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1.
  • Östgren, Carl J, et al. (författare)
  • Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation estimated risk and prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in coronary and carotid arteries : A population-based cohort analysis from the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study
  • ????
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. - SAGE Publications. - 2047-4881. ; s. 1-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: It is not clear if the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation algorithm is useful for identifying prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in a population of apparently healthy individuals. Our aim was to explore the association between the risk estimates from Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation and prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis.DESIGN: The design of this study was as a cross-sectional analysis from a population-based study cohort.METHODS: From the general population, the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study randomly invited individuals aged 50-64 years and enrolled 13,411 participants mean age 57 (standard deviation 4.3) years; 46% males between November 2013-December 2016. Associations between Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk estimates and coronary artery calcification and plaques in the carotid arteries by using imaging data from a computed tomography of the heart and ultrasonography of the carotid arteries were examined.RESULTS: Coronary calcification was present in 39.5% and carotid plaque in 56.0%. In men, coronary artery calcium score >0 ranged from 40.7-65.9% and presence of carotid plaques from 54.5% to 72.8% in the age group 50-54 and 60-65 years, respectively. In women, the corresponding difference was from 17.1-38.9% and from 41.0-58.4%. A doubling of Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation was associated with an increased probability to have coronary artery calcium score >0 (odds ratio: 2.18 (95% confidence interval 2.07-2.30)) and to have >1 carotid plaques (1.67 (1.61-1.74)).CONCLUSION: Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation estimated risk is associated with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in two major vascular beds in a general population sample without established cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Thus, the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk chart may be of use for estimating the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis.
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2.
  • Östgren, Carl Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation estimated risk and prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in coronary and carotid arteries: A population-based cohort analysis from the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. - SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 2047-4873 .- 2047-4881.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background It is not clear if the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation algorithm is useful for identifying prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in a population of apparently healthy individuals. Our aim was to explore the association between the risk estimates from Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation and prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis. Design The design of this study was as a cross-sectional analysis from a population-based study cohort. Methods From the general population, the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study randomly invited individuals aged 50-64 years and enrolled 13,411 participants mean age 57 (standard deviation 4.3) years; 46% males between November 2013-December 2016. Associations between Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk estimates and coronary artery calcification and plaques in the carotid arteries by using imaging data from a computed tomography of the heart and ultrasonography of the carotid arteries were examined. Results Coronary calcification was present in 39.5% and carotid plaque in 56.0%. In men, coronary artery calcium score amp;gt;0 ranged from 40.7-65.9% and presence of carotid plaques from 54.5% to 72.8% in the age group 50-54 and 60-65 years, respectively. In women, the corresponding difference was from 17.1-38.9% and from 41.0-58.4%. A doubling of Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation was associated with an increased probability to have coronary artery calcium score amp;gt;0 (odds ratio: 2.18 (95% confidence interval 2.07-2.30)) and to have amp;gt;1 carotid plaques (1.67 (1.61-1.74)). Conclusion Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation estimated risk is associated with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in two major vascular beds in a general population sample without established cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Thus, the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk chart may be of use for estimating the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis.</p>
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3.
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4.
  • Bergström, G, et al. (författare)
  • The Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study objectives and design
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 278:6, s. 645-659
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Cardiopulmonary diseases are major causes of death worldwide, but currently recommended strategies for diagnosis and prevention may be outdated because of recent changes in risk factor patterns. The Swedish CArdioPulmonarybioImage Study (SCAPIS) combines the use of new imaging technologies, advances in large-scale 'omics' and epidemiological analyses to extensively characterize a Swedish cohort of 30 000 men and women aged between 50 and 64 years. The information obtained will be used to improve risk prediction of cardiopulmonary diseases and optimize the ability to study disease mechanisms. A comprehensive pilot study in 1111 individuals, which was completed in 2012, demonstrated the feasibility and financial and ethical consequences of SCAPIS. Recruitment to the national, multicentre study has recently started.</p>
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5.
