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Sökning: WFRF:(Paulo Paula)

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  • Vandewalle, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Functional traits as indicators of biodiversity response to land use changes across ecosystems and organisms
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Biodiversity and Conservation. - Springer. - 0960-3115. ; 19:10, s. 2921-2947
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rigorous and widely applicable indicators of biodiversity are needed to monitor the responses of ecosystems to global change and design effective conservation schemes. Among the potential indicators of biodiversity, those based on the functional traits of species and communities are interesting because they can be generalized to similar habitats and can be assessed by relatively rapid field assessment across eco-regions. Functional traits, however, have as yet been rarely considered in current common monitoring schemes. Moreover, standardized procedures of trait measurement and analyses have almost exclusively been developed for plants but different approaches have been used for different groups of organisms. Here we review approaches using functional traits as biodiversity indicators focussing not on plants as usual but particularly on animal groups that are commonly considered in different biodiversity monitoring schemes (benthic invertebrates, collembolans, above ground insects and birds). Further, we introduce a new framework based on functional traits indices and illustrate it using case studies where the traits of these organisms can help monitoring the response of biodiversity to different land use change drivers. We propose and test standard procedures to integrate different components of functional traits into biodiversity monitoring schemes across trophic levels and disciplines. We suggest that the development of indicators using functional traits could complement, rather than replace, the existent biodiversity monitoring. In this way, the comparison of the effect of land use changes on biodiversity is facilitated and is expected to positively influence conservation management practices.
  • Anton, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Research needs for incorporating the ecosystem service approach into EU biodiversity conservation policy
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Biodiversity and Conservation. - Springer. - 0960-3115. ; 19:10, s. 2979-2994
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using a range of different methods including extensive reviews, workshops and an electronic conference, 70 key research recommendations and 12 priority research needs to integrate the ecosystem services approach into biodiversity conservation policy and funding were identified by a cross-disciplinary group of over 100 scientists and 50 stakeholders, including research funders and policy-makers. These recommendations focus on the ecological underpinning of ecosystem services, drivers that affect ecosystems and their services, biological traits and ecosystem services, the valuation of ecosystem services, spatial and temporal scales in ecosystem service assessment, indicators of ecosystem services, and habitat management, conservation policy and ecosystem services. The recommendations in this paper help steer the research agenda on ecosystem services into policy-relevant areas, agreed upon by funders, researchers and policy-makers. This research agenda will only succeed with increased collaboration between researchers across disciplines, thereby providing a challenge to the research community and research funders to work in new, interdisciplinary ways.
  • Campos, Paula P., et al. (författare)
  • Amperometric detection of lactose using -galactosidase immobilized in layer-by-layer films
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. - The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1944-8244. ; 6:14, s. 11657-11664
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A direct, low-cost method to determine the concentration of lactose is an important goal with possible impact in various types of industry. In this study, a biosensor is reported that exploits the specific interaction between lactose and the enzyme β-galactosidase (β-Gal) normally employed to process lactose into glucose and galactose for lactose-intolerant people. The biosensor was made with β-Gal immobilized in layer-by-layer (LbL) films with the polyelectrolyte poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and poly(vinyl sufonate) (PVS) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode modified with a layer of Prussian Blue (PB). With an ITO/PB/(PEI/PVS)1(PEI/β-Gal)30 architecture, lactose could be determined with an amperometric method with sensitivity of 0.31 A mmol-1 cm-2 and detection limit of 1.13 mmol L -1, which is sufficient for detecting lactose in milk and for clinical exams. Detection occurred via a cascade reaction involving glucose oxidase titrated as electrolytic solution in the electrochemical cell, while PB allowed for operation at 0.0 V versus saturated calomel electrode, thus avoiding effects from interfering species. Sum-frequency generation spectroscopy data for the interface between the LbL film and a buffer containing lactose indicated that β-Gal lost order, which is the first demonstration of structural effects induced by the molecular recognition interaction with lactose.
