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Sökning: WFRF:(Paunio Tiina)

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  • Sandman, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Nightmares Prevalence among the Finnish General Adult Population and War Veterans during 1972-2007
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Sleep. - Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC. - 0161-8105. ; 36:7, s. 1041-1050
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of nightmares among the Finnish general adult population during 1972-2007 and the association between nightmare prevalence and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety in World War II veterans. Design: Eight independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study conducted in Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: A total of 69,813 people (33,811 men and 36,002 women) age 25-74 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The investigation of nightmare prevalence and insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms was based on questionnaires completed by the participants. Among the whole sample, 3.5% of the men and 4.8% of the women reported frequent nightmares (P < 0.0001 for sex difference), but the prevalence was affected by the age of participants and the year of the survey. Nightmare prevalence increased with age, particularly among the men. The number of people reporting occasional nightmares increased roughly by 20% for both sexes from 1972 to 2007 (P < 0.0001). Participants with war experiences reported more frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety than participants without such experiences (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Prevalence of nightmares was affected by the sex and age of the participants, and occasional nightmares have become more common in Finland. Exposure to war elevates nightmare prevalence as well as insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms even decades after the war; large numbers of war veterans can affect nightmare prevalence on population level.
  • Sandman, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Nightmares : Risk factors among the Finnish general adult population
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Sleep. - Associated Professional Sleep Societies. - 0161-8105. ; 38:4, s. 507-514
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • STUDY OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations.DESIGN: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study.SETTING: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25-74 y.INTERVENTIONS: N/A.MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all).CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being.
  • Sandman, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Nightmares as predictors of suicide an extension study including war veterans
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nightmares are intensive dreams with negative emotional tone. Frequent nightmares can pose a serious clinical problem and in 2001, Tanskanen et al. found that nightmares increase the risk of suicide. However, the dataset used by these authors included war veterans in whom nightmare frequency -and possibly also suicide risk -is elevated. Therefore, re-examination of the association between nightmares and suicide in these data is warranted. We investigated the relationship between nightmares and suicide both in the general population and war veterans in Finnish National FINRISK Study from the years 1972 to 2012, a dataset overlapping with the one used in the study by Tanskanen et al. Our data comprise 71,068 participants of whom 3139 are war veterans. Participants were followed from their survey participation until the end of 2014 or death. Suicides (N = 398) were identified from the National Causes of Death Register. Frequent nightmares increase the risk of suicide: The result of Tanskanen et al. holds even when war experiences are controlled for. Actually nightmares are not significantly associated with suicides among war veterans. These results support the role of nightmares as an independent risk factor for suicide instead of just being proxy for history of traumatic experiences.
  • Sandman, Nils, et al. (författare)
  • Winter is coming nightmares and sleep problems during seasonal affective disorder
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0962-1105. ; 25:5, s. 612-619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sleep problems, especially nightmares and insomnia, often accompany depression. This study investigated how nightmares, symptoms of insomnia, chronotype and sleep duration associate with seasonal affective disorder, a special form of depression. Additionally, it was noted how latitude, a proxy for photoperiod, and characteristics of the place of residence affect the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder and sleep problems. To study these questions, data from FINRISK 2012 study were used. FINRISK 2012 consists of a random population sample of Finnish adults aged 25–74 years (n = 4905) collected during winter from Finnish urban and rural areas spanning the latitudes of 60°N to 66°N. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire was used to assess symptoms of seasonal affective disorder. Participants with symptoms of seasonal affective disorder had significantly increased odds of experiencing frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, and they were more often evening chronotypes. Associations between latitude, population size and urbanicity with seasonal affective disorder symptoms and sleep disturbances were generally not significant, although participants living in areas bordering urban centres had less sleep problems than participants from other regions. These data show that the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder was not affected by latitude. 
  • Aho, Vilma, et al. (författare)
  • Partial Sleep Restriction Activates Immune Response-Related Gene Expression Pathways : Experimental and Epidemiological Studies in Humans
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 8:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiological studies have shown that short or insufficient sleep is associated with increased risk for metabolic diseases and mortality. To elucidate mechanisms behind this connection, we aimed to identify genes and pathways affected by experimentally induced, partial sleep restriction and to verify their connection to insufficient sleep at population level. The experimental design simulated sleep restriction during a working week: sleep of healthy men (N = 9) was restricted to 4 h/night for five nights. The control subjects (N = 4) spent 8 h/night in bed. Leukocyte RNA expression was analyzed at baseline, after sleep restriction, and after recovery using whole genome microarrays complemented with pathway and transcription factor analysis. Expression levels of the ten most up-regulated and ten most down-regulated transcripts were correlated with subjective assessment of insufficient sleep in a population cohort (N = 472). Experimental sleep restriction altered the expression of 117 genes. Eight of the 25 most up-regulated transcripts were related to immune function. Accordingly, fifteen of the 25 most up-regulated Gene Ontology pathways were also related to immune function, including those for B cell activation, interleukin 8 production, and NF-kappa B signaling (P<0.005). Of the ten most up-regulated genes, expression of STX16 correlated negatively with self-reported insufficient sleep in a population sample, while three other genes showed tendency for positive correlation. Of the ten most down-regulated genes, TBX21 and LGR6 correlated negatively and TGFBR3 positively with insufficient sleep. Partial sleep restriction affects the regulation of signaling pathways related to the immune system. Some of these changes appear to be long-lasting and may at least partly explain how prolonged sleep restriction can contribute to inflammation-associated pathological states, such as cardiometabolic diseases.
