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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Peeker Ralph Professor) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Peeker Ralph Professor)

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1.
  • Aljabery, Firas (författare)
  • Staging and tumor biological mechanisms of lymph node metastasis in invasive urinary bladder cancer
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: To study the possibility of detecting lymph node metastasis in locally advanced urinary bladder cancer (UBC) treated with radical cystectomy (RC) by using preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and peroperative sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique. We also investigate the clinical significance of macrophage traits expression by cancer cells, M2-macrophage infiltration (MI) in tumor stroma and the immunohistochemical expression of biomarkers in cancer cells in relation to clinicopathologic data.Patients and Methods: We studied prospectively 122 patients with UBC, pathological stage pT1–pT4 treated with RC and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) during 2005–2011 at the Department of Urology, Linköping University Hospital. In the first study, we compared the results of preoperative PET/CT and conventional CT with the findings of postoperative histopathological evaluation of lymph nodes (LNs). In the second study we investigated the value of SNB technique for detecting pathological LNs during RC in patients with UBC. W also examined the significance of the primary tumor location in the bladder in predicting the site of LN metastases, and the prognostic significance of lympho-vascular invasion (LVI) and lymph node metastasis density (LNMD) on survival. In the third study, we investigate the clinical significance of macrophage infiltration (MI) in tumor stroma and macrophage-traits expression by tumor cells. In the fourth study, we investigate the cell cycle suppression proteins p53, p21, pRb, p16, p14 ARF as well as tumors proliferative protein Ki67 and DNA repair protein ERCC1 expression in cancer cells. The results were compared with clinical and pathological characteristics and outcome.Results: Prior to RC, PET/CT was used to detect LN metastasis in 54 patients. PET/CT had 41% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 58% PPV, and 76% NPV, whereas the corresponding figures for conventional CT were 41%, 89%, 64%, and 77%. SNB was performed during RC in 103 patients. A median number of 29 (range 7–68) nodes per patient were examined. SNs were detected in 83 out of 103 patients (81%). The sensitivity and specificity for detecting metastatic disease by SNB varied among LN stations, with average values of 67% -90%. LNMD or ≥8% and LVI were significantly related to shorter survival. In 103 patients, MI was high in 33% of cases, while moderate and low infiltration occurred in 42% and 25% of tumors respectively. Patients with tumors containing high and moderate compared to low MI had low rate of LN metastases (P=0.06) and improved survival (P=0.06), although not at significant level. The expression of different tumor suppression proteins was altered in 47-91% of the patients. There were no significant association between cancer specific survival (CSS) and any of the studied biomarkers. In case of altered p14ARF, ERCC1 or p21, CSS was low in case of low p53 immunostaining but increased in case of p53 accumulation, although not at a significant level, indicating a possible protective effect of p53 accumulation in these cases.Conclusion: PET/ CT provided no improvement over conventional CT in detection and localization of regional LN metastases in bladder cancer. It is possible to detect the SN but the technique is not a reliable for perioperative localization of LN metastases; however, LVI and LNMD at a cut-off level of 8% had significant prognostic values. MI in the tumor microenvironment but not CD163 expression in tumor cells seems to be synergistic with the immune response against urinary bladder cancer. Our results further indicate that altered p53 might have protective effect on survival in case of altered p14ARF, p21, or ERCC1 indicating an interaction between these biomarkers.
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2.