  • Dadaev, Tokhir, et al. (författare)
  • Fine-mapping of prostate cancer susceptibility loci in a large meta-analysis identifies candidate causal variants.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.
  • de Bello, Francesco, et al. (författare)
  • Towards an assessment of multiple ecosystem processes and services via functional traits
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Biodiversity and conservation. - 0960-3115 .- 1572-9710. ; 19:10, s. 2873-2893
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Managing ecosystems to ensure the provision of multiple ecosystem services is a key challenge for applied ecology. Functional traits are receiving increasing attention as the main ecological attributes by which different organisms and biological communities influence ecosystem services through their effects on underlying ecosystem processes. Here we synthesize concepts and empirical evidence on linkages between functional traits and ecosystem services across different trophic levels. Most of the 247 studies reviewed considered plants and soil invertebrates, but quantitative trait-service associations have been documented for a range of organisms and ecosystems, illustrating the wide applicability of the trait approach. Within each trophic level, specific processes are affected by a combination of traits while particular key traits are simultaneously involved in the control of multiple processes. These multiple associations between traits and ecosystem processes can help to identify predictable trait-service clusters that depend on several trophic levels, such as clusters of traits of plants and soil organisms that underlie nutrient cycling, herbivory, and fodder and fibre production. We propose that the assessment of trait-service clusters will represent a crucial step in ecosystem service monitoring and in balancing the delivery of multiple, and sometimes conflicting, services in ecosystem management.
  • Ferreira, Daniela, et al. (författare)
  • Transcription and regulation of the hydrogenase(s) accessory genes, hypFCDEAB, in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula CCAP 1446/4
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Archives of Microbiology. - 0302-8933 .- 1432-072X. ; 188:6, s. 609-617
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lyngbya majuscula CCAP 1446/4 is a filamentous cyanobacterium possessing both an uptake and a bi-directional hydrogenase. The presence of a single copy of the hyp operon in the cyanobacterial genomes suggests that these accessory genes might be responsible for the maturation of both hydrogenases. We investigated the concomitant transcription of hypFCDEAB with the hydrogenases structural genes-hup and hox. RT-PCRs performed with L. majuscula cells grown under different physiological conditions showed a substantial decrease in the relative amount of hupL transcript under non-N-2-fixing conditions. In contrast, no significant differences were observed for the transcript levels of hypFCDEAB in all conditions tested, while minor fluctuations could be discerned for hoxH. Previously, it was demonstrated that the transcriptional regulators NtcA and LexA interact with the promoter regions of hup and hox, respectively, and that putative binding sites for both proteins are present in the hyp promoter of L. majuscula. Therefore, a putative involvement of NtcA and LexA in the regulation of the hyp transcription was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays resulted in NtcA or LexA-bound retarded fragments, suggesting the involvement of these proteins in the transcriptional regulation of hypFCDEAB.
