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1.
  • Ostgren, C. J., et al. (författare)
  • Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation estimated risk and prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in coronary and carotid arteries: A population-based cohort analysis from the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 2047-4873 .- 2047-4881. ; 28:3, s. 250-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background It is not clear if the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation algorithm is useful for identifying prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in a population of apparently healthy individuals. Our aim was to explore the association between the risk estimates from Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation and prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis. Design The design of this study was as a cross-sectional analysis from a population-based study cohort. Methods From the general population, the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study randomly invited individuals aged 50-64 years and enrolled 13,411 participants mean age 57 (standard deviation 4.3) years; 46% males between November 2013-December 2016. Associations between Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk estimates and coronary artery calcification and plaques in the carotid arteries by using imaging data from a computed tomography of the heart and ultrasonography of the carotid arteries were examined. Results Coronary calcification was present in 39.5% and carotid plaque in 56.0%. In men, coronary artery calcium score >0 ranged from 40.7-65.9% and presence of carotid plaques from 54.5% to 72.8% in the age group 50-54 and 60-65 years, respectively. In women, the corresponding difference was from 17.1-38.9% and from 41.0-58.4%. A doubling of Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation was associated with an increased probability to have coronary artery calcium score >0 (odds ratio: 2.18 (95% confidence interval 2.07-2.30)) and to have >1 carotid plaques (1.67 (1.61-1.74)). Conclusion Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation estimated risk is associated with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in two major vascular beds in a general population sample without established cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Thus, the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk chart may be of use for estimating the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis.
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3.
  • Bergström, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of Subclinical Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in the General Population.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Wolters Kluwer. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 144:12, s. 916-929
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Early detection of coronary atherosclerosis using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), in addition to coronary artery calcification (CAC) scoring, may help inform prevention strategies. We used CCTA to determine the prevalence, severity, and characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis and its association with CAC scores in a general population.METHODS: We recruited 30 154 randomly invited individuals age 50 to 64 years to SCAPIS (the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study). The study includes individuals without known coronary heart disease (ie, no previous myocardial infarctions or cardiac procedures) and with high-quality results from CCTA and CAC imaging performed using dedicated dual-source CT scanners. Noncontrast images were scored for CAC. CCTA images were visually read and scored for coronary atherosclerosis per segment (defined as no atherosclerosis, 1% to 49% stenosis, or ≥50% stenosis). External validity of prevalence estimates was evaluated using inverse probability for participation weighting and Swedish register data.RESULTS: In total, 25 182 individuals without known coronary heart disease were included (50.6% women). Any CCTA-detected atherosclerosis was found in 42.1%; any significant stenosis (≥50%) in 5.2%; left main, proximal left anterior descending artery, or 3-vessel disease in 1.9%; and any noncalcified plaques in 8.3% of this population. Onset of atherosclerosis was delayed on average by 10 years in women. Atherosclerosis was more prevalent in older individuals and predominantly found in the proximal left anterior descending artery. Prevalence of CCTA-detected atherosclerosis increased with increasing CAC scores. Among those with a CAC score >400, all had atherosclerosis and 45.7% had significant stenosis. In those with 0 CAC, 5.5% had atherosclerosis and 0.4% had significant stenosis. In participants with 0 CAC and intermediate 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease according to the pooled cohort equation, 9.2% had CCTA-verified atherosclerosis. Prevalence estimates had excellent external validity and changed marginally when adjusted to the age-matched Swedish background population.CONCLUSIONS: Using CCTA in a large, random sample of the general population without established disease, we showed that silent coronary atherosclerosis is common in this population. High CAC scores convey a significant probability of substantial stenosis, and 0 CAC does not exclude atherosclerosis, particularly in those at higher baseline risk.
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4.
