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Sökning: WFRF:(Persson Magnus V. 1983)

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1.
  • Jorgensen, J. K., et al. (författare)
  • The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS) First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA J.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 595
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterized by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) provides an unprecedented view of these regions zooming in on solar system scales of nearby protostars and mapping the emission from rare species. Aims. The goal is to introduce a systematic survey, the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), of the chemical complexity of one of the nearby astrochemical templates, the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293−2422, using ALMA in order to understand the origin of the complex molecules formed in its vicinity. In addition to presenting the overall survey, the analysis in this paper focuses on new results for the prebiotic molecule glycolaldehyde, its isomers, and rarer isotopologues and other related molecules. Methods. An unbiased spectral survey of IRAS 16293−2422 covering the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) has been obtained with ALMA, in addition to a few targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. The data consist of full maps of the protostellar binary system with an angular resolution of 0.5?? (60 AU diameter), a spectral resolution of 0.2 km s−1, and a sensitivity of 4−5 mJy beam−1 km s−1, which is approximately two orders of magnitude better than any previous studies. Results. More than 10 000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary, corresponding to an average line density of approximately one line per 3 km s−1. Glycolaldehyde; its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid; and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected and their emission well-modeled with an excitation temperature of 300 K. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg? and gGg?, are detected, the latter for the first time in the interstellar medium (ISM). The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or slightly larger than that of ethylene glycol. In comparison to the Galactic Center these two species are over-abundant relative to methanol, possibly an indication of formation of the species at low temperatures in CO-rich ices during the infall of the material toward the central protostar. Both 13C and the deuterated isotopologues of glycolaldehyde are detected, also for the first time ever in the ISM. For the deuterated species, a D/H ratio of≈5% is found with no differences between the deuteration in the different functional groups of glycolaldehyde, in contrast to previous estimates for methanol and recent suggestions of significant equilibration between water and -OH functional groups at high temperatures. Measurements of the 13C-species lead to a 12C:13C ratio of ≈30, lower than the typical ISM value. This low ratio may reflect an enhancement of 13CO in the ice due to either ion-molecule reactions in the gas before freeze-out or to differences in the temperatures where 12CO and 13CO ices sublimate. Conclusions. The results reinforce the importance of low-temperature grain surface chemistry for the formation of prebiotic molecules seen here in the gas after sublimation of the entire ice mantle. Systematic surveys of the molecules thought to be chemically related, as well as the accurate measurements of their isotopic composition, hold strong promise for understanding the origin of prebiotic molecules in the earliest stages of young stars.
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2.
  • Taquet, V, et al. (författare)
  • Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS) VI. Chemical evolution of sulfuretted species along the outflows driven by the low-mass protostellar binary NGC1333-IRAS4A
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Low-mass protostars drive powerful molecular outflows that can be observed with millimetre and submillimetre telescopes. Various sulfuretted species are known to be bright in shocks and could be used to infer the physical and chemical conditions throughout the observed outflows. Aims. The evolution of sulfur chemistry is studied along the outflows driven by the NGC1333-IRAS4A protobinary system located in the Perseus cloud to constrain the physical and chemical processes at work in shocks. Methods. We observed various transitions from OCS, CS, SO, and SO2 towards NGC1333-IRAS4A in the 1.3, 2, and 3mm bands using the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array and we interpreted the observations through the use of the Paris-Durham shock model. Results. The targeted species clearly show different spatial emission along the two outflows driven by IRAS4A. OCS is brighter on small and large scales along the south outflow driven by IRAS4A1, whereas SO2 is detected rather along the outflow driven by IRAS4A2 that is extended along the north east-south west direction. SO is detected at extremely high radial velocity up to +25 km s 1 relative to the source velocity, clearly allowing us to distinguish the two outflows on small scales. Column density ratio maps estimated from a rotational diagram analysis allowed us to confirm a clear gradient of the OCS/SO2 column density ratio between the IRAS4A1 and IRAS4A2 outflows. Analysis assuming non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium of four SO2 transitions towards several SiO emission peaks suggests that the observed gas should be associated with densities higher than 105 cm 3 and relatively warm (T > 100 K) temperatures in most cases. Conclusions. The observed chemical differentiation between the two outflows of the IRAS4A system could be explained by a different chemical history. The outflow driven by IRAS4A1 is likely younger and more enriched in species initially formed in interstellar ices, such as OCS, and recently sputtered into the shock gas. In contrast, the longer and likely older outflow triggered by IRAS4A2 is more enriched in species that have a gas phase origin, such as SO2.
