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1.
  • Gallo, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - Springer. - 1573-7284.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous case-control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 472,100 individuals were included in the analysis, yielding 219 ALS deaths. At recruitment, information on PA was collected thorough standardised questionnaires. Total PA was expressed by the Cambridge Physical Activity Index (CPAI) and analysed in relation to ALS mortality, using Cox hazard models. Interactions with age, sex, and anthropometric measures were assessed. Total PA was weakly inversely associated with ALS mortality with a borderline statistically significant trend across categories (p = 0.042), with those physically active being 33 % less likely to die from ALS compared to those inactive: HR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.42-1.06). Anthropometric measures, sex, and age did not modify the association with CPAI. The present study shows a slightly decreased-not increased like in case-control studies-risk of dying from ALS in those with high levels of total PA at enrolment. This association does not appear confounded by age, gender, anthropometry, smoking, and education. Ours was the first prospective cohort study on ALS and physical activity.
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2.
  • Wikberg, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison Between the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale–Self and the Beck Depression Inventory II in Primary Care
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders. - 0160-6689 .- 1555-2101. ; 17:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale–Self (MADRS-S) and the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) are commonly used self-assessment instruments for screening and diagnosis of depression. The BDI-II has 21 items and the MADRS-S has 9 items. These instruments have been tested with psychiatric inpatients but not in outpatient primary care, where most patients with symptoms of depression initially seek treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare these 2 instruments in the primary care setting. Method: Data were collected from 2 primary care randomized controlled trials that were performed from 2010 to 2013 in Sweden: the Primary Care Self-Assessment MADRS-S Study and Primary Care Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Study. There were 146 patients (73 patients each from both trials) who had newly diagnosed mild or moderate depression (per DSM-IV recommendations) and who had assessment with both the MADRS-S and BDI-II at primary care centers. Comparability and reliability of the instruments were estimated by Pearson product moment correlation and Cronbach α. Results: A good correlation was observed between the 2 instruments: 0.66 and 0.62 in the 2 study cohorts. The reliability within the 2 study cohorts was good for both MADRS-S (Cronbach α: 0.76 for both cohorts) and BDI-II items (Cronbach α: 0.88 and 0.85). Conclusions: The 2 instruments showed good comparability and reliability for low, middle, and high total depression scores. The MADRS-S may be used as a rapid, easily administered, and inexpensive tool in primary care and has results comparable to the BDI-II in all domains.
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3.
  • Altman, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Prolonged second stage of labor is associated with low Apgar score
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medicine, Solna.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is no consensus on the effects of a prolonged second stage of labor on neonatal outcomes. In this large Swedish population-based cohort study, our objective was to investigate prolonged second stage and risk of low Apgar score at 5 minutes. All nulliparous women (n= 32 796) delivering a live born singleton infant in cephalic presentation at ≥37 completed weeks after spontaneous onset of labor between 2008 and 2012 in the counties of Stockholm and Gotland were included. Data were obtained from computerized records. Exposure was time from fully retracted cervix until delivery. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjustments were made for maternal age, height, BMI, smoking, sex, gestational age, sex-specific birth weight for gestational age and head circumference. Epidural analgesia was included in a second model. The primary outcome measure was Apgar score at 5 minutes <7 and <4. We found that the overall rates of 5 minute Apgar score <7 and <4 were 7.0 and 1.3 per 1000 births, respectively. Compared to women with <1 hour from retracted cervix to birth, adjusted ORs of Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes generally increased with length of second stage of labor: 1-<2 hours: OR 1.78 (95% CI 1.19-2.66); 2- <3 hours: OR 1.66 (1.05-2.62); 3-<4 hours: OR 2.08 (1.29-3.35); and ≥4 hours: OR 2.71 (1.67-4.40). We conclude that prolonged second stage of labor is associated with an increased risk of low 5 minute Apgar score.
4.
  • Andersson, Maria L. E., et al. (författare)
  • Early increase in serum-COMP is associated with joint damage progression over the first five years in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2474. ; 14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Currently available biomarkers for the early tissue process leading to joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis are insufficient and lack prognostic accuracy, possibly a result of variable activity of the disease over time. This study represents a novel approach to detect an altered activity of the disease process detected as increasing serum-COMP levels over a short time and whether this would correlate with joint damage progression over the first 5 years of disease. Methods: In all, 349 patients from the Swedish BARFOT early RA study were examined. Serum-COMP was analysed by ELISA at diagnosis and after 3 months. Based on changes in serum-COMP levels, three subgroups of patients were defined: those with unchanged levels (change <= 20%) (N=142), decreasing levels (> 20%) (N=173) and increasing levels (> 20%) (N=34). Radiographs of hands and feet were obtained at inclusion, after 1, 2 and 5 years and scored according to Sharp van der Heijde (SHS). Radiographic progression was defined as increase in SHS by >= 5.8. Results: The group of patients with increasing COMP levels showed higher median change in total SHS and erosion scores at 1, 2 and 5 year follow-up compared with the groups with stable or decreasing COMP levels. Furthermore, the odds ratio of radiographic progression was 2.8 (95% CI 1.26-6.38) for patients with increasing COMP levels vs. patients with unchanged levels. The group of patients with increasing COMP levels had higher ESR at inclusion but there were no baseline differences between the groups for age, gender, disease duration, disease activity (DAS28), function (HAQ), CRP, nor presence of rheumatoid factor or anti-CCP. Importantly, neither did changes over the 3-month period in DAS28, HAQ, ESR nor CRP differ between the groups and these variables did not correlate to joint damage progression. Conclusion: Increasing serum-COMP levels between diagnosis and the subsequent 3 months in patients with early RA represents a novel indicator of an activated destructive process in the joint and is a promising tool to identify patients with significant joint damage progression during a 5-year period.