  • Sundström, Johan, Professor, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Weight gain and blood pressure
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hypertension. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0263-6352 .- 1473-5598. ; 38:3, s. 387-394
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Although the causality of the obesity—hypertension association is established, the potential for prevention is not. We hypothesized that weight gain between early adulthood and mid-life is associated with higher mid-life blood pressure.METHODS: We investigated the hypothesis using a large contemporaneous population-based mid-life cohort of men and women aged 50-64 years. Recalled body weight at age 20 years was self-reported, and mid-life body weight and office blood pressures were measured in accordance with a detailed protocol.RESULTS: On average, men had gained 14.9 (95% CI 14.6-15.2) kg of weight, and women 14.6 (95% CI 14.4-14.9) kg, between age 20 years and the mid-life examination, corresponding to 0.40 (95% CI 0.39-0.41) kg/year for men and women. Both weight at age 20 years and weight at the mid-life examination were associated with mid-life blood pressures. On average, a 10 kg weight increase between age 20 years and mid-life was associated with 2.2 (95% CI 0.9-3.5) mmHg higher systolic and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5) mmHg higher diastolic mid-life blood pressure in men, and 3.2 (2.5-4.0) mmHg higher systolic and 2.4 (1.9-2.9) mmHg higher diastolic mid-life blood pressure in women. Mid-life weight was more closely associated than weight at age 20 years with mid-life blood pressure. For a given mid-life weight, blood pressure was higher in persons with higher weight gain from age 20 years.CONCLUSION: In sum, weight gain between early adulthood and mid-life was associated with higher mid-life blood pressure. The magnitude of the association indicates a potentially great public health impact of strategies to prevent weight gain throughout adulthood.
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5.
  • Hudson, Lawrence N., et al. (författare)
  • The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - : Wiley Open Access. - 2045-7758 .- 2045-7758. ; 7:1, s. 145-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.
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6.
  • Persson, Jan A., et al. (författare)
  • A Tabu Search Heuristic for Scheduling the Production Processes at an Oil Refinery
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Production Research. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0020-7543 .- 1366-588X. ; 42:3, s. 445-471
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we present a tabu search heuristic which can be used for scheduling the production at an oil refinery. The scheduling problem is to decide which production modes to use at the different processing units at each point in time. The problem is a type of lot-sizing problem where costs of changeovers, inventories and production are considered. In the suggested tabu search heuristic we explore the use of variable neighbourhood, dynamic penalty and different tabu lists. Computational results are presented for different versions of the heuristic and the results are compared to the best-known lower bound for a set of scheduling scenarios.
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7.
  • Torén, Kjell, 1952, et al. (författare)
  • The ratio FEV1/FVC and its association to respiratory symptoms-A Swedish general population study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1475-0961 .- 1475-097X. ; 41:2, s. 181-191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic airflow limitation (CAL) can be defined as fixed ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) any respiratory symptom. In a cross-sectional general population study, 15,128 adults (50-64 years of age), 7,120 never-smokers and 8,008 ever-smokers completed a respiratory questionnaire and performed FEV1 and FVC after bronchodilation. We calculated different ratios of FEV1/FVC from 0.40 to 1.0 using 0.70 as reference category. We analysed odds ratios (OR) between different ratios and any respiratory symptom using adjusted multivariable logistic regression. Among all subjects, regardless of smoking habits, the lowest odds for any respiratory symptom was at FEV1/FVC = 0.82, OR 0.48 (95% CI 0.41-0.56). Among never-smokers, the lowest odds for any respiratory symptom was at FEV1/FVC = 0.81, OR 0.53 (95% CI 0.41-0.70). Among ever-smokers, the odds for any respiratory symptom was lowest at FEV1/FVC = 0.81, OR 0.43 (95% CI 0.16-1.19), although the rate of inclining in odds was small in the upper part, that is FEV1/FVC = 0.85 showed similar odds, OR 0.45 (95% CI 0.38-0.55). We concluded that the odds for any respiratory symptoms continuously decreased with higher FEV1/FVC ratios and reached a minimum around 0.80-0.85, with similar results among never-smokers. These results indicate that the optimal threshold associated with respiratory symptoms may be higher than 0.70 and this should be further investigated in prospective longitudinal studies.