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3.
  • Bøgelund, Eva G., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular complexity on disc scales uncovered by ALMA: Chemical composition of the high-mass protostar AFGL 4176
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 628
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The chemical composition of high-mass protostars reflects the physical evolution associated with different stages of star formation. In addition, the spatial distribution and velocity structure of different molecular species provide valuable information on the physical structure of these embedded objects. Despite an increasing number of interferometric studies, there is still a high demand for high angular resolution data to study chemical compositions and velocity structures for these objects. Aims. The molecular inventory of the forming high-mass star AFGL 4176, located at a distance of ∼3.7 kpc, is studied in detail at a high angular resolution of ∼0.35′′, equivalent to ∼1285 au at the distance of AFGL 4176. This high resolution makes it possible to separate the emission associated with the inner hot envelope and disc around the forming star from that of its cool outer envelope. The composition of AFGL 4176 is compared with other high- and low-mass sources, and placed in the broader context of star formation. Methods. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) the chemical inventory of AFGL 4176 has been characterised. The high sensitivity of ALMA made it possible to identify weak and optically thin lines and allowed for many isotopologues to be detected, providing a more complete and accurate inventory of the source. For the detected species, excitation temperatures in the range 120-320 K were determined and column densities were derived assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and using optically thin lines. The spatial distribution of a number of species was studied. Results. A total of 23 different molecular species and their isotopologues are detected in the spectrum towards AFGL 4176. The most abundant species is methanol (CH3OH) with a column density of 5.5 × 1018 cm-2 in a beam of ∼0.3″, derived from its 13C-isotopologue. The remaining species are present at levels between 0.003 and 15% with respect to methanol. Hints that N-bearing species peak slightly closer to the location of the peak continuum emission than the O-bearing species are seen. A single species, propyne (CH3C2H), displays a double-peaked distribution. Conclusions. AFGL 4176 comprises a rich chemical inventory including many complex species present on disc scales. On average, the derived column density ratios, with respect to methanol, of O-bearing species are higher than those derived for N-bearing species by a factor of three. This may indicate that AFGL 4176 is a relatively young source since nitrogen chemistry generally takes longer to evolve in the gas phase. Taking methanol as a reference, the composition of AFGL 4176 more closely resembles that of the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422B than that of high-mass, star-forming regions located near the Galactic centre. This similarity hints that the chemical composition of complex species is already set in the cold cloud stage and implies that AFGL 4176 is a young source whose chemical composition has not yet been strongly processed by the central protostar.
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4.