  • Brandelius, Angelica, et al. (författare)
  • Selective inhibition by simvastatin of IRF3 phosphorylation and TSLP production in dsRNA-challenged bronchial epithelial cells from COPD donors.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Pharmacology. - The British Pharmacological Society. - 1476-5381.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: Statin treatment may ameliorate viral infection-induced exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which exhibit Th2-type bronchial inflammation. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), a hub cytokine switching on Th2-inflammation, is overproduced in viral and dsRNA-stimulated bronchial epithelial cells from COPD donors. Hence, TSLP may be causally involved in exacerbations. This study tests our hypothesis that simvastatin may inhibit dsRNA-induced TSLP. Experimental approach: Epithelial cells, obtained by bronchoscopy from COPD (n=7) and smoker control (n=8) donors, were grown and stimulated with viral infection and danger signal surrogate, dsRNA (10 µg·mL(-1) ). Cells were treated with simvastatin (0.2-5 µg·mL(-1) ), with or without mevalonate (13-26 µg·mL(-1) ), or dexamethasone (1 µg·mL(-1) ) prior to dsRNA. Cytokine expression and production, and transcription factor (IRF3 and NF-κB) activation were determined. Key results: dsRNA induced TSLP, TNFα, CXCL8, and IFNβ. TSLP was overproduced in dsRNA-exposed COPD cells compared to control. Simvastatin, concentration-dependently, but not dexamethasone, inhibited dsRNA-induced TSLP. Unexpectedly, simvastatin acted independent of mevalonate and did not affect dsRNA-induced NF-κB activation nor did it reduce production of TNFα and CXCL8. Instead, simvastatin inhibited dsRNA-induced IRF3 phosphorylation and generation of IFNβ. Conclusions and implications: Independent of mevalonate and NF-κB, previously acknowledged anti-inflammatory mechanisms of pleiotropic statins, simvastatin selectively inhibited dsRNA-induced IRF3 activation and production of TSLP and IFNβ in COPD epithelium. These data provide novel insight into epithelial generation of TSLP and suggest paths to be exploited in drug discovery aimed at inhibiting TSLP-induced pulmonary immunopathology.
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6.
  • Ekström, Magnus Pär, et al. (författare)
  • The association of body mass index, weight gain and central obesity with activity-related breathlessness : The Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 0040-6376. ; 74:10, s. 958-964
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Breathlessness is common in the population, especially in women and associated with adverse health outcomes. Obesity (body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2) is rapidly increasing globally and its impact on breathlessness is unclear. Methods: This population-based study aimed primarily to evaluate the association of current BMI and self-reported change in BMI since age 20 with breathlessness (modified Research Council score ≥1) in the middle-aged population. Secondary aims were to evaluate factors that contribute to breathlessness in obesity, including the interaction with spirometric lung volume and sex. Results: We included 13 437 individuals; mean age 57.5 years; 52.5% women; mean BMI 26.8 (SD 4.3); mean BMI increase since age 20 was 5.0 kg/m2; and 1283 (9.6%) reported breathlessness. Obesity was strongly associated with increased breathlessness, OR 3.54 (95% CI, 3.03 to 4.13) independent of age, sex, smoking, airflow obstruction, exercise level and the presence of comorbidities. The association between BMI and breathlessness was modified by lung volume; the increase in breathlessness prevalence with higher BMI was steeper for individuals with lower forced vital capacity (FVC). The higher breathlessness prevalence in obese women than men (27.4% vs 12.5%; p<0.001) was related to their lower FVC. Irrespective of current BMI and confounders, individuals who had increased in BMI since age 20 had more breathlessness. Conclusion: Breathlessness is independently associated with obesity and with weight gain in adult life, and the association is stronger for individuals with lower lung volumes.
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7.
