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  • Eriksson, Kimmo, et al. (författare)
  • Perceptions of the appropriate response to norm violation in 57 societies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Research. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Norm enforcement may be important for resolving conflicts and promoting cooperation. However, little is known about how preferred responses to norm violations vary across cultures and across domains. In a preregistered study of 57 countries (using convenience samples of 22,863 students and non-students), we measured perceptions of the appropriateness of various responses to a violation of a cooperative norm and to atypical social behaviors. Our findings highlight both cultural universals and cultural variation. We find a universal negative relation between appropriateness ratings of norm violations and appropriateness ratings of responses in the form of confrontation, social ostracism and gossip. Moreover, we find the country variation in the appropriateness of sanctions to be consistent across different norm violations but not across different sanctions. Specifically, in those countries where use of physical confrontation and social ostracism is rated as less appropriate, gossip is rated as more appropriate. Little is known about peoples preferred responses to norm violations across countries. Here, in a study of 57 countries, the authors highlight cultural similarities and differences in peoples perception of the appropriateness of norm violations.
  • Bergström, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of Subclinical Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in the General Population.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Wolters Kluwer. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 144:12, s. 916-929
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Early detection of coronary atherosclerosis using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), in addition to coronary artery calcification (CAC) scoring, may help inform prevention strategies. We used CCTA to determine the prevalence, severity, and characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis and its association with CAC scores in a general population.METHODS: We recruited 30 154 randomly invited individuals age 50 to 64 years to SCAPIS (the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study). The study includes individuals without known coronary heart disease (ie, no previous myocardial infarctions or cardiac procedures) and with high-quality results from CCTA and CAC imaging performed using dedicated dual-source CT scanners. Noncontrast images were scored for CAC. CCTA images were visually read and scored for coronary atherosclerosis per segment (defined as no atherosclerosis, 1% to 49% stenosis, or ≥50% stenosis). External validity of prevalence estimates was evaluated using inverse probability for participation weighting and Swedish register data.RESULTS: In total, 25 182 individuals without known coronary heart disease were included (50.6% women). Any CCTA-detected atherosclerosis was found in 42.1%; any significant stenosis (≥50%) in 5.2%; left main, proximal left anterior descending artery, or 3-vessel disease in 1.9%; and any noncalcified plaques in 8.3% of this population. Onset of atherosclerosis was delayed on average by 10 years in women. Atherosclerosis was more prevalent in older individuals and predominantly found in the proximal left anterior descending artery. Prevalence of CCTA-detected atherosclerosis increased with increasing CAC scores. Among those with a CAC score >400, all had atherosclerosis and 45.7% had significant stenosis. In those with 0 CAC, 5.5% had atherosclerosis and 0.4% had significant stenosis. In participants with 0 CAC and intermediate 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease according to the pooled cohort equation, 9.2% had CCTA-verified atherosclerosis. Prevalence estimates had excellent external validity and changed marginally when adjusted to the age-matched Swedish background population.CONCLUSIONS: Using CCTA in a large, random sample of the general population without established disease, we showed that silent coronary atherosclerosis is common in this population. High CAC scores convey a significant probability of substantial stenosis, and 0 CAC does not exclude atherosclerosis, particularly in those at higher baseline risk.
  • Ericsson, Olle, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical validation of a novel automated cell-free DNA screening assay for trisomies 21, 13, and 18 in maternal plasma.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Prenatal diagnosis. - 1097-0223. ; 39:11, s. 1011-1015
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To evaluate clinical performance of a new automated cell-free (cf)DNA assay in maternal plasma screening for trisomies 21, 18, and 13, and to determine fetal sex.Maternal plasma samples from 1200 singleton pregnancies were analyzed with a new non-sequencing cfDNA method, which is based on imaging and counting specific chromosome targets. Reference outcomes were determined by either cytogenetic testing, of amniotic fluid or chorionic villi, or clinical examination of neonates.The samples examined included 158 fetal aneuploidies. Sensitivity was 100% (112/112) for trisomy 21, 89% (32/36) for trisomy 18, and 100% (10/10) for trisomy 13. The respective specificities were 100%, 99.5%, and 99.9%. There were five first pass failures (0.4%), all in unaffected pregnancies. Sex classification was performed on 979 of the samples and 99.6% (975/979) provided a concordant result.The new automated cfDNA assay has high sensitivity and specificity for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 and accurate classification of fetal sex, while maintaining a low failure rate. The study demonstrated that cfDNA testing can be simplified and automated to reduce cost and thereby enabling wider population-based screening.