  • Jorgensen, J. K., et al. (författare)
  • The ALMA-PILS survey: isotopic composition of oxygen-containing complex organic molecules toward IRAS 16293-2422B
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 620
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. One of the important questions of astrochemistry is how complex organic molecules, including potential prebiotic species, are formed in the envelopes around embedded protostars. The abundances of minor isotopologues of a molecule, in particular the D- and C-13-bearing variants, are sensitive to the densities, temperatures and timescales characteristic of the environment in which they form, and can therefore provide important constraints on the formation routes and conditions of individual species. Aims. The aim of this paper is to systematically survey the deuteration and the C-13 content of a variety of oxygen-bearing complex organic molecules on solar system scales toward the "B component" of the protostellar binary IRAS16293-2422. Methods. We have used the data from an unbiased molecular line survey of the protostellar binary IRAS16293-2422 between 329 and 363 GHz from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The data probe scales of 60 AU (diameter) where most of the organic molecules are expected to have sublimated off dust grains and be present in the gas phase. The deuterated and C-13 isotopic species of ketene, acetaldehyde and formic acid, as well as deuterated ethanol, are detected unambiguously for the first time in the interstellar medium. These species are analysed together with the C-13 isotopic species of ethanol, dimethyl ether and methyl formate along with mono-deuterated methanol, dimethyl ether and methyl formate. Results. The complex organic molecules can be divided into two groups with one group, the simpler species, showing a D/H ratio of approximate to 2% and the other, the more complex species, D/H ratios of 4-8%. This division may reflect the formation time of each species in the ices before or during warm-up/infall of material through the protostellar envelope. No significant differences are seen in the deuteration of different functional groups for individual species, possibly a result of the short timescale for infall through the innermost warm regions where exchange reactions between different species may be taking place. The species show differences in excitation temperatures between 125 and 300 K. This likely reflects the binding energies of the individual species, in good agreement with what has previously been found for high-mass sources. For dimethyl ether, the C-12/C-13 ratio is found to be lower by up to a factor of 2 compared to typical ISM values similar to what has previously been inferred for glycolaldehyde. Tentative identifications suggest that the same may apply for C-13 isotopologues of methyl formate and ethanol. If confirmed, this may be a clue to their formation at the late prestellar or early protostellar phases with an enhancement of the available C-13 relative to C-12 related to small differences in binding energies for CO isotopologues or the impact of FUV irradiation by the central protostar. Conclusions. The results point to the importance of ice surface chemistry for the formation of these complex organic molecules at different stages in the evolution of embedded protostars and demonstrate the use of accurate isotope measurements for understanding the history of individual species.
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5.
  • Persson, Magnus V., 1983, et al. (författare)
  • The ALMA-PILS Survey: Formaldehyde deuteration in warm gas on small scales toward IRAS 16293-2422 B
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 610
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The enhanced degrees of deuterium fractionation observed in envelopes around protostars demonstrate the importance of chemistry at low temperatures, relevant in pre- and protostellar cores. Formaldehyde is an important species in the formation of methanol and more complex molecules. Aims. Here, we aim to present the first study of formaldehyde deuteration on small scales around the prototypical low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422 using high spatial and spectral resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We determine the excitation temperature, abundances and fractionation level of several formaldehyde isotopologues, including its deuterated forms. Methods. Excitation temperature and column densities of formaldehyde in the gas close to one of the components of the binary were constrained through modeling of optically thin lines assuming local thermodynamical equilibrium. The abundance ratios were compared to results from previous single dish observations, astrochemical models and local ISM values. Results. Numerous isotopologues of formaldehyde are detected, among them H 2 C 17 O, and D 2 13 CO for the first time in the ISM. The large range of upper energy levels covered by the HDCO lines help constrain the excitation temperature to 106 ± 13 K. Using the derived column densities, formaldehyde shows a deuterium fractionation of HDCO/H 2 CO = 6.5 ± 1%, D 2 CO/HDCO = 12.8 -4.1 +3.3 %, and D 2 CO/H 2 CO = 0.6(4) ± 0.1%. The isotopic ratios derived are 16 O/ 18 O = 805 -79 +43 , 18 O/ 17 O = 3.2 -0.3 +0.2 , and 12 C/ 13 C = 56 -11 +8 . Conclusions. The HDCO/H 2 CO ratio is lower than that found in previous studies, highlighting the uncertainties involved in interpreting single dish observations of the inner warm regions. The D 2 CO/HDCO ratio is only slightly larger than the HDCO/H 2 CO ratio. This is consistent with formaldehyde forming in the ice as soon as CO has frozen onto the grains, with most of the deuteration happening toward the end of the prestellar core phase. A comparison with available time-dependent chemical models indicates that the source is in the early Class 0 stage.
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6.