  • Aho, Vilma, et al. (författare)
  • Prolonged sleep restriction induces changes in pathways involved in cholesterol metabolism and inflammatory responses
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sleep loss and insufficient sleep are risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases, but data on how insufficient sleep contributes to these diseases are scarce. These questions were addressed using two approaches: an experimental, partial sleep restriction study (14 cases and 7 control subjects) with objective verification of sleep amount, and two independent epidemiological cohorts (altogether 2739 individuals) with questions of sleep insufficiency. In both approaches, blood transcriptome and serum metabolome were analysed. Sleep loss decreased the expression of genes encoding cholesterol transporters and increased expression in pathways involved in inflammatory responses in both paradigms. Metabolomic analyses revealed lower circulating large HDL in the population cohorts among subjects reporting insufficient sleep, while circulating LDL decreased in the experimental sleep restriction study. These findings suggest that prolonged sleep deprivation modifies inflammatory and cholesterol pathways at the level of gene expression and serum lipoproteins, inducing changes toward potentially higher risk for cardiometabolic diseases.
  • Einarsdottir, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of NCAN as a candidate gene for developmental dyslexia.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A whole-genome linkage analysis in a Finnish pedigree of eight cases with developmental dyslexia (DD) revealed several regions shared by the affected individuals. Analysis of coding variants from two affected individuals identified rs146011974G > A (Ala1039Thr), a rare variant within the NCAN gene co-segregating with DD in the pedigree. This variant prompted us to consider this gene as a putative candidate for DD. The RNA expression pattern of the NCAN gene in human tissues was highly correlated (R > 0.8) with that of the previously suggested DD susceptibility genes KIAA0319, CTNND2, CNTNAP2 and GRIN2B. We investigated the association of common variation in NCAN to brain structures in two data sets: young adults (Brainchild study, Sweden) and infants (FinnBrain study, Finland). In young adults, we found associations between a common genetic variant in NCAN, rs1064395, and white matter volume in the left and right temporoparietal as well as the left inferior frontal brain regions. In infants, this same variant was found to be associated with cingulate and prefrontal grey matter volumes. Our results suggest NCAN as a new candidate gene for DD and indicate that NCAN variants affect brain structure.
  • Huckins, Laura M., et al. (författare)
  • Gene expression imputation across multiple brain regions provides insights into schizophrenia risk
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 51:4, s. 659-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transcriptomic imputation approaches combine eQTL reference panels with large-scale genotype data in order to test associations between disease and gene expression. These genic associations could elucidate signals in complex genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci and may disentangle the role of different tissues in disease development. We used the largest eQTL reference panel for the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to create a set of gene expression predictors and demonstrate their utility. We applied DLPFC and 12 GTEx-brain predictors to 40,299 schizophrenia cases and 65,264 matched controls for a large transcriptomic imputation study of schizophrenia. We identified 413 genic associations across 13 brain regions. Stepwise conditioning identified 67 non-MHC genes, of which 14 did not fall within previous GWAS loci. We identified 36 significantly enriched pathways, including hexosaminidase-A deficiency, and multiple porphyric disorder pathways. We investigated developmental expression patterns among the 67 non-MHC genes and identified specific groups of pre- and postnatal expression.
  • Johansson, Carolina, et al. (författare)
  • Seasonal affective disorder and the G-protein beta-3-subunit C825T polymorphism
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry. - New York : Elsevier. - 0006-3223. ; 55:3, s. 317-319
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins) have been implicated in affective disorders, with reports of altered signal transduction and G-protein levels. Association with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) has been found for the higher activity T-allele of the G-protein beta-3-subunit C825T polymorphism.Methods. European SAD patients (n = 159) and matched controls (n = 159) were genotyped for the C825T. Seasonality and diurnal preference were investigated in subsets of the material (n = 177 and 92, respectively).Results. We found no association between C825T and SAD (chi(2) = .09, p = .96) or seasonality (F = 1.76, p = .18). There was some evidence for an effect on diurnal preference but only in the control group (n = 46, t = - 2.8, Bonferroni corrected p = .045).Conclusions: These results suggest that the G-protein beta-3-subunit 825 T-allele does not play a major role in susceptibility to seasonal affective disorder in the population studied.
  • Lavebratt, Catharina, et al. (författare)
  • CRY2 is associated with depression
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 5:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Abnormalities in the circadian clockwork often characterize patients with major depressive and bipolar disorders. Circadian clock genes are targets of interest in these patients. CRY2 is a circadian gene that participates in regulation of the evening oscillator. This is of interest in mood disorders where a lack of switch from evening to morning oscillators has been postulated.Principal Findings: We observed a marked diurnal variation in human CRY2 mRNA levels from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and a significant up-regulation (P = 0.020) following one-night total sleep deprivation, a known antidepressant. In depressed bipolar patients, levels of CRY2 mRNA were decreased (P = 0.029) and a complete lack of increase was observed following sleep deprivation. To investigate a possible genetic contribution, we undertook SNP genotyping of the CRY2 gene in two independent population-based samples from Sweden (118 cases and 1011 controls) and Finland (86 cases and 1096 controls). The CRY2 gene was significantly associated with winter depression in both samples (haplotype analysis in Swedish and Finnish samples: OR = 1.8, P = 0.0059 and OR = 1.8, P = 0.00044, respectively).Conclusions: We propose that a CRY2 locus is associated with vulnerability for depression, and that mechanisms of action involve dysregulation of CRY2 expression.
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