1. 
 Ade, P. A. R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results XX. Constraints on inflation
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 <p>We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey, which includes more than twice the integration time of the nominal survey used for the 2013 release papers. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be n(s) = 0.968 +/ 0.006 and tightly constrain its scale dependence to dn(s)/dln k = 0.003 +/ 0.007 when combined with the Planck lensing likelihood. When the Planck highl polarization data are included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are further reduced. The upper bound on the tensortoscalar ratio is r(0).(002) < 0.11 (95% CL). This upper limit is consistent with the Bmode polarization constraint r < 0.12 (95% CL) obtained from a joint analysis of the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck data. These results imply that V(phi) proportional to phi(2) and natural inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensortoscalar ratio, such as R2 inflation. We search for several physically motivated deviations from a simple powerlaw spectrum of curvature perturbations, including those motivated by a reconstruction of the inflaton potential not relying on the slowroll approximation. We find that such models are not preferred, either according to a Bayesian model comparison or according to a frequentist simulationbased analysis. Three independent methods reconstructing the primordial power spectrum consistently recover a featureless and smooth PR (k) over the range of scales 0.008 Mpc(1) less than or similar to k less than or similar to 0.1 Mpc(1). At large scales, each method finds deviations from a power law, connected to a deficit at multipoles l approximate to 2040 in the temperature power spectrum, but at an uncompelling statistical significance owing to the large cosmic variance present at these multipoles. By combining power spectrum and nonGaussianity bounds, we constrain models with generalized Lagrangians, including Galileon models and axion monodromy models. The Planck data are consistent with adiabatic primordial perturbations, and the estimated values for the parameters of the base Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) model are not significantly altered when more general initial conditions are admitted. In correlated mixed adiabatic and isocurvature models, the 95% CL upper bound for the nonadiabatic contribution to the observed CMB temperature variance is vertical bar alpha(nonadi)vertical bar < 1.9%, 4.0%, and 2.9% for CDM, neutrino density, and neutrino velocity isocurvature modes, respectively. We have tested inflationary models producing an anisotropic modulation of the primordial curvature power spectrum finding that the dipolar modulation in the CMB temperature field induced by a CDM isocurvature perturbation is not preferred at a statistically significant level. We also establish tight constraints on a possible quadrupolar modulation of the curvature perturbation. These results are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and further constrain slowroll singlefield inflationary models, as expected from the increased precision of Planck data using the full set of observations.</p>


2. 
 Ade, P. A. R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results XVII. Constraints on primordial nonGaussianity
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 <p>The Planck full mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and Emode polarization maps are analysed to obtain constraints on primordial nonGaussianity (NG). Using three classes of optimal bispectrum estimators  separable templatefitting (KSW), binned, and modal we obtain consistent values for the primordial local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result from temperature alone f(NL)(local) = 2.5 +/ 5.7, f(NL)(equil) = 16 +/ 70, and f(NL)(ortho) = 34 +/ 33 (68% CL, statistical). Combining temperature and polarization data we obtain f(NL)(local) = 0.8 +/ 5.0, f(NL)(equil) = 4 +/ 43, and f(NL)(ortho) = 26 +/ 21 (68% CL, statistical). The results are based on comprehensive crossvalidation of these estimators on Gaussian and nonGaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are consistent with estimators based on measuring the Minkowski functionals of the CMB. The effect of timedomain deglitching systematics on the bispectrum is negligible. In spite of these test outcomes we conservatively label the results including polarization data as preliminary, owing to a known mismatch of the noise model in simulations and the data. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we present modelindependent, threedimensional reconstructions of the Planck CMB bispectrum and derive constraints on early universe scenarios that generate primordial NG, including general singlefield models of inflation, axion inflation, initial state modifications, models producing parityviolating tensor bispectra, and directionally dependent vector models. We present a wide survey of scaledependent feature and resonance models, accounting for the look elsewhere effect in estimating the statistical significance of features. We also look for isocurvature NG, and find no signal, but we obtain constraints that improve significantly with the inclusion of polarization. The primordial trispectrum amplitude in the local model is constrained to be g(NL)(local) = (9.0 +/ 7.7) x 10(4) (68% CL statistical), and we perform an analysis of trispectrum shapes beyond the local case. The global picture that emerges is one of consistency with the premises of the Lambda CDM cosmology, namely that the structure we observe today was sourced by adiabatic, passive, Gaussian, and primordial seed perturbations.</p>


