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Sökning: WFRF:(Patterson Nick)

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1.
  • Schunkert, Heribert, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analysis identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 43:4, s. 153-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We performed a meta-analysis of 14 genome-wide association studies of coronary artery disease (CAD) comprising 22,233 individuals with CAD (cases) and 64,762 controls of European descent followed by genotyping of top association signals in 56,682 additional individuals. This analysis identified 13 loci newly associated with CAD at P < 5 x 10(-8) and confirmed the association of 10 of 12 previously reported CAD loci. The 13 new loci showed risk allele frequencies ranging from 0.13 to 0.91 and were associated with a 6% to 17% increase in the risk of CAD per allele. Notably, only three of the new loci showed significant association with traditional CAD risk factors and the majority lie in gene regions not previously implicated in the pathogenesis of CAD. Finally, five of the new CAD risk loci appear to have pleiotropic effects, showing strong association with various other human diseases or traits.
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2.
  • Haak, Wolfgang, et al. (författare)
  • Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 522:7555, s. 207-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000-3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost 400,000 polymorphisms. Enrichment of these positions decreases the sequencing required for genome-wide ancient DNA analysis by a median of around 250-fold, allowing us to study an order of magnitude more individuals than previous studies(1-8) and to obtain new insights about the past. We show that the populations of Western and Far Eastern Europe followed opposite trajectories between 8,000-5,000 years ago. At the beginning of the Neolithic period in Europe, similar to 8,000-7,000 years ago, closely related groups of early farmers appeared in Germany, Hungary and Spain, different from indigenous hunter-gatherers, whereas Russia was inhabited by a distinctive population of hunter-gatherers with high affinity to a similar to 24,000-year-old Siberian(6). By similar to 6,000-5,000 years ago, farmers throughout much of Europe had more hunter-gatherer ancestry than their predecessors, but in Russia, the Yamnaya steppe herders of this time were descended not only from the preceding eastern European hunter-gatherers, but also from a population of Near Eastern ancestry. Western and Eastern Europe came into contact similar to 4,500 years ago, as the Late Neolithic Corded Ware people from Germany traced similar to 75% of their ancestry to the Yamnaya, documenting a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery. This steppe ancestry persisted in all sampled central Europeans until at least similar to 3,000 years ago, and is ubiquitous in present-day Europeans. These results provide support for a steppe origin(9) of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe.</p>
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3.
  • Jones, Robert P., et al. (författare)
  • Patterns of Recurrence After Resection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma : A Secondary Analysis of the ESPAC-4 Randomized Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA Surgery. - AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 2168-6254 .- 2168-6262. ; 154:11, s. 1038-1048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Importance: The patterns of disease recurrence after resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with adjuvant chemotherapy remain unclear.</p><p>Objective: To define patterns of recurrence after adjuvant chemotherapy and the association with survival.</p><p>Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospectively collected data from the phase 3 European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer 4 adjuvant clinical trial, an international multicenter study. The study included 730 patients who had resection and adjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. Data were analyzed between July 2017 and May 2019.</p><p>Interventions: Randomization to adjuvant gemcitabine or gemcitabine plus capecitabine.</p><p>Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival, recurrence, and sites of recurrence.</p><p>Results: Of the 730 patients, median age was 65 years (range 37-81 years), 414 were men (57%), and 316 were women (43%). The median follow-up time from randomization was 43.2 months (95% CI, 39.7-45.5 months), with overall survival from time of surgery of 27.9 months (95% CI, 24.8-29.9 months) with gemcitabine and 30.2 months (95% CI, 25.8-33.5 months) with the combination (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98; P=.03). The 5-year survival estimates were 17.1% (95% CI, 11.6%-23.5%) and 28.0% (22.0%-34.3%), respectively. Recurrence occurred in 479 patients (65.6%); another 78 patients (10.7%) died without recurrence. Local recurrence occurred at a median of 11.63 months (95% CI, 10.05-12.19 months), significantly different from those with distant recurrence with a median of 9.49 months (95% CI, 8.44-10.71 months) (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.01-1.45; P=.04). Following recurrence, the median survival was 9.36 months (95% CI, 8.08-10.48 months) for local recurrence and 8.94 months (95% CI, 7.82-11.17 months) with distant recurrence (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73-1.09; P=.27). The median overall survival of patients with distant-only recurrence (23.03 months; 95% CI, 19.55-25.85 months) or local with distant recurrence (23.82 months; 95% CI, 17.48-28.32 months) was not significantly different from those with only local recurrence (24.83 months; 95% CI, 22.96-27.63 months) (P=.85 and P=.35, respectively). Gemcitabine plus capecitabine had a 21% reduction of death following recurrence compared with monotherapy (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.98; P=.03).</p><p>Conclusions and Relevance: There were no significant differences between the time to recurrence and subsequent and overall survival between local and distant recurrence. Pancreatic cancer behaves as a systemic disease requiring effective systemic therapy after resection.</p><p>Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00058201, EudraCT 2007-004299-38, and ISRCTN 96397434. This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial investigates patterns of recurrence after adjuvant chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer and the association with survival.</p>
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4.