  • Taquet, V., et al. (författare)
  • Interferometric observations of warm deuterated methanol in the inner regions of low-mass protostars
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 632
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Methanol is a key species in astrochemistry because it is the most abundant organic molecule in the interstellar medium and is thought to be the mother molecule of many complex organic species. Estimating the deuteration of methanol around young protostars is of crucial importance because it highly depends on its formation mechanisms and the physical conditions during its moment of formation. We analyse several dozen transitions from deuterated methanol isotopologues coming from various existing observational datasets obtained with the IRAM-PdBI and ALMA sub-millimeter interferometers to estimate the methanol deuteration surrounding three low-mass protostars on Solar System scales. A population diagram analysis allows us to derive a [CH2DOH]/[CH3OH] abundance ratio of 3-6% and a [CH3OD]/[CH3OH] ratio of 0.4-1.6%in the warm inner (≤100-200 AU) protostellar regions. These values are typically ten times lower than those derived with previous single-dish observations towards these sources, but they are one to two orders of magnitude higher than the methanol deuteration measured in massive hot cores. Dust temperature maps obtained from Herschel and Planck observations show that massive hot cores are located in warmer molecular clouds than low-mass sources, with temperature differences of ∼10 K. The comparison of our measured values with the predictions of the gas-grain astrochemical model GRAINOBLE shows that such a temperature difference is sufficient to explain the different deuteration observed in low- to high-mass sources. This suggests that the physical conditions of the molecular cloud at the origin of the protostars mostly govern the present-day observed deuteration of methanol and therefore of more complex organic molecules. Finally, the methanol deuteration measured towards young solar-type protostars on Solar System scales seems to be higher by a factor of ∼5 than the upper limit in methanol deuteration estimated in comet Hale-Bopp. If this result is confirmed by subsequent observations of other comets, it would imply that an important reprocessing of the organic material likely occurred in the solar nebula during the formation of the Solar System.
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7.
  • Taquet, V., et al. (författare)
  • Linking interstellar and cometary O2: A deep search for 16O18O in the solar-Type protostar IRAS 16293b-2422
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 618
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent measurements carried out at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) with the Rosetta probe revealed that molecular oxygen, O2, is the fourth most abundant molecule in comets. Models show that O2 is likely of primordial nature, coming from the interstellar cloud from which our solar system was formed. However, gaseous O2 is an elusive molecule in the interstellar medium with only one detection towards quiescent molecular clouds, in the ρ Oph A core. We perform a deep search for molecular oxygen, through the 21-01 rotational transition at 234 GHz of its 16O18O isotopologue, towards the warm compact gas surrounding the nearby Class 0 protostar IRAS 16293-2422 B with the ALMA interferometer. We also look for the chemical daughters of O2, HO2, and H2O2. Unfortunately, the H2O2 rotational transition is dominated by ethylene oxide c-C2H4O while HO2 is not detected. The targeted 16O18O transition is surrounded by two brighter transitions at ± 1 km s-1 relative to the expected 16O18O transition frequency. After subtraction of these two transitions, residual emission at a 3σ level remains, but with a velocity offset of 0.3-0.5 km s-1 relative to the source velocity, rendering the detection "tentative". We derive the O2 column density for two excitation temperatures Tex of 125 and 300 K, as indicated by other molecules, in order to compare the O2 abundance between IRAS 16293 and comet 67P. Assuming that 16O18O is not detected and using methanol CH3OH as a reference species, we obtain a [O2]/[CH3OH] abundance ratio lower than 2-5, depending on the assumed Tex, a three to four times lower abundance than the [O2]/[CH3OH] ratio of 5-15 found in comet 67P. Such a low O2 abundance could be explained by the lower temperature of the dense cloud precursor of IRAS 16293 with respect to the one at the origin of our solar system that prevented efficient formation of O2 in interstellar ices.
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8.
