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  • Bohlin, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Product profiles in enzymic and non-enzymic oxidations of the lignin model compound erythro-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,3-propanediol
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Catalysis - B Enzymatic. - : Elsevier. - 1381-1177 .- 1873-3158. ; 35:4-6, s. 100-107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The erythro form of the lignin model compound 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,3-propanediol (1) was oxidized with laccase/ABTS, lead(IV) tetraacetate (LTA), lignin peroxidase/H2O2, cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) and Fenton's reagent. The product profiles obtained with the different oxidants were compared after separation, identification and quantification of the products using HPLC, UV-diode array detector and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in positive ionization mode. The oxidants generated different product profiles that reflected their different properties. Oxidation with laccase/ABTS resulted almost exclusively in formation of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1-propanone (2). Oxidation with LTA resulted in more 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (3) than ketone 2. Lignin peroxidase and CAN gave similar product profiles and aldehyde 3 was the predominant product (only small amounts of ketone 2 were formed). Oxidation with Fenton's reagent resulted in the formation of more aldehyde 3 than ketone 2 but the yields were very low. CAN served as an excellent model for the lignin peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation, while the laccase-mediator system, LTA and Fenton's reagent provided distinctly different product profiles. Erythro-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-propanetriol was present among the products obtained on oxidation with LTA, lignin peroxidase, CAN and Fenton's reagent. The differences in redox potential between the oxidants afford an explanation of the diverse product patterns but other factors may also be of importance. The reactions leading to cleavage of the β-ether bond with formation of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-propanetriol (veratrylglycerol) were found to proceed without affecting the configuration at the β-carbon atom.
  • Kenne Sarenmalm, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • Relationship of sense of coherence to stressful events, coping strategies, health status, and quality of life in women with breast cancer
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Psycho-Oncology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1057-9249 .- 1099-1611. ; 22:1, s. 20-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To test the hypothesis that Antonovsky's concept of sense of coherence (SOC) predicts stressful events, coping strategies, health status, and quality of life (QoL) in a cohort of postmenopausal women (n = 131) with newly diagnosed primary or recurrent breast cancer.Methods: Regression analyses of longitudinal data at baseline through 6 months following breast cancer diagnosis examined the relationships between SOC (13-item version), daily assessment of coping with stressful events, health status, and QoL (EORTC QLQ-30).Results: The findings support Antonovsky's concept of SOC. Women with strong SOC reported fewer stressful events and more days without stressful events. They used more coping strategies and more frequently used distraction, situation redefinition, direct action, and relaxation, but seldom religion, to cope with stressful events, and reported better health status and QoL. Women with weak SOC experienced more distress and used fewer coping strategies, and they more frequently used coping strategies such as catharsis and seeking social and spiritual support, but seldom acceptance of the situation. They reported worse health status and QoL, regardless of disease stage or treatment. The relationships between SOC and health status and QoL were linear.Conclusions: Sense of coherence significantly predicts distress, number and type of coping strategies such as direct action and relaxation, health status, and QoL in women with breast cancer. Our data suggest that the SOC scale may be a useful screening tool to identify individuals particularly vulnerable to distress and unable to cope adequately. Assessing SOC strength may assist health care providers to provide individualized patient interventions.
  • Ashrafi, S, et al. (författare)
  • Monte-Carlo simulation of the charged particle detector used in the NORDBALL gamma-ray spectrometer
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment. - : Elsevier. - 0167-5087. ; 458:3, s. 690-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The NORDBALL silicon detector array for detecting light charged particles emitted in fusion evaporation reactions was simulated with the Monte-Carlo method. The data from the reaction of 261 MeV Ni-58 ions with Cr-50 nuclei in a 4.8 mg/cm(2) thick target was used to adjust the simulation parameters. Relative population of residual nuclei in the reaction was determined, by comparing the intensities of gamma -rays. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Bergh, A L, et al. (författare)
  • Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Well-Being Questionnaire in a sample of patients with diabetes type 1.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of public health. - : Sage Publications Ltd.. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 28:2, s. 137-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present investigation was to further test the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Well-Being Questionnaire (WBQ) in order to determine whether it could be suitable for measuring health-related quality of life among type 1 diabetic patients. METHODS: In total, 94 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected for the study and of these 85% participated. Reliability was tested with Cronbach's alpha coefficient and the internal validity by means of principal component analysis and multitrait analysis. To test the external validity, comparisons were made with two other questionnaires, the Short form-36 and a Swedish Mood Adjective Check List. RESULTS: The results show that, above all, the Swedish version of the WBQ measures psychological well-being, and thus must also be complemented with scales that measure other consequences of the illness and/or treatment, i.e. physical symptoms. The questionnaire has low discriminatory validity between subscales, which casts doubt on the appropriateness of using the four subscales as separate measures. The two scales measuring anxiety and depression are not sensitive enough for use among type 1 diabetics without complications and high or normal levels of psychological well-being. CONCLUSIONS: The Well-Being Questionnaire alone does not give any more information about subjective health status among type 1 diabetic patients than, for example, the generic SF-36.
  • Browall, M., et al. (författare)
  • Patient-reported stressful events and coping strategies in post-menopausal women with breast cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer Care. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0961-5423 .- 1365-2354. ; 25:2, s. 324-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of this paper was to explore what stressful events post-menopausal women with primary or recurrent breast cancer experience, how bothersome these events were and which coping strategies these women used. Data were collected from 131 patients diagnosed with primary or recurrent breast cancer. The Daily Coping Assessment was used. Thematic analysis was applied to form themes of stressful events. Six types of stressful events were extracted. The most frequently experienced events for women with primary cancer and those with recurrent cancer were distressing bodily symptoms'. The most bothersome event among primary cancer was everyday concerns' and in the recurrent group, distressing psychological reactions'. The most commonly used strategies were acceptance', distraction' and relaxation'. This study shows that women in different parts of the cancer trajectory differ in what they perceive to be stressful events when reporting them in their own words in a diary. The differences have an impact on the subsequent coping strategies they used.