5.
  • Backmark, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Affinity tags can reduce merohedral twinning of membrane protein crystals
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Crystallographica. Section D: Biological Crystallography. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1399-0047. ; 64, s. 1183-1186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This work presents a comparison of the crystal packing of three eukaryotic membrane proteins: human aquaporin 1, human aquaporin 5 and a spinach plasma membrane aquaporin. All were purified from expression constructs both with and without affinity tags. With the exception of tagged aquaporin 1, all constructs yielded crystals. Two significant effects of the affinity tags were observed: crystals containing a tag typically diffracted to lower resolution than those from constructs encoding the protein sequence alone and constructs without a tag frequently produced crystals that suffered from merohedral twinning. Twinning is a challenging crystallographic problem that can seriously hinder solution of the structure. Thus, for integral membrane proteins, the addition of an affinity tag may help to disrupt the approximate symmetry of the protein and thereby reduce or avoid merohedral twinning.
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6.
  • Bondemark, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Funktionsstörningar och smärta
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Tandläkartidningen. - 0039-6982. ; 100:9-10, s. 64-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • <p>Orofaciala funktionsstörningar och smärta är en sammanfattning av kliniska problem och sjukdomar som involverar bett, käkar, tuggmuskulatur, käkleder och omgivande strukturer. Orsakerna är oftast multifaktoriella för de barn, ungdomar och vuxna som drabbas.</p>
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7.
  • Gallo, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 31:3, s. 255-266
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Previous case-control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 472,100 individuals were included in the analysis, yielding 219 ALS deaths. At recruitment, information on PA was collected through standardised questionnaires. Total PA was expressed by the Cambridge Physical Activity Index (CPAI) and analysed in relation to ALS mortality, using Cox hazard models. Interactions with age, sex, and anthropometric measures were assessed. Total PA was weakly inversely associated with ALS mortality with a borderline statistically significant trend across categories (p = 0.042), with those physically active being 33 % less likely to die from ALS compared to those inactive: HR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.42-1.06). Anthropometric measures, sex, and age did not modify the association with CPAI. The present study shows a slightly decreased-not increased like in case-control studies-risk of dying from ALS in those with high levels of total PA at enrolment. This association does not appear confounded by age, gender, anthropometry, smoking, and education. Ours was the first prospective cohort study on ALS and physical activity.</p>
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8.
  • Hogberg, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Depressed adolescents in a case-series were low in vitamin D and depression was ameliorated by vitamin D supplementation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - 0803-5253. ; 101:7, s. 779-783
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: The relationship between depression in adolescents and vitamin D was studied in a case-series that included effects of vitamin D supplementation. Methods: Serum 25OH vitamin D (25OHD) levels in 54 Swedish depressed adolescents were investigated. Subjects with vitamin D deficiency were given vitamin D3 over 3 months (n = 48). To evaluate well-being and symptoms related to depression and vitamin D status, the WHO-5 well-being scale, the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ-S) and a vitamin D deficiency scale were used. Results: Mean serum 25OHD in the depressed adolescents was 41 at baseline and 91 nmol/L (p < 0.001) after supplementation. Basal 25OHD levels correlated positively with well-being (p < 0.05). After vitamin D supplementation, well-being increased (p < 0.001) and there was a significant improvement in eight of the nine items in the vitamin D deficiency scale: depressed feeling (p < 0.001), irritability (p < 0.05), tiredness (p < 0.001), mood swings (p < 0.01), sleep difficulties (p < 0.01), weakness (p < 0.01), ability to concentrate (p < 0.05) and pain (p < 0.05). There was a significant amelioration of depression according to the MFQ-S (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study showed low levels of vitamin D in 54 depressed adolescents, positive correlation between vitamin D and well-being, and improved symptoms related to depression and vitamin D deficiency after vitamin D supplementation.
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9.