  • Bjerkeli, Per, 1977, et al. (författare)
  • Kinematics around the B335 protostar down to au scales
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The relationship between outflow launching and formation of accretion disks around young stellar objects is still not entirely understood, which is why spectrally and spatially resolved observations are needed. Recently, the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) has carried out long-baseline observations towards a handful of sources, revealing connections between outflows and the inner regions of disks. Aims. Here we aim to determine the small-scale kinematic and morphological properties of the outflow from the isolated protostar B335 for which no Keplerian disk has, so far, been observed on scales down to 10 au. Methods. We use ALMA in its longest-baseline configuration to observe emission from CO isotopologs, SiO, SO$_2$ and CH$_3$OH. The proximity of B335 provides a resolution of ~3 au (0.03''). We also combine our long-baseline data with archival data to produce a high-fidelity image covering scales up to 700 au (7''). Results. $^{12}$CO has a X-shaped morphology with arms ~50 au in width that we associate with the walls of an outflow cavity, similar to what is observed on larger scales. Long-baseline continuum emission is confined to <7 au of the protostar, while short-baseline continuum emission follows the $^{12}$CO outflow and cavity walls. Methanol is detected within ~30 au of the protostar. SiO is also detected in the vicinity of the protostar, but extended along the outflow. Conclusions. The $^{12}$CO outflow shows no clear signs of rotation at distances $\gtrsim$30 au from the protostar. SiO traces the protostellar jet on small scales, but without obvious rotation. CH$_3$OH and SO$_2$ trace a region <16 au in diameter, centred on the continuum peak, which is clearly rotating. Using episodic, high-velocity, $^{12}$CO features, we estimate the launching radius of the outflow to be <0.1 au and dynamical timescales on the order of a few years.
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9.
  • Calcutt, H., et al. (författare)
  • The ALMA-PILS survey: complex nitriles towards IRAS 16293-2422
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 616
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Complex organic molecules are readily detected in the inner regions of the gaseous envelopes of forming protostars. Their detection is crucial to understanding the chemical evolution of the Universe and exploring the link between the early stages of star formation and the formation of solar system bodies, where complex organic molecules have been found in abundance. In particular, molecules that contain nitrogen are interesting due to the role nitrogen plays in the development of life and the compact scales such molecules have been found to trace around forming protostars. Aims. The goal of this work is to determine the inventory of one family of nitrogen-bearing organic molecules, complex nitriles (molecules with a -C N functional group) towards two hot corino sources in the low-mass protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422. This work explores the abundance differences between the two sources, the isotopic ratios, and the spatial extent derived from molecules containing the nitrile functional group. Methods. Using data from the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS) obtained with ALMA, we determine abundances and excitation temperatures for the detected nitriles. We also present a new method for determining the spatial structure of sources with high line density and large velocity gradients-Velocity-corrected INtegrated emission (VINE) maps. Results. We detect methyl cyanide (CH3CN) as well as five of its isotopologues, including CHD2CN, which is the first detection in the interstellar medium (ISM). We also detect ethyl cyanide (C2H5CN), vinyl cyanide (C2H3CN), and cyanoacetylene (HC3N). We find that abundances are similar between IRAS 16293A and IRAS 16293B on small scales except for vinyl cyanide which is only detected towards the latter source. This suggests an important difference between the sources either in their evolutionary stage or warm-up timescales. We also detect a spatially double-peaked emission for the first time in molecular emission in the A source, suggesting that this source is showing structure related to a rotating toroid of material. Conclusions. With high-resolution observations, we have been able to show for the first time a number of important similarities and differences in the nitrile chemistry in these objects. These illustrate the utility of nitriles as potential tracers of the physical conditions in star-forming regions.
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10.
  • Coutens, A., et al. (författare)
  • First detection of cyanamide (NH2CN) towards solar-type protostars
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 612
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Searches for the prebiotically relevant cyanamide (NH 2 CN) towards solar-type protostars have not been reported in the literature. We present here the first detection of this species in the warm gas surrounding two solar-type protostars, using data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS) of IRAS 16293-2422 B and observations from the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer of NGC 1333 IRAS2A. We also detected the deuterated and 13 C isotopologs of NH 2 CN towards IRAS 16293-2422 B. This is the first detection of NHDCN in the interstellar medium. Based on a local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis, we find that the deuteration of cyanamide (∼1.7%) is similar to that of formamide (NH 2 CHO), which may suggest that these two molecules share NH 2 as a common precursor. The NH 2 CN/NH 2 CHO abundance ratio is about 0.2 for IRAS 16293-2422 B and 0.02 for IRAS2A, which is comparable to the range of values found for Sgr B2. We explored the possible formation of NH 2 CN on grains through the NH 2 + CN reaction using the chemical model MAGICKAL. Grain-surface chemistry appears capable of reproducing the gas-phase abundance of NH 2 CN with the correct choice of physical parameters.
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