  • van Dishoeck, E. F., et al. (författare)
  • Water in star-forming regions: Physics and chemistry from clouds to disks as probed by Herschel spectroscopy
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 648
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Water is a key molecule in the physics and chemistry of star and planet formation, but it is difficult to observe from Earth. The Herschel Space Observatory provided unprecedented sensitivity as well as spatial and spectral resolution to study water. The Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) key program was designed to observe water in a wide range of environments and provide a legacy data set to address its physics and chemistry. Aims. The aim of WISH is to determine which physical components are traced by the gas-phase water lines observed with Herschel and to quantify the excitation conditions and water abundances in each of these components. This then provides insight into how and where the bulk of the water is formed in space and how it is transported from clouds to disks, and ultimately comets and planets. Methods. Data and results from WISH are summarized together with those from related open time programs. WISH targeted ∼80 sources along the two axes of luminosity and evolutionary stage: from low- to high-mass protostars (luminosities from <1 to > 10Lpdbl) and from pre-stellar cores to protoplanetary disks. Lines of H2O and its isotopologs, HDO, OH, CO, and [O I], were observed with the HIFI and PACS instruments, complemented by other chemically-related molecules that are probes of ultraviolet, X-ray, or grain chemistry. The analysis consists of coupling the physical structure of the sources with simple chemical networks and using non-LTE radiative transfer calculations to directly compare models and observations. Results. Most of the far-infrared water emission observed with Herschel in star-forming regions originates from warm outflowing and shocked gas at a high density and temperature (> 10cm-3, 300-1000 K, v ∼ 25 km s-1), heated by kinetic energy dissipation. This gas is not probed by single-dish low-J CO lines, but only by CO lines with Jup > 14. The emission is compact, with at least two different types of velocity components seen. Water is a significant, but not dominant, coolant of warm gas in the earliest protostellar stages. The warm gas water abundance is universally low: orders of magnitude below the H2O/H2 abundance of 4 × 10-4 expected if all volatile oxygen is locked in water. In cold pre-stellar cores and outer protostellar envelopes, the water abundance structure is uniquely probed on scales much smaller than the beam through velocity-resolved line profiles. The inferred gaseous water abundance decreases with depth into the cloud with an enhanced layer at the edge due to photodesorption of water ice. All of these conclusions hold irrespective of protostellar luminosity. For low-mass protostars, a constant gaseous HDO/H2O ratio of ∼0.025 with position into the cold envelope is found. This value is representative of the outermost photodesorbed ice layers and cold gas-phase chemistry, and much higher than that of bulk ice. In contrast, the gas-phase NH3 abundance stays constant as a function of position in low-mass pre- and protostellar cores. Water abundances in the inner hot cores are high, but with variations from 5 × 10-6 to a few × 10-4 for low- and high-mass sources. Water vapor emission from both young and mature disks is weak. Conclusions. The main chemical pathways of water at each of the star-formation stages have been identified and quantified. Low warm water abundances can be explained with shock models that include UV radiation to dissociate water and modify the shock structure. UV fields up to 102-10times the general interstellar radiation field are inferred in the outflow cavity walls on scales of the Herschel beam from various hydrides. Both high temperature chemistry and ice sputtering contribute to the gaseous water abundance at low velocities, with only gas-phase (re-)formation producing water at high velocities. Combined analyses of water gas and ice show that up to 50% of the oxygen budget may be missing. In cold clouds, an elegant solution is that this apparently missing oxygen is locked up in larger μm-sized grains that do not contribute to infrared ice absorption. The fact that even warm outflows and hot cores do not show H2O at full oxygen abundance points to an unidentified refractory component, which is also found in diffuse clouds. The weak water vapor emission from disks indicates that water ice is locked up in larger pebbles early on in the embedded Class I stage and that these pebbles have settled and drifted inward by the Class II stage. Water is transported from clouds to disks mostly as ice, with no evidence for strong accretion shocks. Even at abundances that are somewhat lower than expected, many oceans of water are likely present in planet-forming regions. Based on the lessons for galactic protostars, the low-J H2O line emission (Eup < 300 K) observed in extragalactic sources is inferred to be predominantly collisionally excited and to originate mostly from compact regions of current star formation activity. Recommendations for future mid- to far-infrared missions are made.