  • Lindh, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Handbok för nordlig solel
  • 2020
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Solen är en för människan evig energikälla och solel har en given plats i ett framtida hållbart och förnybart energisystem – globalt och i Sverige. Kostnaden för en solelanläggning har sjunkit drastiskt de senaste åren och tillgängligheten har ökat. Det gör solel relevant utanför de regioner som har störst solinstrålning; även i norra Skandinavien är det en långsiktigt hållbar investering ur både ett energi- och ekonomiskt perspektiv.</p><p>Nordlig solel har goda men annorlunda förutsättningar jämfört med de i södra Sverige och Centraleuropa. Solens position på himlen och den instrålade energin per år är lägre, det är en stor andel diffust ljus och man kan förvänta sig mer reflektioner från en snötäckt mark på vintern. På sommaren är soltimmarna fler och solens bana längre. Medeltemperaturen är betydligt lägre på årsbasis men skillnaden mot sydligare breddgrader är mindre under sommaren då instrålningen är stor. En annan avgörande faktor är snö som under stora delar av året i norr täcker marken och potentiellt solelanläggningar. Om snötäckningen kan begränsas till de mörkaste månaderna blir årseffekterna på energiproduktionen små, men snölaster ställer höga krav på solelanläggningars kvalitet, både ur installations- och komponentperspektiv.</p><p>Genom att beakta följande fem rekommendationer kan man minska risken för problem:</p><p>1. Undersök snöförhållandena på platsen innan installation. Anläggningsägaren vet ofta bäst var snön brukar ansamlas och när den smälter bort eller glider av.</p><p>2. Säkerställ att installationen är genomtänkt ur ett snöperspektiv. En noggrann kontroll av att installationen följer leverantörernas anvisningar är extra viktigt när förhållandena är krävande.</p><p>3. Välj robusta moduler och fästanordningar – en solelanläggning ska hålla i många år och bör utformas för att klara lokala snöförhållanden.</p><p>4. Utforma om möjligt anläggningen så att snöröjning inte krävs. Röj (varsamt) undan snö från anläggningen om det trots det blir nödvändigt: för att undvika takras, skydda solelanläggningen mot tryck- och glidskador från ett tjockt snötäcke och för att möjliggöra elproduktion från tidig vår.</p><p>5. Montera modulerna med rätt orientering. Söderläge och så hög lutning som möjligt upp till om kring 50° (i Piteå) är generellt bäst. Ofta är man begränsad av takets utformning men även avvikelser från söder mot öst eller väst och mindre lutningar kan ge ett acceptabelt energiutbyte.</p><p>Huvudregeln bör vara att: Montera solceller där solinstrålningen är stor men snö inte ansamlas!</p>
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10.
  • Pigg, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • A comparative analysis of MRI, CBCT and conventional radiography in patients with atypical odontalgia and symptomatic apical periodontitis : preliminary results
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Swedish Dental Journal. - 0347-9994. ; 30:4, s. 173-174
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Aim: Atypical odontalgia(AO) is a chronic pain condition located in the teeth and jaws. It has been suggested, that AO is best regarded as a neuropathic pain condition, but knowledge regarding the etiology, diagnostics, and management of AO is not yet satisfactory. This pilot study evaluates the clinical usefulness of more recently developed imaging methods for intraoral pain conditions. The aim is to compare the diagnostic findings using magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and cone beam computed tomography(CBCT) with the findings from conventional radiography in patients with atypical odontalgia(AO) and symptomatic apical periodontitis(SAP). Material and methods: 12 patients (9 F, 3 M) mean age 50,25 years, range 36 - 63 years participated in the study. The patients were referred to the Orofacial Pain Unit or the Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University. Inclusion criteria for AO were chronic pain (>6 months) located in a region where a tooth had been endodontically or surgically treated, pain with no pathological cause detectable in clinical or radiological examinations. For SAP, the inclusion criteria were recurrent pain from a tooth diagnosed with apical periodontitis in a clinical and radiographic examination. Ten of the patients in the study were diagnosed with AO and two with SAP. The patients were clinically assessed with a qualitative somatosensory examination, a dental examination, an examination of the masticatory system(RDC/TMD), and panoramic and intraoral radiographs. A questionnaire was used to gather information about pain characteristics, psychosocial status(SCL-90), and quality of life. Besides these measures, each patient underwent a CBCT(3D-Accuitomo, J Morita Co) examination and a MRI(Siemens Sonata Vision 1.5 T) examination with and without contrast enhancement. Contrast was enhanced by injections of Magnevist (469 mg/ml, Schering Nordiska). Bone destruction, sclerosis, and signs of inflammation were the main parameters studied. Results: In the preliminary results, average pain intensity was 6.3 on a numerical rating scale(NRS) and average pain duration was 3,6 years. 83% exhibited somatosensory abnormalities. Bone destruction not visible in the intraoral and panoramic radiographs was detected with CBCT in 40% (4/10) of the patients diagnosed with AO, and signs of inflammation were detected in the MRIs of 20% (2/10) of the patients diagnosed with AO. Conclusion: Preliminary findings indicate that CBCT and MRI can provide additional information to conventional radiography in the diagnosis of intraoral orofacial pain. Further studies with larger sample sizes of AO and SAP patients are necessary to determine the clinical relevance of these findings.</p>
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