3. 
 Ade, P. A. R., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2015 results XVIII. Background geometry and topology of the Universe
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 594

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 <p>Maps of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization from the 2015 release of Planck data provide the highest quality fullsky view of the surface of last scattering available to date. This enables us to detect possible departures from a globally isotropic cosmology. We present the first searches using CMB polarization for correlations induced by a possible nontrivial topology with a fundamental domain that intersects, or nearly intersects, the lastscattering surface (at comoving distance chi(rec)), both via a direct scan for matched circular patterns at the intersections and by an optimal likelihood calculation for specific topologies. We specialize to flat spaces with cubic toroidal (T3) and slab (T1) topologies, finding that explicit searches for the latter are sensitive to other topologies with antipodal symmetry. These searches yield no detection of a compact topology with a scale below the diameter of the lastscattering surface. The limits on the radius Ri of the largest sphere inscribed in the fundamental domain (at loglikelihood ratio Delta ln L > 5 relative to a simplyconnected flat Planck bestfit model) are: Ri > 0.97 chi(rec) for the T3 cubic torus; and Ri > 0.56 chi(rec) for the T1 slab. The limit for the T3 cubic torus from the matchedcircles search is numerically equivalent, Ri > 0.97 chi(rec) at 99% confidence level from polarization data alone. We also perform a Bayesian search for an anisotropic global Bianchi VIIh geometry. In the nonphysical setting, where the Bianchi cosmology is decoupled from the standard cosmology, Planck temperature data favour the inclusion of a Bianchi component with a Bayes factor of at least 2.3 units of logevidence. However, the cosmological parameters that generate this pattern are in strong disagreement with those found from CMB anisotropy data alone. Fitting the induced polarization pattern for this model to the Planck data requires an amplitude of 0.10 +/ 0.04 compared to the value of + 1 if the model were to be correct. In the physically motivated setting, where the Bianchi parameters are coupled and fitted simultaneously with the standard cosmological parameters, we find no evidence for a Bianchi VIIh cosmology and constrain the vorticity of such models to (omega/H)(0) < 7.6 x 10(10) (95% CL).</p>


4. 
 Imai, Y., et al.
(författare)

Identification of oxidative stress and tolllike receptor 4 signaling as a key pathway of acute lung injury
 2008

Ingår i: Cell.  Cell Press.  10974172. ; 133:2, s. 235249

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Multiple lung pathogens such as chemical agents, H5N1 avian flu, or SARS cause high lethality due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Here we report that Tolllike receptor 4 (TLR4) mutant mice display natural resistance to acidinduced acute lung injury (ALI). We show that TLR4TRIFTRAF6 signaling is a key disease pathway that controls the severity of ALI. The oxidized phospholipid (OxPL) OxPAPC was identified to induce lung injury and cytokine production by lung macrophages via TLR4TRIF. We observed OxPL production in the lungs of humans and animals infected with SARS, Anthrax, or H5N1. Pulmonary challenge with an inactivated H5N1 avian influenza virus rapidly induces ALI and OxPL formation in mice. Loss of TLR4 or TRIF expression protects mice from H5N1induced ALI. Moreover, deletion of ncf1, which controls ROS production, improves the severity of H5N1mediated ALI. Our data identify oxidative stress and innate immunity as key lung injury pathways that control the severity of ALI.


5. 
 Parihar, Vishal Singh, et al.
(författare)

Characterization of Human Invasive Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes in Sweden 19862007
 2008

Ingår i: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease.  Mary Ann Liebert, Inc..  15567125. ; 5:6, s. 755761

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Since 1986, 68% of the Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human cases of invasive listeriosis in Sweden are available for retrospective Studies. The aim of the present Study was to characterize 601 human invasive isolates of L. monocytogenes in Sweden from 1986 to 2007 by using serotyping and pulsedfield gel electrophoresis. Since 1996, serovar 4b was permanently reduced to the second or third most common serovar in human cases in Sweden. During the latter period, 20002007, only 13% belonged to serovar 4b and 71% to 1/2a. The dendrogram, based on pulsovars, reveals two Clusters with different serovars. Cluster I exhibits serovars 4b and 1/2b, whereas cluster 2 consists of serovar 1/2a. Serovar 1/2a seems to be more heterogeneous than serovar 4b.


