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Sökning: WFRF:(Perroud M.)

  • Resultat 1-8 av 8
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  • Vanderkelen, I., et al. (författare)
  • Global Heat Uptake by Inland Waters
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276 .- 1944-8007. ; 47:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heat uptake is a key variable for understanding the Earth system response to greenhouse gas forcing. Despite the importance of this heat budget, heat uptake by inland waters has so far not been quantified. Here we use a unique combination of global‐scale lake models, global hydrological models and Earth system models to quantify global heat uptake by natural lakes, reservoirs, and rivers. The total net heat uptake by inland waters amounts to 2.6 ± 3.2 ×1020 J over the period 1900–2020, corresponding to 3.6% of the energy stored on land. The overall uptake is dominated by natural lakes (111.7%), followed by reservoir warming (2.3%). Rivers contribute negatively (‐14%) due to a decreasing water volume. The thermal energy of water stored in artificial reservoirs exceeds inland water heat uptake by a factor ∼10.4. This first quantification underlines that the heat uptake by inland waters is relatively small, but non‐negligible.
  • Mesman, J. P., et al. (författare)
  • Performance of one-dimensional hydrodynamic lake models during short-term extreme weather events
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Environmental Modelling & Software. - 1364-8152 .- 1873-6726. ; 133
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Numerical lake models are useful tools to study hydrodynamics in lakes, and are increasingly applied to extreme weather events. However, little is known about the accuracy of such models during these short-term events. We used high-frequency data from three lakes to test the performance of three one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic models (Simstrat, GOTM, GLM) during storms and heatwaves. Models reproduced the overall direction and magnitude of changes during the extreme events, with accurate timing and little bias. Changes in volume-averaged and surface temperatures and Schmidt stability were simulated more accurately than changes in bottom temperature, maximum buoyancy frequency, or mixed layer depth. However, in most cases the model error was higher (30-100%) during extreme events compared to reference periods. As a consequence, while 1D lake models can be used to study effects of extreme weather events, the increased uncertainty in the simulations should be taken into account when interpreting results.
  • Chotteau, Veronique, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Study of Alternating Tangential Flow filtration for perfusion and harvest in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells cultivation
  • 2010
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Perfusion is a mode of operation where a continuous replacement of the conditioned medium by fresh medium is operated. It has the advantage of allowing high cell densities. This mode of operations is also required for some instable proteins since the cell-free supernatant containing the product of interest is immediately stored at low temperature where the proteolysis is not active. The ATF filtration device, Alternating Tangential Flow, has been designed to perfuse mammalian cell cultivation process and is used (or studied) nowadays for applications like perfusion, medium renewal, harvest, etc. The cell broth circulation back and forward in the filter prevents the filter clogging and the design ensures a low shear not damageable for the cells. A perfusion process operated by ATF filtration and using CHO cells producing a monoclonal antibody was developed in a 2 L bioreactor. The medium did not contain animal derived components. Cell densities above 40 x 106 cells/mL were obtained with a perfusion rate of 2 reactor volume/day. The highest cell density observed was 48 x 106 cells/mL. These high cell densities were challenging for the aeration. Pure oxygen aeration by large bubbles from an open tube resulted in satisfying oxygenation until 25 to 30 x 106 cells/mL but became limiting at higher cell densities due to the low kLa of these bubbles and the small liquid height. At higher cell densities, a porous sparger with pure oxygen was used either alone or in combination with the open tube aeration. Automatic delivery of antifoam C and pluronic counteracted the effect of small bubble foam deleterious for the cells. From an operation point-of-view, the perfusion operated by the ATF device was satisfying, without filter fouling, easy to operate and to adjust in comparison with other separation devices by filtration or acceleration.   Finally harvesting by ATF filtration was evaluated in comparison with ‘one-way’ tangential flow filtration, TFF, on an IgG producing CHO fed-batch process produced in 2 L bioreactor. In both operation modes, ATF and TFF, filter fouling occurred after several minutes and the total process time was comparable but an important difference was that the viability drop obtained when using ATF was 15 % while it was 45 % using the TFF.
