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Sökning: WFRF:(Peat C M)

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1.
  • Javaras, K.N., et al. (författare)
  • Paternal age at childbirth and eating disorders in offspring
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 1469-8978. ; 584.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Advanced paternal age at childbirth is associated with psychiatric disorders in offspring, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. However, few studies have investigated paternal age’s relationship with eating disorders in offspring. In a large, population-based cohort, we examined the association between paternal age and offspring eating disorders, and whether that association remains after adjustment for potential confounders (e.g. parental education level) that may be related to late/early selection into fatherhood and to eating disorder incidence. Method. Data for 2 276 809 individuals born in Sweden 1979–2001 were extracted from Swedish population and healthcare registers. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the effect of paternal age on the first incidence of healthcare-recorded anorexia nervosa (AN) and all eating disorders (AED) occurring 1987–2009. Models were adjusted for sex, birth order, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal and paternal covariates including country of birth, highest education level, and lifetime psychiatric and criminal history. Results. Even after adjustment for covariates including maternal age, advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk, and younger paternal age with decreased risk, of AN and AED. For example, the fully adjusted hazard ratio for the 45+ years (v. the 25–29 years) paternal age category was 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14–1.53] for AN and 1.26 (95% CI 1.13–1.40) for AED. Conclusions. In this large, population-based cohort, paternal age at childbirth was positively associated with eating disorders in offspring, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Future research should further explore potential explanations for the association, including de novo mutations in the paternal germline.
2.
  • Watt, F. E., et al. (författare)
  • Towards prevention of post-traumatic osteoarthritis : report from an international expert working group on considerations for the design and conduct of interventional studies following acute knee injury
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. - Elsevier. - 1063-4584. ; 27:1, s. 23-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: There are few guidelines for clinical trials of interventions for prevention of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA), reflecting challenges in this area. An international multi-disciplinary expert group including patients was convened to generate points to consider for the design and conduct of interventional studies following acute knee injury. Design: An evidence review on acute knee injury interventional studies to prevent PTOA was presented to the group, alongside overviews of challenges in this area, including potential targets, biomarkers and imaging. Working groups considered pre-identified key areas: eligibility criteria and outcomes, biomarkers, injury definition and intervention timing including multi-modality interventions. Consensus agreement within the group on points to consider was generated and is reported here after iterative review by all contributors. Results: The evidence review identified 37 studies. Study duration and outcomes varied widely and 70% examined surgical interventions. Considerations were grouped into three areas: justification of inclusion criteria including the classification of injury and participant age (as people over 35 may have pre-existing OA); careful consideration in the selection and timing of outcomes or biomarkers; definition of the intervention(s)/comparator(s) and the appropriate time-window for intervention (considerations may be particular to intervention type). Areas for further research included demonstrating the utility of patient-reported outcomes, biomarkers and imaging outcomes from ancillary/cohort studies in this area, and development of surrogate clinical trial endpoints that shorten the duration of clinical trials and are acceptable to regulatory agencies. Conclusions: These considerations represent the first international consensus on the conduct of interventional studies following acute knee joint trauma.
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  • Baker, Naomi L., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular consequences of dominant Bethlem myopathy collagen VI mutations
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1531-8249. ; 62:4, s. 390-405
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Dominant mutations in the three collagen VI genes cause Bethlem myopathy, a disorder characterized by proximal muscle weakness and commonly contractures of the fingers, wrists, and ankles. Although more than 20 different dominant mutations have been identified in Bethlem myopathy patients, the biosynthetic consequences of only a subset of these have been studied, and in many cases, the pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. Methods: We have screened fourteen Bethlem myopathy patients for collagen VI mutations and performed detailed analyses of collagen VI biosynthesis and intracellular and extracellular assembly. Results: Collagen VI abnormalities were identified in eight patients. One patient produced around half the normal amount of alpha 1(VI) messenger RNA and reduced amounts of collagen VI protein. Two patients had a previously reported mutation causing skipping of COL6A1 exon 14, and three patients had novel mutations leading to in-frame deletions toward the N-terminal end of the triple-helical domain. These mutations have different and complex effects on collagen VI intracellular and extracellular assembly. Two patients had single amino acid substitutions in the A-domains of COL6A2 and COL6A3. Collagen VI intracellular and extracellular assembly was normal in one of these patients. Interpretation: The key to dissecting the pathogenic mechanisms of collagen VI mutations lies in detailed analysis of collagen VI biosynthesis and assembly. The majority of mutations result in secretion and deposition of structurally abnormal collagen VI. However, one A-domain mutation had no detectable effect on assembly, suggesting that it acts by compromising collagen VI interactions in the extracellular matrix of muscle.
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