  • Karlsson, Elinor K., et al. (författare)
  • Efficient mapping of mendelian traits in dogs through genome-wide association
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 39:11, s. 1321-1328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>With several hundred genetic diseases and an advantageous genome structure, dogs are ideal for mapping genes that cause disease. Here we report the development of a genotyping array with |[sim]|27,000 SNPs and show that genome-wide association mapping of mendelian traits in dog breeds can be achieved with only |[sim]|20 dogs. Specifically, we map two traits with mendelian inheritance: the major white spotting (<em>S</em>) locus and the hair ridge in Rhodesian ridgebacks. For both traits, we map the loci to discrete regions of &lt;1 Mb. Fine-mapping of the <em>S</em> locus in two breeds refines the localization to a region of |[sim]|100 kb contained within the pigmentation-related gene <em>MITF</em>. Complete sequencing of the white and solid haplotypes identifies candidate regulatory mutations in the melanocyte-specific promoter of <em>MITF</em>. Our results show that genome-wide association mapping within dog breeds, followed by fine-mapping across multiple breeds, will be highly efficient and generally applicable to trait mapping, providing insights into canine and human health.</p>
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5.
  • Lazaridis, Iosif, et al. (författare)
  • Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 513:7518, s. 409-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We sequenced the genomes of a similar to 7,000-year-old farmer from Germany and eight similar to 8,000-year-old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analysed these and other ancient genomes(1-4) with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; ancient north Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians(3), who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and early European farmers, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harboured west European hunter-gatherer related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that early European farmers had similar to 44% ancestry from a 'basal Eurasian' population that split before the diversification of other non-African lineages.</p>
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6.
  • Mathieson, Iain, et al. (författare)
  • The genomic history of southeastern Europe
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 00280836 .- 14764687. ; 555, s. 197-203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2018 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved. Farming was first introduced to Europe in the mid-seventh millennium bc, and was associated with migrants from Anatolia who settled in the southeast before spreading throughout Europe. Here, to understand the dynamics of this process, we analysed genome-wide ancient DNA data from 225 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe and surrounding regions between 12000 and 500 bc. We document a west-east cline of ancestry in indigenous hunter-gatherers and, in eastern Europe, the early stages in the formation of Bronze Age steppe ancestry. We show that the first farmers of northern and western Europe dispersed through southeastern Europe with limited hunter-gatherer admixture, but that some early groups in the southeast mixed extensively with hunter-gatherers without the sex-biased admixture that prevailed later in the north and west. We also show that southeastern Europe continued to be a nexus between east and west after the arrival of farmers, with intermittent genetic contact with steppe populations occurring up to 2,000 years earlier than the migrations from the steppe that ultimately replaced much of the population of northern Europe.
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7.