  • Delorme, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • No human tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene R441H mutation in a large cohort of psychiatric patients and control subjects.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry. - 0006-3223. ; 60:2, s. 202-203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: It was recently reported that a rare functional variant, R441H, in the human tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene (hTPH2) could represent an important risk factor for unipolar major depression (UP) since it was originally found in 10% of UP patients (vs. 1.4% in control subjects). METHODS: We explored the occurrence of this variation in patients with affective disorders (n = 646), autism spectrum disorders (n = 224), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (n = 201); in healthy volunteers with no psychiatric disorders (n = 246); and in an ethnic panel of control individuals from North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, China, and Sweden (n = 277). RESULTS: Surprisingly, we did not observe the R441H variant in any of the individuals screened (3188 independent chromosomes). CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not confirm the role of the R441H mutation of the hTPH2 gene in the susceptibility to UP. The absence of the variant from a large cohort of psychiatric patients and control subjects suggests that the findings reported in the original study could be due to a genotyping error or to stratification of the initial population reported. Additional data by other groups should contribute to the clarification of the discrepancy between our results and those previous published.
  • Grant, Luke, et al. (författare)
  • Attribution of global lake systems change to anthropogenic forcing
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Geoscience. - 1752-0894 .- 1752-0908. ; 14:11, s. 849-854
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lake ecosystems are jeopardized by the impacts of climate change on ice seasonality and water temperatures. Yet historical simulations have not been used to formally attribute changes in lake ice and temperature to anthropogenic drivers. In addition, future projections of these properties are limited to individual lakes or global simulations from single lake models. Here we uncover the human imprint on lakes worldwide using hindcasts and projections from five lake models. Reanalysed trends in lake temperature and ice cover in recent decades are extremely unlikely to be explained by pre-industrial climate variability alone. Ice-cover trends in reanalysis are consistent with lake model simulations under historical conditions, providing attribution of lake changes to anthropogenic climate change. Moreover, lake temperature, ice thickness and duration scale robustly with global mean air temperature across future climate scenarios (+0.9 °C °Cair–1, –0.033 m °Cair–1 and –9.7 d °Cair–1, respectively). These impacts would profoundly alter the functioning of lake ecosystems and the services they provide.
  • Lang, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • The Physcomitrella patens chromosome-scale assembly reveals moss genome structure and evolution
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Plant Journal. - 0960-7412 .- 1365-313X. ; 93:3, s. 515-533
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The draft genome of the moss model, Physcomitrella patens, comprised approximately 2000 unordered scaffolds. In order to enable analyses of genome structure and evolution we generated a chromosome-scale genome assembly using genetic linkage as well as (end) sequencing of long DNA fragments. We find that 57% of the genome comprises transposable elements (TEs), some of which may be actively transposing during the life cycle. Unlike in flowering plant genomes, gene-and TE-rich regions show an overall even distribution along the chromosomes. However, the chromosomes are mono-centric with peaks of a class of Copia elements potentially coinciding with centromeres. Gene body methylation is evident in 5.7% of the protein-coding genes, typically coinciding with low GC and low expression. Some giant virus insertions are transcriptionally active and might protect gametes from viral infection via siRNA mediated silencing. Structure-based detection methods show that the genome evolved via two rounds of whole genome duplications (WGDs), apparently common in mosses but not in liverworts and hornworts. Several hundred genes are present in colinear regions conserved since the last common ancestor of plants. These syntenic regions are enriched for functions related to plant-specific cell growth and tissue organization. The P. patens genome lacks the TE-rich pericentromeric and gene-rich distal regions typical for most flowering plant genomes. More non-seed plant genomes are needed to unravel how plant genomes evolve, and to understand whether the P. patens genome structure is typical for mosses or bryophytes.
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  • Resultat 1-8 av 8

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