extent (-13.0% per decade). Permafrost temperatures reached record high values in northernmost Alaska. A new melt extent record occurred on 11-12 July on the Greenland ice sheet; 97% of the ice sheet showed some form of melt, four times greater than the average melt for this time of year. The climate in Antarctica was relatively stable overall. The largest maximum sea ice extent since records begain in 1978 was observed in September 2012. In the stratosphere, warm air led to the second smallest ozone hole in the past two decades. Even so, the springtime ozone layer above Antarctica likely will not return to its early 1980s state until about 2060. Following a slight decline associated with the global 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production reached a record 9.5 +/- 0.5 Pg C in 2011 and a new record of 9.7 +/- 0.5 Pg C is estimated for 2012. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased by 2.1 ppm in 2012, to 392.6 ppm. In spring 2012, 2 concentration exceeded 400 ppm at 7 of the 13 Arctic observation sites. Globally, other greenhouse gases including methane and nitrous oxide also continued to rise in concentration and the combined effect now represents a 32% increase in radiative forcing over a 1990 baseline. Concentrations of most ozone depleting substances continued to fall.
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3.
  • Levine, Hagai, et al. (författare)
  • Male reproductive health statement (XIIIth international symposium on Spermatology, may 9th-12th 2018, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Basic and Clinical Andrology. - : BioMed Central (BMC). ; 28, s. 13-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • On the occasion of the XIIIth International Symposium on Spermatology held from 9 to 13 May 2018 in Stockholm (Sweden), participants (guest speakers and audience) collectively felt the need to make a public statement on the general issue of male reproductive health. Our intention is to raise awareness of what we believe is a neglected area of research despite alarming situations around the world. The disclosure strategy desired by the co-authors is to bring it to the attention of the greatest number partly by considering co-publication in the various periodicals dealing with Reproductive Biology and Andrology. BaCA's editorial office accepted this mission and found it natural that our periodical, the official journal of the French Andrology Society (SALF), should carry this message.
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4.
  • Lindsay, Willow, 1980, et al. (författare)
  • Endless forms of sexual selection
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: PeerJ. - : PeerJ Inc. - 2167-8359. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In recent years, the field of sexual selection has exploded, with advances in theoretical and empirical research complementing each other in exciting ways. This perspective piece is the product of a "stock-taking'' workshop on sexual selection and sexual conflict. Our aim is to identify and deliberate on outstanding questions and to stimulate discussion rather than provide a comprehensive overview of the entire field. These questions are organized into four thematic sections we deem essential to the field. First we focus on the evolution of mate choice and mating systems. Variation in mate quality can generate both competition and choice in the opposite sex, with implications for the evolution of mating systems. Limitations on mate choice may dictate the importance of direct vs. indirect benefits in mating decisions and consequently, mating systems, especially with regard to polyandry. Second, we focus on how sender and receiver mechanisms shape signal design. Mediation of honest signal content likely depends on integration of temporally variable social and physiological costs that are challenging to measure. We view the neuroethology of sensory and cognitive receiver biases as the main key to signal form and the 'aesthetic sense' proposed by Darwin. Since a receiver bias is sufficient to both initiate and drive ornament or armament exaggeration, without a genetically correlated or even coevolving receiver, this may be the appropriate 'null model' of sexual selection. Thirdly, we focus on the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits. Despite advances in modern molecular techniques, the number and identity of genes underlying performance, display and secondary sexual traits remains largely unknown. In-depth investigations into the genetic basis of sexual dimorphism in the context of long-term field studies will reveal constraints and trajectories of sexually selected trait evolution. Finally, we focus on sexual selection and conflict as drivers of speciation. Population divergence and speciation are often influenced by an interplay between sexual and natural selection. The extent to which sexual selection promotes or counteracts population divergence may vary depending on the genetic architecture of traits as well as the covariance between mating competition and local adaptation. Additionally, post-copulatory processes, such as selection against heterospecific sperm, may influence the importance of sexual selection in speciation. We propose that efforts to resolve these four themes can catalyze conceptual progress in the field of sexual selection, and we offer potential avenues of research to advance this progress.
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5.
  • Immler, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Resolving variation in the reproductive tradeoff between sperm size and number
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 108:13, s. 5325-5330
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Spermatozoa are amongst the most variable cells, and three factors are thought to account for this variation in design: fertilization mode, phylogeny, and postcopulatory sexual selection. In addition, it has long been assumed that a tradeoff exists between sperm size and number, and although postcopulatory sexual selection affects both traits, empirical evidence for a tradeoff has so far been elusive. Our recent theoretical model predicts that the nature of a direct tradeoff between sperm size and number varies with sperm competition mechanism and sperm competition risk. We test these predictions using a comparative approach in two very different taxa with different sperm competition mechanisms: passerine birds (mechanism: simple raffle) and Drosophila fruit flies (sperm displacement). We show that in both groups, males increase their total ejaculate investment with increasing sperm competition risk, but whereas passerine birds allocate disproportionately to sperm number, drosophilids allocate disproportionately to sperm size. This striking difference between the two groups can be at least partly explained by sperm competition mechanisms depending on sperm size relative to the size of the female reproductive tract: in large animals (passerines), sperm numbers are advantageous in sperm competition owing to dilution inside the female tract, whereas in small animals (drosophilids), large spermare advantageous for physical competition (sperm displacement). Our study provides two important results. First, we provide convincing evidence for the existence of a sperm size-number tradeoff. Second, we show that by considering both sperm competition mechanism and dilution, can we account for variation in sperm size between different taxa.
