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Sökning: WFRF:(Perreau Lenz Stephanie)

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1.
  • Bilbao, Ainhoa, et al. (författare)
  • Loss of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV in dopaminoceptive neurons enhances behavioral effects of cocaine
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Academy of Sciences; 1999. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 105:45, s. 17549-17554
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The persistent nature of addiction has been associated with activity-induced plasticity of neurons within the striatum and nucleus accumbens (NAc). To identify the molecular processes leading to these adaptations, we performed Cre/loxP-mediated genetic ablations of two key regulators of gene expression in response to activity, the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) and its postulated main target, the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). We found that acute cocaine-induced gene expression in the striatum was largely unaffected by the loss of CaMKIV. On the behavioral level, mice lacking CaMKIV in dopaminoceptive neurons displayed increased sensitivity to cocaine as evidenced by augmented expression of locomotor sensitization and enhanced conditioned place preference and reinstatement after extinction. However, the loss of CREB in the forebrain had no effect on either of these behaviors, even though it robustly blunted acute cocaine-induced transcription. To test the relevance of these observations for addiction in humans, we performed an association study of CAMK4 and CREB promoter polymorphisms with cocaine addiction in a large sample of addicts. We found that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the CAMK4 promoter was significantly associated with cocaine addiction, whereas variations in the CREB promoter regions did not correlate with drug abuse. These findings reveal a critical role for CaMKIV in the development and persistence of cocaine-induced behaviors, through mechanisms dissociated from acute effects on gene expression and CREB-dependent transcription.
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2.
  • Dong, Li, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of the Circadian Rhythm Gene Period 1 (Per1) on Psychosocial Stress-Induced Alcohol Drinking
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry. - 0002-953X .- 1535-7228. ; 168:10, s. 1090-1098
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Circadian and stress-response systems mediate environmental changes that affect alcohol drinking. Psychosocial stress is an environmental risk factor for alcohol abuse. Circadian rhythm gene period 1(Per1) is targeted by stress hormones and is transcriptionally activated in corticotropin releasing factor-expressing cells. The authors hypothesized that Per1 is involved in integrating stress response and circadian rhythmicity and explored its relevance to alcohol drinking. Method: In mice, the effects of stress on ethanol intake in mPer1-mutant and wild-type mice were assessed. In humans, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in hPer1 were tested for association with alcohol drinking behavior in 273 adolescents and an adult case-control sample of 1,006 alcohol-dependent patients and 1,178 comparison subjects. In vitro experiments were conducted to measure genotype-specific expression and transcription factor binding to hPer1. Results: The mPer1-mutant mice showed enhanced alcohol consumption in response to social defeat stress relative to their wild-type littermates. An association with the frequency of heavy drinking in adolescents with the hPer1 promoter SNP rs3027172 and with psychosocial adversity was found. There was significant interaction between the rs3027172 genotype and psychosocial adversity on this drinking measure. In a confirmatory analysis, association of hPer1 rs3027172 with alcohol dependence was shown. Cortisol-induced transcriptional activation of hPer1 was reduced in human B-lymphoblastoid cells carrying the risk genotype of rs3027172. Binding affinity of the transcription factor Snail1 to the risk allele of the hPer1 SNP rs3027172 was also reduced. Conclusions: The findings indicate that the hPer1 gene regulates alcohol drinking behavior during stressful conditions and provide evidence for underlying neurobiological mechanisms.
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3.
  • Engblom, David, et al. (författare)
  • Glutamate receptors on dopamine neurons control the persistence of cocaine seeking
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Neuron. - : Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.. - 0896-6273 .- 1097-4199. ; 59:3, s. 497-508
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cocaine strengthens excitatory synapses onto midbrain dopamine neurons through the synaptic delivery of GluR1-containing AMPA receptors. This cocaine-evoked plasticity depends on NMDA receptor activation, but its behavioral significance in the context of addiction remains elusive. Here, we generated mice lacking the GluR1, GluR2, or NR1 receptor subunits selectively in dopamine neurons. We report that in midbrain slices of cocaine-treated mice, synaptic transmission was no longer strengthened when GluR1 or NR1 was abolished, while in the respective mice the drug still induced normal conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. In contrast, extinction of drug-seeking behavior was absent in mice lacking GluR1, while in the NR1 mutant mice reinstatement was abolished. In conclusion, cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity does not mediate concurrent short-term behavioral effects of the drug but may initiate adaptive changes eventually leading to the persistence of drug-seeking behavior.
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