6. 
 Malz, A., et al.
(författare)

The Photometric LSST Astronomical Timeseries Classification Challenge PLAsTiCC : Selection of a Performance Metric for Classification Probabilities Balancing Diverse Science Goals
 2019

Ingår i: Astronomical Journal.  00046256 . 15383881. ; 158:5

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 <p>Classification of transient and variable light curves is an essential step in using astronomical observations to develop an understanding of the underlying physical processes from which they arise. However, upcoming deep photometric surveys, including the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), will produce a deluge of low signaltonoise data for which traditional type estimation procedures are inappropriate. Probabilistic classification is more appropriate for such data but is incompatible with the traditional metrics used on deterministic classifications. Furthermore, large survey collaborations like LSST intend to use the resulting classification probabilities for diverse science objectives, indicating a need for a metric that balances a variety of goals. We describe the process used to develop an optimal performance metric for an open classification challenge that seeks to identify probabilistic classifiers that can serve many scientific interests. The Photometric LSST Astronomical Timeseries Classification Challenge (PLASTICC) aims to identify promising techniques for obtaining classification probabilities of transient and variable objects by engaging a broader community beyond astronomy. Using mock classification probability submissions emulating realistically complex archetypes of those anticipated of PLASTICC, we compare the sensitivity of two metrics of classification probabilities under various weighting schemes, finding that both yield results that are qualitatively consistent with intuitive notions of classification performance. We thus choose as a metric for PLASTICC a weighted modification of the crossentropy because it can be meaningfully interpreted in terms of information content. Finally, we propose extensions of our methodology to ever more complex challenge goals and suggest some guiding principles for approaching the choice of a metric of probabilistic data products.</p>


7. 
 Barack, Leor, et al.
(författare)

Black holes, gravitational waves and fundamental physics : a roadmap
 2019

Ingår i: Classical and quantum gravity.  02649381 . 13616382. ; 36:14

Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
 <p>The grand challenges of contemporary fundamental physics dark matter, dark energy, vacuum energy, inflation and early universe cosmology, singularities and the hierarchy problem all involve gravity as a key component. And of all gravitational phenomena, black holes stand out in their elegant simplicity, while harbouring some of the most remarkable predictions of General Relativity: event horizons, singularities and ergoregions. The hitherto invisible landscape of the gravitational Universe is being unveiled before our eyes: the historical direct detection of gravitational waves by the LIGOVirgo collaboration marks the dawn of a new era of scientific exploration. Gravitationalwave astronomy will allow us to test models of black hole formation, growth and evolution, as well as models of gravitationalwave generation and propagation. It will provide evidence for event horizons and ergoregions, test the theory of General Relativity itself, and may reveal the existence of new fundamental fields. The synthesis of these results has the potential to radically reshape our understanding of the cosmos and of the laws of Nature. The purpose of this work is to present a concise, yet comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the relevant fields of research, summarize important open problems, and lay out a roadmap for future progress. This writeup is an initiative taken within the framework of the European Action on 'Black holes, Gravitational waves and Fundamental Physics'.</p>


8. 
 McEwen, J. D., et al.
(författare)

WaveletBayesian inference of cosmic strings embedded in the cosmic microwave background
 2017

Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.  00358711 . 13652966. ; 472:4, s. 40814098

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 <p>Cosmic strings are a wellmotivated extension to the standard cosmological model and could induce a subdominant component in the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), in addition to the standard inflationary component. The detection of strings, while observationally challenging, would provide a direct probe of physics at very highenergy scales. We develop a framework for cosmic string inference from observations of the CMB made over the celestial sphere, performing a Bayesian analysis in wavelet space where the stringinduced CMB component has distinct statistical properties to the standard inflationary component. Our waveletBayesian framework provides a principled approach to compute the posterior distribution of the string tension G mu and the Bayesian evidence ratio comparing the string model to the standard inflationary model. Furthermore, we present a technique to recover an estimate of any stringinduced CMB map embedded in observational data. Using Plancklike simulations, we demonstrate the application of our framework and evaluate its performance. The method is sensitive to G mu similar to 5 x 10(7) for NambuGoto string simulations that include an integrated SachsWolfe contribution only and do not include any recombination effects, before any parameters of the analysis are optimized. The sensitivity of the method compares favourably with other techniques applied to the same simulations.</p>

