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  • Lai, En Yin, et al. (författare)
  • Contribution of adenosine receptors in the control of arteriolar tone and adenosine-angiotensin II interaction
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Kidney International. - 0085-2538 .- 1523-1755. ; 70:4, s. 690-698
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adenosine (Ado) mediates vasoconstriction via A(1)-Ado receptors and vasodilation via A(2)-Ado receptors in the kidney. It interacts with angiotensin II (Ang II), which is important for renal hemodynamics and tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). The aim was to investigate the function of Ado receptors in the Ado -Ang II interaction in mouse microperfused, afferent arterioles. Ado (10(-11)-10(-4) mol/l) caused a biphasic response: arteriolar diameters were reduced (-7%) at Ado 10(-11)-10(-9) mol/l and returned to control values at higher concentrations. Treatment with Ang II (10(-10) mol/l) transformed the response into a concentration-dependent constriction. N-6-cyclopentyladenosine (A(1)-Ado receptor agonist) reduced diameters (12% at 10(-6) mol/l). Application of CGS21680 (10(-12)-10(-4) mol/l, A(2A) receptor agonist) increased the diameter by 13%. Pretreatment with ZM241385 (A(2A)-Ado receptor antagonist) alone or in combination with MRS1706 (A(2B)-Ado receptor antagonist) resulted in a pure constriction upon Ado, whereas 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT) (A(1)-Ado receptor antagonist) inhibited the constrictor response. Afferent arterioles of mice lacking A(1)-Ado receptor did not show constriction upon Ado. Treatment with Ado (10(-8) mol/l) increased the response upon Ang II, which was blocked by CPT. Ado (10(-5) mol/l) did not influence the Ang II response, but an additional blockade of A(2)-Ado receptors enhanced it. The action of Ado on constrictor A(1)-Ado receptors and dilatory A(2)-Ado receptors modulates the interaction with Ang II. Both directions of Ado-Ang II interaction, which predominantly leads to an amplification of the contractile response, are important for the operation of the TGF.
  • Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic architecture of human brainstem structures and their involvement in common brain disorders
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Brainstem regions support vital bodily functions, yet their genetic architectures and involvement in common brain disorders remain understudied. Here, using imaging-genetics data from a discovery sample of 27,034 individuals, we identify 45 brainstem-associated genetic loci, including the first linked to midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata volumes, and map them to 305 genes. In a replication sample of 7432 participants most of the loci show the same effect direction and are significant at a nominal threshold. We detect genetic overlap between brainstem volumes and eight psychiatric and neurological disorders. In additional clinical data from 5062 individuals with common brain disorders and 11,257 healthy controls, we observe differential volume alterations in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, multiple sclerosis, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Parkinson's disease, supporting the relevance of brainstem regions and their genetic architectures in common brain disorders. The genetic architecture underlying brainstem regions and how this links to common brain disorders is not well understood. Here, the authors use MRI and GWAS data from 27,034 individuals to identify genetic and morphological brainstem features that influence common brain disorders.
  • Malinovschi, A., et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) reference equations for diffusing capacity in relation to respiratory burden in the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - Lausanne, Switzerland : Eur Respiratory Soc. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 56:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) has recently published international reference values for diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Lower limit of normal (LLN), i.e. the 5th percentile, usually defines impaired D-LCO. We examined if the GLI LLN for D-LCO differs from the LLN in a Swedish population of healthy, never-smoking individuals and how any such differences affect identification of subjects with respiratory burden. Spirometry, D-LCO, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and questionnaires were obtained from the first 15 040 participants, aged 50-64 years, of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS). Both GLI reference values and the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method were used to define the LLN in asymptomatic never-smokers without respiratory disease (n=4903, of which 2329 were women). Both the median and LLN for D-LCO from SCAPIS were above the median and LLN from the GLI (p<0.05). The prevalence of D-LCO GLI LLN but GLI LLN but GLI LLN and >SCAPIS LLN). No differences were found with regard to physician-diagnosed asthma. The GLI LLN for D-LCO is lower than the estimated LLN in healthy, never-smoking, middle-aged Swedish adults. Individuals with D-LCO above the GLI LLN but below the SCAPIS LLN had, to a larger extent, an increased respiratory burden. This suggests clinical implications for choosing an adequate LLN for studied populations.