  • Festugatto, Rafael, et al. (författare)
  • Remoção da cartilagem articular associada ou não a implante homógeno ou enxerto autógeno de osso esponjoso em cães submetidos à artrodese atlantoaxial
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Ciencia Rural. - 0103-8478. ; 43:3, s. 466-473
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of joint fusion and bone formation in dogs undergoing atlantoaxial arthrodesis after removal of articular cartilage associated or not to implant homogenous or autogenous cancellous bone. Twelve dogs, weighing between 8 and 12kg were randomly divided into three groups. Group I (GI) performed only the removal of joint cartilage and joint immobilization with acrylic resin and pins. Group II (GII): after removel of joint cartilage and articular immobilization was performed modeling and placement of homogenous cancellous bone at the given location. The volume of homograft placed in the joint was measured using a precision balance and all animals received the same amount. Group III (GIII): this was the same procedure as GI, however, was used autogenous cancellous bone graft at the given location. Radiographic examinations were performed on all animals at 30, 60 and 90 days postoperatively. At 90 days of PO was carried out euthanasia of animals for testing of manual palpation and CT evaluation and histological. Samples were kept in solution in 10% buffered formaldehyde for fixation for a minimum of 72 hours and after, decalcified in formic acid and sodium citrate for subsequent processing and included in paraffin. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for light microscopy evaluation. Statistical analysis of the association between the degree of joint fusion assessed by manual palpation, the digitized radiographic images and CT scans and treatment groups, we applied the Chi-square test of independence. The test results were evaluated by the exact significance and considered statistically significant at 5% significance (P<0.05). By manual palpation test and by the CT images can be seen that there was no statistically significant difference between groups at 90 days postoperatively. Radiographic analysis of the atlantoaxial joint showed that the degree of fusion was similar among treatments, no statistical difference at 30, 60 and 90 days postoperatively. Regarding the histopathological study of atlantoaxial joint of dogs after 90 days postoperatively was found that bone formation in group I had 25% of each intensity (absent, mild, moderate, severe) in group II, 75% lighter and 25% sharp and in group III, 25% moderate and 75% severe. It can be concluded that the use of graft homogenous preserved in 98% glycerin in dogs undergoing atlantoaxial fusion method is a viable alternative for treatment of atlantoaxial instability. There is no difference in the degree of joint fusion and bone formation when the technique of atlantoaxial arthrodesis in dogs is associated with autogenous cancellous bone graft or implant homogenous. The removal of articular cartilage alone is an effective and shows similar results to the use of autograft or homogenous implant.
  • Griswald, Max G, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016 a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736. ; 392:10152, s. 1015-1035
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older.Methods: Using 694 data sources of individual and population-level alcohol consumption, along with 592 prospective and retrospective studies on the risk of alcohol use, we produced estimates of the prevalence of current drinking, abstention, the distribution of alcohol consumption among current drinkers in standard drinks daily (defined as 10 g of pure ethyl alcohol), and alcohol-attributable deaths and DALYs. We made several methodological improvements compared with previous estimates: first, we adjusted alcohol sales estimates to take into account tourist and unrecorded consumption; second, we did a new meta-analysis of relative risks for 23 health outcomes associated with alcohol use; and third, we developed a new method to quantify the level of alcohol consumption that minimises the overall risk to individual health.Findings: Globally, alcohol use was the seventh leading risk factor for both deaths and DALYs in 2016, accounting for 2.2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.5-3.0) of age-standardised female deaths and 6.8% (5.8-8.0) of age-standardised male deaths. Among the population aged 15-49 years, alcohol use was the leading risk factor globally in 2016, with 3.8% (95% UI 3.2-4-3) of female deaths and 12.2% (10.8-13-6) of male deaths attributable to alcohol use. For the population aged 15-49 years, female attributable DALYs were 2.3% (95% UI 2.0-2.6) and male attributable DALYs were 8.9% (7.8-9.9). The three leading causes of attributable deaths in this age group were tuberculosis (1.4% [95% UI 1. 0-1. 7] of total deaths), road injuries (1.2% [0.7-1.9]), and self-harm (1.1% [0.6-1.5]). For populations aged 50 years and older, cancers accounted for a large proportion of total alcohol-attributable deaths in 2016, constituting 27.1% (95% UI 21.2-33.3) of total alcohol-attributable female deaths and 18.9% (15.3-22.6) of male deaths. The level of alcohol consumption that minimised harm across health outcomes was zero (95% UI 0.0-0.8) standard drinks per week.Interpretation: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for global disease burden and causes substantial health loss. We found that the risk of all-cause mortality, and of cancers specifically, rises with increasing levels of consumption, and the level of consumption that minimises health loss is zero. These results suggest that alcohol control policies might need to be revised worldwide, refocusing on efforts to lower overall population-level consumption.
  • Gusev, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Atlas of prostate cancer heritability in European and African-American men pinpoints tissue-specific regulation
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature communications. - 2041-1723. ; 7, s. 10979
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa.
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