  • Ingason, Arni Sigurdur, et al. (författare)
  • Magnetic Self-Organized Atomic Laminate from First Principles and Thin Film Synthesis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 110
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • he first experimental realization of a magnetic Mn+1AXn (MAX) phase, (Cr0.75Mn0.25)2GeC, is presented, synthesized as a heteroepitaxial single crystal thin film, exhibiting excellent structural quality. This self-organized atomic laminate is based on the well-known Cr2GeC, with Mn, a new element in MAX phase research, substituting Cr. The compound was predicted using first-principles calculations, from which a variety of magnetic behavior is envisaged, depending on the Mn concentration and Cr/Mn atomic configuration within the sublattice. The analyzed thin films display a magnetic signal at room temperature.
  • Vouzouneraki, K., et al. (författare)
  • Temporal relationship of sleep apnea and acromegaly: a nationwide study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Endocrine. - : Springer. - 1355-008X .- 1559-0100. ; 62:2, s. 456-463
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PurposePatients with acromegaly have an increased risk of sleep apnea, but reported prevalence rates vary largely. Here we aimed to evaluate the sleep apnea prevalence in a large national cohort of patients with acromegaly, to examine possible risk factors, and to assess the proportion of patients diagnosed with sleep apnea prior to acromegaly diagnosis.MethodsCross-sectional multicenter study of 259 Swedish patients with acromegaly. At patients' follow-up visits at the endocrine outpatient clinics of all seven university hospitals in Sweden, questionnaires were completed to assess previous sleep apnea diagnosis and treatment, cardiovascular diseases, smoking habits, anthropometric data, and S-IGF-1 levels. Daytime sleepiness was evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Patients suspected to have undiagnosed sleep apnea were referred for sleep apnea investigations.ResultsOf the 259 participants, 75 (29%) were diagnosed with sleep apnea before the study start. In 43 (57%) of these patients, sleep apnea had been diagnosed before the diagnosis of acromegaly. After clinical assessment and sleep studies, sleep apnea was diagnosed in an additional 20 patients, yielding a total sleep apnea prevalence of 37%. Higher sleep apnea risk was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, and index finger circumference. Sleep apnea was more frequent among patients with S-IGF-1 levels in the highest quartile.ConclusionSleep apnea is common among patients with acromegaly, and is often diagnosed prior to their acromegaly diagnosis. These results support early screening for sleep apnea in patients with acromegaly and awareness for acromegaly in patients with sleep apnea.
  • Zhu, Baiwei, 1990-, et al. (författare)
  • A study of formation and growth of the anodised surface layer on cast Al-Si alloys based on different analytical techniques
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Materials & design. - : Elsevier. - 0264-1275 .- 1873-4197. ; 101, s. 254-262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper aims to investigate the mechanisms of formation and growth of the anodised surface layer on Al-Si castings by applying different analytical techniques such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and X-ray computer tomography (X-ray CT) scanning. Three different Al alloys with various Si content (2.43%, 3.53% and 5.45%) were investigated. Si particle morphological modification by Sr addition, as well as directional solidification, was used to vary the microstructural coarseness in a controlled manner to study the influence of these parameters on the growth behaviour of the oxide layer. This study observed residual unanodised Al phases trapped beneath or between Si particles in the oxide layer. It was found, depending on the geometry and morphology of Si particles, that Al can be shielded by Si particles and prevented from oxidising.