  • Fröbert, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • Design and rationale for the Influenza vaccination After Myocardial Infarction (IAMI) trial. A registry-based randomized clinical trial
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Mosby. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 189, s. 94-102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Registry studies and case-control studies have demonstrated that the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is increased following influenza infection. Small randomized trials, underpowered for clinical end points, indicate that future cardiovascular events can be reduced following influenza vaccination in patients with established cardiovascular disease. Influenza vaccination is recommended by international guidelines for patients with cardiovascular disease, but uptake is varying and vaccination is rarely prioritized during hospitalization for AMI. Methods/design The Influenza vaccination After Myocardial Infarction (IAMI) trial is a double-blind, multicenter, prospective, registry-based, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. A total of 4,400 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI undergoing coronary angiography will randomly be assigned either to in-hospital influenza vaccination or to placebo. Baseline information is collected from national heart disease registries, and follow-up will be performed using both registries and a structured telephone interview. The primary end point is a composite of time to all-cause death, a new AMI, or stent thrombosis at 1 year. Implications The IAMI trial is the largest randomized trial to date to evaluate the effect of in-hospital influenza vaccination on death and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with STEMI or non-STEMI. The trial is expected to provide highly relevant clinical data on the efficacy of influenza vaccine as secondary prevention after AMI.
  • Heby, O., et al. (författare)
  • Targeting the polyamine biosynthetic enzymes: a promising approach to therapy of African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, and leishmaniasis
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Amino Acids. - : Springer. - 0939-4451. ; 33, s. 359-366
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Trypanosomatids depend on spermidine for growth and survival. Consequently, enzymes involved in spermidine synthesis and utilization, i.e. arginase, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), spermidine synthase, trypanothione synthetase (TryS), and trypanothione reductase (TryR), are promising targets for drug development. The ODC inhibitor alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) is about to become a first-line drug against human late-stage gambiense sleeping sickness. Another ODC inhibitor, 3-aminooxy-1-aminopropane (APA), is considerably more effective than DFMO against Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes multiplying in macrophages. AdoMetDC inhibitors can cure animals infected with isolates from patients with rhodesiense sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis, but have not been tested on humans. The antiparasitic effects of inhibitors of polyamine and trypanothione formation, reviewed here, emphasize the relevance of these enzymes as drug targets. By taking advantage of the differences in enzyme structure between parasite and host, it should be possible to design new drugs that can selectively kill the parasites.
  • Hudson, Lawrence N., et al. (författare)
  • The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2045-7758 .- 2045-7758. ; 7:1, s. 145-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.
  • Nevoux, M., et al. (författare)
  • Environmental influences of life history strategies in partial anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta, Salmonidae)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Fish and Fisheries. - : Wiley: 12 months. - 1467-2960 .- 1467-2979. ; 20:6, s. 1051-1082
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper reviews the life history of brown trout and factors influencing decisions to migrate. Decisions that maximize fitness appear dependent on size at age. In partly anadromous populations, individuals that attain maturity at the parr stage typically become freshwater resident. For individual fish, the life history is not genetically fixed and can be modified by the previous growth history and energetic state in early life. This phenotypic plasticity may be influenced by epigenetic modifications of the genome. Thus, factors influencing survival and growth determine life-history decisions. These are intra- and interspecific competition, feeding and shelter opportunities in freshwater and salt water, temperature in alternative habitats and flow conditions in running water. Male trout exhibit alternative mating strategies and can spawn as a subordinate sneaker or a dominant competitor. Females do not exhibit alternative mating behaviour. The relationship between growth, size and reproductive success differs between sexes in that females exhibit a higher tendency to migrate than males. Southern populations are sensitive to global warming. In addition, fisheries, aquaculture with increased spreading of salmon lice, introduction of new species, weirs and river regulation, poor water quality and coastal developments all threaten trout populations. The paper summarizes life-history data from six populations across Europe and ends by presenting new research questions and directions for future research.
  • Näslund, Joacim, 1985, et al. (författare)
  • Hatchery tank enrichment affects cortisol levels and shelter-seeking in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. - : NRC Research Press (Canadian Science Publishing). - 0706-652X .- 1205-7533. ; 70:4, s. 585-590
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Stocking programs using hatchery-reared salmon are often implemented for augmenting natural populations. However, survival of these fish is often low compared with wild conspecifics, possibly because of genetic, physiological, and behavioural deficiencies. Here, we compared presmolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from three different environmental treatments (barren environment, plastic tube enrichment, and plastic shredding enrichment) with regard to plasma cortisol levels, shelter-seeking behaviour, and fin deterioration. Basal plasma cortisol levels were higher in barren-reared fish, indicating higher stress levels, while no differences were found in acute cortisol response after a 30 min confinement test. Shelter-seeking was higher in salmon reared in enriched tanks when tested alone, but not when tested in small groups. Barren-reared fish had higher levels of fin deterioration over winter, potentially owing to higher aggression levels. These results suggest that enrichment can reduce the impact of stressors experienced in the hatchery and thus increase fish welfare. Tank enrichment may also be used to produce salmon better adapted for the more complex environment encountered after release.
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