  • Angerås, Oskar, 1976, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Thrombus Aspiration on Mortality, Stent Thrombosis, and Stroke in Patients with ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Report From the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2047-9980. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Thrombus aspiration is still being used in a substantial number of patients despite 2 large randomized clinical trials showing no favorable effect of routine thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with STsegment- elevation myocardial infarction. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the impact of thrombus aspiration on mortality, stent thrombosis, and stroke using all available data from the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR). Methods and Results--We identified 42 829 consecutive patients registered in SCAAR between January 2005 and September 2014 who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Thrombus aspiration was used in 25% of the procedures. We used instrumental variable analysis with administrative healthcare region as the treatmentpreference instrumental variable to evaluate the effect of thrombus aspiration on mortality, stent thrombosis, and stroke. Thrombus aspiration was not associated with mortality at 30 days (risk reduction: -1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] , -5.4 to 3.0; P=0.57) and 1 year (risk reduction: -2.4; 95% CI, -7.6 to 3.0; P=0.37). Thrombus aspiration was associated with a lower risk of stent thrombosis both at 30 days (risk reduction: -2.7; 95% CI, -4.1 to -1.4; P < 0.001) and 1 year (risk reduction: -3.5; 95% CI, -5.3 to -1.7; P < 0.001). In-hospital stroke and neurologic complications did not differ between groups (risk reduction: 0.1; 95% CI, -0.8 to 1.1; P=0.76). Conclusions--Mortality was not different between the groups. Thrombus aspiration was associated with decreased risk of stent thrombosis. Our study provides important evidence for the external validity of previous randomized studies regarding mortality.
  • Antonsson, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Induction of apoptosis by staurosporine involves the inhibition of expression of the major cell cycle proteins at the G(2)/m checkpoint accompanied by alterations in Erk and Akt kinase activities
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Anticancer Research. - : International Institute of Anticancer Research. - 0250-7005 .- 1791-7530. ; 29:8, s. 2893-2898
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Staurosporine is a therapeutic agent that inhibits tumor cell growth by inducing cell death via intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Our previous studies in clinical settings have suggested that certain subpopulations of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) had poor response to chemotherapy.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of staurosporine on apoptosis and cell cycle distribution in human leukemic cell line U-937 cells was determined. U-937 cells were treated with staurosporine at 0.5 microM for 18 hours or 1 microM for 24 hours. Analyses of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were performed using flow cytometric analysis. The effects of staurosporine on the targeted proteins were assessed by immunoblot analysis.RESULTS: A blockade of the cell cycle at the G(2)/M phase was observed in U-937 cells treated with staurosporine. A concomitant induction of apoptosis and activation of caspase-3 in U-937 cells was also achieved. Treatment of U-937 cells with staurosporine at 1 microM for 24 hours, compared with 0.5 microM for 18 hours, appeared to kill the leukemic more efficiently cells and this dose and duration may specifically target p27, Erk and Akt pathways that are important for cancer cell survival and resistance to treatment. We also show that the effects of stauroporine on cell cycle progression and apoptosis in U-937 cells are closely linked.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that induction of apoptosis and inhibitory proliferation and survival pathways are important events induced by staurosporine. Understanding the conditions under which staurosporine shows high specificity and low toxicity in treatment of leukemic cells is of great importance for improving the efficacy of targeted therapeutics and overcoming resistance to chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Carlström, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Superoxide Dismutase 1 Limits Renal Microvascular Remodeling and Attenuates Arteriole and Blood Pressure Responses to Angiotensin II via Modulation of Nitric Oxide Bioavailability
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Hypertension. - 0194-911X .- 1524-4563. ; 56:5, s. 907-913