  • Andersson-Evelönn, Emma, 1983- (författare)
  • DNA methylation as a prognostic marker in clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type of renal cell carcinoma worldwide. Metastatic ccRCC is correlated to poor prognosis whereas non-metastatic disease has a 5-year survival rate up to 90%. Due to increased accessibility to different types of diagnostic imaging the frequency of metastatic ccRCC at diagnosis has decreased since the beginning of the 21st century. This has led to an earlier detection of primary tumors before patients present symptoms. However, 20-30% of the non-metastatic patients at diagnosis will progress and metastasize within five years of primary nephrectomy. Identifying patients at high risk of tumor progression at an early stage after diagnosis is of importance to improve outcome and survival. Currently, in Sweden, the Mayo scoring system is used to divide tumors into low, intermediate or high risk for tumor progression.DNA methylation has been associated with tumor development and progression in different malignancies. In this thesis, Illumina Infinium HumanMeth27 BeadChip Arrays and Human Meth450K BeadChip Arrays have been used to evaluate the relationship between methylation and clinicopathological variables as well as ccRCC outcome in 45 and 115 patients.Our studies identified an association between higher level of promoter-associated DNA methylation and clinicopathological variables in ccRCC. There was a significant stepwise increase of average methylation from tumor-free tissue, via non-metastatic tumors to metastatic disease. Cluster analysis divided patients into two distinct groups that differed in average methylation levels, TNM stage, Fuhrman nuclear grade, tumor size, survival and tumor progression. We also presented two prognostic classifiers for non-metastatic tumors; the promoter methylation classifier (PMC) panel and the triple classifier. The PMC panel divided tumors depending on the methylation level, PMC low or PMC high, with significantly worse prognosis in the PMC high group. This data was verified in an independent, publically available cohort. The triple classifier was created using a combination of clinicopathological variables, previously identified CpGs biomarkers and a novel cluster analysis approach (Directed Cluster Analysis). The triple classifier had a higher specificity compared to the clinically used Mayo scoring system and predicted tumor progression with higher accuracy at a fixed sensitivity.The identification of two epigenetic classifiers that predicted outcome in non-metastatic ccRCC further establishes the role of DNA methylation as a prognostic marker. This knowledge can contribute to identification of patients with a high risk of tumor progression and can be of importance in the decision regarding adjuvant treatment post-nephrectomy.
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3.
  • Rosenblatt, Robert, 1982- (författare)
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer : studies on treatment response, tumor draining lymph nodes and blood transfusion
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer is a deadly disease. Mortality rates remained unchanged for decades despite radical surgery.After several randomized trials, we today know that cisplatin based chemotherapy given prior to cystectomy, improves survival for every tenth patient. Markers that predict responsiveness to chemotherapy would spare unnecessary treatment to the majority of patients. In the search for signs of chemosensitivity, we performed a retrospective analysis of the Nordic cystectomy trials 1 & 2: Chemo treated patients had an almost doubled increase in tumor downstaging compared to the controls. More importantly, this group presented with a reduced absolute risk of death of more than 30% compared to the rest of the patients. These results were presented in paper I.Many cancers spread through the lymphatic system. Usually, there is at least one tumor draining lymph node, referred to as the sentinel node. If this node is free of metastases, there is no lymphatic spread of the disease, and consequently, no use of excavating all neighboring lymph nodes.Sentinel node detection, is an established method in breast cancer, penile cancer and malignant melanoma. Based on the same principles, members of our group developed a similar detection technique in bladder cancer. Unfortunately, sensitivity and specificity were too low to rely on this method as a diagnostic tool for lymphatic spread. Instead, it turned out in recent years that sentinel nodes in muscle invasive bladder cancer are valuable for translational research-lines - mainly in tumor immunology. As for example, sentinel nodes contain tumor specific T cells that are useful in adoptive immunotherapy.In paper II, we set out to test whether sentinel node detection was feasible after chemotherapy and/or tumor downstaging. In a prospective cohort of patients, we saw no difference in detection rates between the groups. Thus, we concluded, neither chemotherapy nor downstaging appeared to hamper the identification of sentinel nodes.The concept was expanded in paper III. After recruiting more patients to the cohort mentioned above, the average numbers of sentinel nodes in different categories of patients were compared. We saw a pattern of decreased number of sentinel nodes in those with locally advanced tumors. It seemed that the number of sentinel nodes had prognostic implications.In the last study, published in paper IV, we wanted to widen our knowledge on the clinical effects of blood transfusion. Mounting data suggests that perioperative blood products have a negative impact on long term survival after cancer surgery. How much allogenic blood was given during the chemotherapy prior to surgery ? It turned out that one third of the bladder cancer patients received blood, and these patients demonstrated a significantly worse overall survival.Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has added a new beneficial dimension to the treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer. In these four studies, we addressed the effects of chemotherapy on pathoanatomical outcomes, on tumor lymphatics and further; we are suggesting consequences of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in conjunction with blood transfusion. It appears that the immune system is involved in all aspects investigated above. Most likely, an improved scientific understanding of the immune system will be crucial for future bladder cancer treatment options.
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