  • Mikkelsen, Tarjei, et al. (författare)
  • Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 437:7055, s. 69-87
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Here we present a draft genome sequence of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Through comparison with the human genome, we have generated a largely complete catalogue of the genetic differences that have accumulated since the human and chimpanzee species diverged from our common ancestor, constituting approximately thirty-five million single-nucleotide changes, five million insertion/deletion events, and various chromosomal rearrangements. We use this catalogue to explore the magnitude and regional variation of mutational forces shaping these two genomes, and the strength of positive and negative selection acting on their genes. In particular, we find that the patterns of evolution in human and chimpanzee protein-coding genes are highly correlated and dominated by the fixation of neutral and slightly deleterious alleles. We also use the chimpanzee genome as an outgroup to investigate human population genetics and identify signatures of selective sweeps in recent human evolution.</p>
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8.
  • Miller, Webb, et al. (författare)
  • Sequencing the nuclear genome of the extinct woolly mammoth.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 456:7220, s. 387-390
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In 1994, two independent groups extracted DNA from several Pleistocene epoch mammoths and noted differences among individual specimens. Subsequently, DNA sequences have been published for a number of extinct species. However, such ancient DNA is often fragmented and damaged, and studies to date have typically focused on short mitochondrial sequences, never yielding more than a fraction of a per cent of any nuclear genome. Here we describe 4.17 billion bases (Gb) of sequence from several mammoth specimens, 3.3 billion (80%) of which are from the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) genome and thus comprise an extensive set of genome-wide sequence from an extinct species. Our data support earlier reports that elephantid genomes exceed 4 Gb. The estimated divergence rate between mammoth and African elephant is half of that between human and chimpanzee. The observed number of nucleotide differences between two particular mammoths was approximately one-eighth of that between one of them and the African elephant, corresponding to a separation between the mammoths of 1.5-2.0 Myr. The estimated probability that orthologous elephant and mammoth amino acids differ is 0.002, corresponding to about one residue per protein. Differences were discovered between mammoth and African elephant in amino-acid positions that are otherwise invariant over several billion years of combined mammalian evolution. This study shows that nuclear genome sequencing of extinct species can reveal population differences not evident from the fossil record, and perhaps even discover genetic factors that affect extinction.</p>
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9.
  • Price, Alkes L., et al. (författare)
  • Discerning the ancestry of European Americans in genetic association studies
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404. ; 4:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • European Americans are often treated as a homogeneous group, but in fact form a structured population due to historical immigration of diverse source populations. Discerning the ancestry of European Americans genotyped in association studies is important in order to prevent false-positive or false-negative associations due to population stratification and to identify genetic variants whose contribution to disease risk differs across European ancestries. Here, we investigate empirical patterns of population structure in European Americans, analyzing 4,198 samples from four genome-wide association studies to show that components roughly corresponding to northwest European, southeast European, and Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry are the main sources of European American population structure. Building on this insight, we constructed a panel of 300 validated markers that are highly informative for distinguishing these ancestries. We demonstrate that this panel of markers can be used to correct for stratification in association studies that do not generate dense genotype data.
10.
  • Skoglund, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Genomic insights into the peopling of the Southwest Pacific
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 538:7626, s. 510-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The appearance of people associated with the Lapita culture in the South Pacific around 3,000 years ago(1) marked the beginning of the last major human dispersal to unpopulated lands. However, the relationship of these pioneers to the long-established Papuan people of the New Guinea region is unclear. Here we present genome-wide ancient DNA data from three individuals from Vanuatu (about 3,100-2,700 years before present) and one from Tonga (about 2,700-2,300 years before present), and analyse them with data from 778 present-day East Asians and Oceanians. Today, indigenous people of the South Pacific harbour a mixture of ancestry from Papuans and a population of East Asian origin that no longer exists in unmixed form, but is a match to the ancient individuals. Most analyses have interpreted the minimum of twenty-five per cent Papuan ancestry in the region today as evidence that the first humans to reach Remote Oceania, including Polynesia, were derived from population mixtures near New Guinea, before their further expansion into Remote Oceania(2-5). However, our finding that the ancient individuals had little to no Papuan ancestry implies that later human population movements spread Papuan ancestry through the South Pacific after the first peopling of the islands.</p>
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