  • Gustafsson, Oscar, et al. (författare)
  • Photoluminescence and photoresponse from InSb/InAs-based quantum dot structures
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Optics Express. - 1094-4087 .- 1094-4087. ; 20:19, s. 21264-21271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>InSb-based quantum dots grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on InAs substrates are studied for use as the active material in interband photon detectors. Long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) photoluminescence is demonstrated with peak emission at 8.5 mu m and photoresponse, interpreted to originate from type-II interband transitions in a p-i-n photodiode, was measured up to 6 mu m, both at 80 K. The possibilities and benefits of operation in the LWIR range (8-12 mu m) are discussed and the results suggest that InSb-based quantum dot structures can be suitable candidates for photon detection in the LWIR regime.</p>
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8.
  • Gustafsson, Oscar, et al. (författare)
  • Photoluminescence and photoresponse from InSb/InAs-based quantum dot structures
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Optics Express. - Optical Society of America. - 1094-4087 .- 1094-4087. ; 20:19, s. 21264-21271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>InSb-based quantum dots grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on InAs substrates are studied for use as the active material in interband photon detectors. Long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) photoluminescence is demonstrated with peak emission at 8.5 mu m and photoresponse, interpreted to originate from type-II interband transitions in a p-i-n photodiode, was measured up to 6 mu m, both at 80 K. The possibilities and benefits of operation in the LWIR range (8-12 mu m) are discussed and the results suggest that InSb-based quantum dot structures can be suitable candidates for photon detection in the LWIR regime.</p>
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9.
  • Gustavsson, Carl Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • Blood viscosity in relation to blood haemoglobin concentration in healthy subjects and in patients with different cardiovascular diseases
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Clinical Hemorheology. - New York, USA : Pergamon Press. - 0271-5198/94. ; 14:5, s. 677-683
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Blood viscosity was measured at different shear rates using a rotational viscometer, and the correlation between blood viscosity and blood haemoglobin concentration was studied. In 10 healthy controls correlation coefficients were: 0,966 at shear rate 40,0 s<sup>-1</sup>, 0,931 at 19,6 s<sup>-l</sup>, 0,817 at  2,3 s<sup>-1</sup> and 0,816 at 0,8 s<sup>-l</sup> , p&lt;0,01 to p &lt; 0,001. The regression lines for these relationships were then applied to the patient groups to calculate what blood viscosity should be predicted solely from the individual haemoglobin concentration, "predicted blood viscosity". In 34 patients with cardiovascular diseases (20 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), 8 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and 6 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension) the correlation between blood viscosity and haemoglobin concentration was less good, for the total patient material 0,748 to 0,613, p &lt; 0,001 at all shear rates, and for the CAD patients 0,664 to 0,428, p &lt; 0,05 at 3 out of 4 shear rates. Apparently the poorer correlation in the patients was due to a larger influence from factors unrelated to haemoglobin concentration/haematocrit, as the quotients between individually measured and predicted blood viscosity correlated with measured blood viscosity when the haematocrit factor had been eliminated by in vitro standardisation of sample haematocrits to 45%.</p> <p><em>Key words: </em> Blood viscosity;  Haemorheology; Haemoglobin concentration; Microcirculation.</p> <p> </p>
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10.
  • Gustavsson, Carl Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • Changed blood rheology in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Angiology. - New York, USA : Westminster Publications, Inc.. - 0003-3197 .- 1940-1574. ; 45:2, s. 107-111
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong> </strong>Rheologic properties of blood were studied in 8 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and in 10 healthy subjects. Whole-blood viscosity was measured at four different shear rates, by means of a computer-controlled rotational viscometer. The patients had significantly higher blood viscosity at all shear rates, both at their natural hematocrits and after an in vitro adjustment of sample hematocrits to 45%. Erythrocyte filterability (5 μm pore size) was significantly lower, fibrinogen concentration significantly higher, and HDLcholesterol concentration significantly lower in the patient group. No significant differences were found regarding hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, haemoglobin concentration, leukocyte count and filterability (8 μm pore size), plasma viscosity, and total cholesterol concentration.</p> <p>The measured hemorheologic abnormalities may contribute to the previously reported reduction of coronary blood flow reserve in DCM patients and to myocardial microcirculatory disturbances, which have been suggested as a cause for DCM.</p>
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