  • Bakhit, Babak, et al. (författare)
  • Age hardening in superhard ZrB2-rich Zr1-xTaxBy thin films
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scripta Materialia. - : Elsevier BV. - 1359-6462 .- 1872-8456. ; 191, s. 120-125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We recently showed that sputter-deposited Zr1-xTaxBy thin films have hexagonal AlB2-type columnar nanostructure in which column boundaries are B-rich for x < 0.2, while Ta-rich for x ≥ 0.2. As-deposited layers with x ≥ 0.2 exhibit higher hardness and, simultaneously, enhanced toughness. Here, we study the mechanical properties of ZrB2.4, Zr0.8Ta0.2B1.8, and Zr0.7Ta0.3B1.5 films annealed in Ar atmosphere as a function of annealing temperature Ta up to 1200 °C. In-situ and ex-situ nanoindentation analyses reveal that all films undergo age hardening up to Ta = 800 °C, with the highest hardness achieved for Zr0.8Ta0.2B1.8 (45.5±1.0 GPa). The age hardening, which occurs without any phase separation or decomposition, can be explained by point-defect recovery that enhances chemical bond density. Although hardness decreases at Ta > 800 °C due mainly to recrystallization, column coarsening, and planar defect annihilation, all layers show hardness values above 34 GPa over the entire Ta range.
  • Malinovskis, Paulius, et al. (författare)
  • Synthesis and characterization of MoB2-x thin films grown by nonreactive DC magnetron sputtering
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films. - : American Institute of Physics (AIP). - 0734-2101 .- 1520-8559. ; 34, s. 031511-1-031511-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • DC magnetron sputtering was used to depositmolybdenumboridethin films for potential low-friction applications. The films exhibit a nanocomposite structure with ∼10 nm large MoB2−x (x > 0.4) grains surrounded by a boron-rich tissue phase. The preferred formation of the metastable and substoichiometric hP3-MoB2structure (AlB2-type) is explained with kinetic constraints to form the thermodynamically stable hR18-MoB2 phase with a very complex crystal structure. Nanoindentation revealed a relatively high hardness of (29 ± 2) GPa, which is higher than bulk samples. The high hardness can be explained by a hardening effect associated with the nanocomposite microstructure where the surrounding tissue phase restricts dislocation movement. A tribological study confirmed a significant formation of a tribofilm consisting of molybdenum oxide and boron oxide, however, without any lubricating effects at room temperature.
  • Mockuté, Aurelija, et al. (författare)
  • Structural and magnetic properties of (Cr1-xMnx)(5)Al-8 solid solution and structural relation to hexagonal nanolaminates
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Materials Science. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0022-2461 .- 1573-4803. ; 49:20, s. 7099-7104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Electron microscopy is used to reveal the competitive epitaxial growth of bcc structure (Cr1-x Mn (x) )(5)Al-8 and (Cr1-y Mn (y) )(2)AlC [M (n+1)AX (n) (MAX)] phase during both magnetron sputtering and arc deposition. X-ray diffraction theta-2 theta measurements display identical peak positions of (000n)-oriented MAX phase and (Cr1-x Mn (x) )(5)Al-8, due to the interplanar spacing of (Cr1-x Mn (x) )(5)Al-8 that matches exactly half a unit cell of (Cr1-y Mn (y) )(2)AlC. Vibrating sample magnetometry shows that a thin film exclusively consisting of (Cr1-x Mn (x) )(5)Al-8 exhibits a magnetic response, implying that the potential presence of this phase needs to be taken into consideration when evaluating the magnetic properties of (Cr, Mn)(2)AlC.
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