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8.
  • Bergström, Göran, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • The Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study: objectives and design.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2796 .- 0954-6820. ; 278:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cardiopulmonary diseases are major causes of death worldwide, but currently recommended strategies for diagnosis and prevention may be outdated because of recent changes in risk factor patterns. The Swedish CArdioPulmonarybioImage Study (SCAPIS) combines the use of new imaging technologies, advances in large-scale 'omics' and epidemiological analyses to extensively characterize a Swedish cohort of 30 000 men and women aged between 50 and 64 years. The information obtained will be used to improve risk prediction of cardiopulmonary diseases and optimize the ability to study disease mechanisms. A comprehensive pilot study in 1111 individuals, which was completed in 2012, demonstrated the feasibility and financial and ethical consequences of SCAPIS. Recruitment to the national, multicentre study has recently started.
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9.
  • Bjartell, A., et al. (författare)
  • Prediction of clinical progression after radical prostatectomy in a nationwide population-based cohort
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2168-1805 .- 2168-1813. ; 50:4, s. 255-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study was to create a model for predicting progression-free survival after radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. Material and methods: The risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) was modelled in a cohort of 3452 men aged 70 years or younger who were primarily treated with radical prostatectomy after being diagnosed between 2003 and 2006 with localized prostate cancer [clinical stage T1c-T2, Gleason score 5-10, N0/NX, M0/MX, prostate-specific antigen (PSA)<20 ng/ml]. The cohort was split into two: one cohort for model development (n = 3452) and one for validation (n = 1762). BCR was defined as two increasing PSA values of at least 0.2 ng/ml, initiation of secondary therapy, distant metastases or death from prostate cancer. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was applied, predictive performance was assessed using the bootstrap resampling technique to calculate the c index, and calibration of the model was evaluated by comparing predicted and observed Kaplan-Meier 1 year BCR. Results: The overall 5 year progression-free survival was 83% after a median follow-up time of 6.8 years in the development cohort and 7.3 years in the validation cohort. The final model included T stage, PSA level, primary and secondary Gleason grade, and number of positive and negative biopsies. The c index for discrimination between high and low risk of recurrence was 0.68. The probability of progression-free survival ranged from 22% to 97% over the range of risk scores in the study population. Conclusions: This model is based on nationwide population-based data and can be used with a fair predictive accuracy to guide decisions on clinical follow-up after prostatectomy. An online calculator for convenient clinical use of the model is available at www.npcr.se/nomogram
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10.
  • Malinovschi, A., et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) reference equations for diffusing capacity in relation to respiratory burden in the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - Lausanne, Switzerland : EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 56:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) has recently published international reference values for diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Lower limit of normal (LLN), i.e. the 5th percentile, usually defines impaired D-LCO. We examined if the GLI LLN for D-LCO differs from the LLN in a Swedish population of healthy, never-smoking individuals and how any such differences affect identification of subjects with respiratory burden. Spirometry, D-LCO, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and questionnaires were obtained from the first 15 040 participants, aged 50-64 years, of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS). Both GLI reference values and the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method were used to define the LLN in asymptomatic never-smokers without respiratory disease (n=4903, of which 2329 were women). Both the median and LLN for D-LCO from SCAPIS were above the median and LLN from the GLI (p<0.05). The prevalence of D-LCO GLI LLN but GLI LLN but GLI LLN and >SCAPIS LLN). No differences were found with regard to physician-diagnosed asthma. The GLI LLN for D-LCO is lower than the estimated LLN in healthy, never-smoking, middle-aged Swedish adults. Individuals with D-LCO above the GLI LLN but below the SCAPIS LLN had, to a larger extent, an increased respiratory burden. This suggests clinical implications for choosing an adequate LLN for studied populations.
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