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Oxidative stress is associated with vascular remodeling and increased preglomerular resistance that are both implicated in the pathogenesis of renal and cardiovascular disease. Angiotensin II induces superoxide production, which is metabolized by superoxide dismutase (SOD) or scavenged by NO. We investigated the hypothesis that SOD1 regulates renal microvascular remodeling, blood pressure, and arteriolar responsiveness and sensitivity to angiotensin II using SOD1-transgenic (SOD1-tg) and SOD1-knockout (SOD1-ko) mice. Blood pressure, measured telemetrically, rose more abruptly during prolonged angiotensin II infusion in SOD1-ko mice. The afferent arteriole media: lumen ratios were reduced in SOD1-tg and increased in SOD1-ko mice. Afferent arterioles from nontreated wild types had graded contraction to angiotensin II (sensitivity: 10(-9) mol/L; responsiveness: 40%). Angiotensin II contractions were less sensitive (10(-8) mol/L) and responsive (14%) in SOD1-tg but more sensitive (10(-13) mol/L) and responsive (89%) in SOD1-ko mice. Arterioles from SOD1-ko had 4-fold increased superoxide formation with angiotensin II at 10(-9) mol/L. N-G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester reduced arteriole diameter of SOD1-tg and enhanced angiotensin II sensitivity and responsiveness of wild-type and SOD1-tg mice to the level of SOD1-ko mice. SOD mimetic treatment with Tempol increased arteriole diameter and normalized the enhanced sensitivity and responsiveness to angiotensin II of SOD1-ko mice but did not affect wild-type or SOD1-tg mice. Neither SOD1 deficiency nor overexpression was associated with changes in nitrate/nitrite excretion or renal mRNA expression of NO synthase, NADPH oxidase, or SOD2/SOD3 isoforms and angiotensin II receptors. In conclusion, SOD1 limits afferent arteriole remodeling and reduces sensitivity and responsiveness to angiotensin II by reducing superoxide and maintaining NO bioavailability. This may prevent an early and exaggerated blood pressure response to angiotensin II.
  • Kaufmann, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Common brain disorders are associated with heritable patterns of apparent aging of the brain
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 22:10, s. 1617-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Common risk factors for psychiatric and other brain disorders are likely to converge on biological pathways influencing the development and maintenance of brain structure and function across life. Using structural MRI data from 45,615 individuals aged 3-96 years, we demonstrate distinct patterns of apparent brain aging in several brain disorders and reveal genetic pleiotropy between apparent brain aging in healthy individuals and common brain disorders.
  • Lai, En Yin, et al. (författare)
  • Adenosine restores angiotensin II-induced contractions by receptor-independent enhancement of calcium sensitivity in renal arterioles
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Circulation Research. - 0009-7330 .- 1524-4571. ; 99:10, s. 1117-1124
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adenosine is coupled to energy metabolism and regulates tissue blood flow by modulating vascular resistance. In this study, we investigated isolated, perfused afferent arterioles of mice, which were subjected to desensitization during repeated applications of angiotensin II. Exogenously applied adenosine restores angiotensin II-induced contractions by increasing calcium sensitivity of the arterioles, along with augmented phosphorylation of the regulatory unit of the myosin light chain. Adenosine restores angiotensin II-induced contractions via intracellular action, because inhibition of adenosine receptors do not prevent restoration, but inhibition of NBTI sensitive adenosine transporters does. Restoration was prevented by inhibition of Rho-kinase, protein kinase C, and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which modulate myosin light chain phosphorylation and thus calcium sensitivity in the smooth muscle. Furthermore, adenosine application increased the intracellular ATP concentration in LuciHEK cells. The results of the study suggest that restoration of the angiotensin II-induced contraction by adenosine is attributable to the increase of the calcium sensitivity by phosphorylation of the myosin light chain. This can be an important component of vascular control during ischemic and hypoxic conditions. Additionally, this mechanism may contribute to the mediation of the tubuloglomerular feedback by adenosine in the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidney.
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