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6.
  • Kerkelä, Leevi, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative analysis of signal models for microscopic fractional anisotropy estimation using q-space trajectory encoding
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 1053-8119. ; 242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microscopic diffusion anisotropy imaging using diffusion-weighted MRI and multidimensional diffusion encoding is a promising method for quantifying clinically and scientifically relevant microstructural properties of neural tissue. Several methods for estimating microscopic fractional anisotropy (µFA), a normalized measure of microscopic diffusion anisotropy, have been introduced but the differences between the methods have received little attention thus far. In this study, the accuracy and precision of µFA estimation using q-space trajectory encoding and different signal models were assessed using imaging experiments and simulations. Three healthy volunteers and a microfibre phantom were imaged with five non-zero b-values and gradient waveforms encoding linear and spherical b-tensors. Since the ground-truth µFA was unknown in the imaging experiments, Monte Carlo random walk simulations were performed using axon-mimicking fibres for which the ground truth was known. Furthermore, parameter bias due to time-dependent diffusion was quantified by repeating the simulations with tuned waveforms, which have similar power spectra, and with triple diffusion encoding, which, unlike q-space trajectory encoding, is not based on the assumption of time-independent diffusion. The truncated cumulant expansion of the powder-averaged signal, gamma-distributed diffusivities assumption, and q-space trajectory imaging, a generalization of the truncated cumulant expansion to individual signals, were used to estimate µFA. The gamma-distributed diffusivities assumption consistently resulted in greater µFA values than the second order cumulant expansion, 0.1 greater when averaged over the whole brain. In the simulations, the generalized cumulant expansion provided the most accurate estimates. Importantly, although time-dependent diffusion caused significant overestimation of µFA using all the studied methods, the simulations suggest that the resulting bias in µFA is less than 0.1 in human white matter.
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7.
  • Lindsay, Willow R, et al. (författare)
  • Endless forms of sexual selection
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The field of sexual selection has burgeoned with research into trait evolution in the context of ecology, sociality, phylogeny, natural selection, and sexual conflict. This paper is the product of a “stock-taking” workshop; our aim is to stimulate discussion, not to provide an exhaustive review. We identify outstanding questions organized into four thematic sections.1) Evolution of mate choice and mating systems. Variation in mate quality can generate mating competition and choice in either sex with implications for the evolution of mating systems. Limitations on mate choice may dictate the importance of direct vs. indirect benefits in mating decisions and consequently, mating systems. Specifically, polyandry evolves in response to the strength of pre- vs. post-copulatory selection. The evolution of polyandry may be related to diversity of pathogens and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes. MHC genes are also potential cues of kinship in avoidance of inbreeding. The balance between inbreeding avoidance and inclusive fitness in mating decisions deserves greater attention.2) Sender and receiver mechanisms shaping signal design. Mediation of honest signal content likely depends on integration of temporally variable social and physiological costs that are a challenge to measure. The neuroethology of sensory and cognitive receiver biases is the main key to signal form and the ‘aesthetic sense’ proposed by Darwin. Since a receiver bias is sufficient to both start and drive ornament or armament exaggeration, without a genetically correlated or even coevolving receiver, this may be the appropriate ‘null model’ of sexual selection.3) Genetic architecture of sexual selection. Despite advances in modern molecular techniques, the number and identity of genes underlying performance remain largely unknown. A combination of genomic techniques and long-term field studies that reveal ecological correlates of reproductive success is warranted. In-depth investigations into the genetic basis of sexual dimorphism will reveal constraints and trajectories of sexually selected trait evolution.4) Sexual selection and conflict as drivers of speciation. Population divergence and speciation is often driven by an interplay between sexual and natural selection. To what extent sexual selection promotes or counteracts population divergence may differ depending on the genetic architecture of traits as well as covariance between mating competition and local adaptation, if traits have multiple functions and if sensory systems used in mate choice are locally adapted. Also, post-copulatory processes, e.g. selection against heterospecific sperm, may influence the importance of sexual selection. Sexual conflict can shape speciation processes, since mate choice selection on females can restrict gene flow whereas selection on males is permissive.We propose that efforts to resolve these four themes can catalyze conceptual progress in the field of sexual selection.
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8.
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