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  • Adolfsson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical characteristics and primary treatment of prostate cancer in Sweden between 1996 and 2005 : Data from the national prostate cancer register in Sweden
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - Stockholm : Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5599. ; 41:6, s. 456-477
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. The incidence of prostate cancer is rising rapidly in Sweden and there is a need to better understand the pattern of diagnosis, tumor characteristics and treatment. Material and methods. Between 1996 and 2005, all new cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland were intended to be registered in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR). This register contains information on diagnosing unit, date of diagnosis, cause of diagnosis, tumor grade, tumor stage according to the TNM classification in force, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at diagnosis and primary treatment given within the first 6 months after diagnosis. Results. In total, 72 028 patients were registered, comprising >97% of all pertinent incident cases of prostate cancer in the Swedish Cancer Register (SCR). During the study period there was a considerable decrease in median age at the time of diagnosis, a stage migration towards smaller tumors, a decrease in median serum PSA values at diagnosis, a decrease in the age-standardized incidence rate of men diagnosed with distant metastases or with a PSA level of >100 ng/ml at diagnosis and an increase in the proportion of tumors with Gleason score ≤6. Relatively large geographical differences in the median age at diagnosis and the age-standardized incidence of cases with category T1c tumors were observed. Treatment with curative intent increased dramatically and treatment patterns varied according to geographical region. In men with localized tumors and a PSA level of <20 ng/ml at diagnosis, expectant treatment was more commonly used in those aged ≥75 years than in those aged <75 years. Also, the pattern of endocrine treatment varied in different parts of Sweden. Conclusions. All changes in the register seen over time are consistent with increased diagnostic activity, especially PSA testing, resulting in an increased number of cases with early disease, predominantly tumors in category T1c. The patterns of diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer vary considerably in different parts of Sweden. The NPCR continues to be an important source for research, epidemiological surveillance of the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer
  • Boy, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Interactions between the atmosphere, cryosphere, and ecosystems at northern high latitudes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 19:3, s. 2015-2061
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere-Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011-2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date, aiming to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. CRAICC gathered more than 100 scientists from all Nordic countries in a virtual centre with the objectives of identifying and quantifying the major processes controlling Arctic warming and related feedback mechanisms, outlining strategies to mitigate Arctic warming, and developing Nordic Earth system modelling with a focus on short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), including natural and anthropogenic aerosols. The outcome of CRAICC is reflected in more than 150 peer-reviewed scientific publications, most of which are in the CRAICC special issue of the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. This paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated in the centre and provides the reader with a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC with links to the particular publications for further detail. Faced with a vast amount of scientific discovery, we do not claim to completely summarize the results from CRAICC within this paper, but rather concentrate here on the main results which are related to feedback loops in climate change-cryosphere interactions that affect Arctic amplification.
  • Davidsson, Kent, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Potassium, chlorine, and sulfur in ash, particles, deposits, and corrosion during wood combustion in a circulating fluidized-bed boiler
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Energy & Fuels. - 1520-5029 .- 0887-0624. ; 21:1, s. 71-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of the addition of chlorine and/or sulfur to the fuel on fly ash composition, deposit formation, and superheater corrosion has been studied during biomass combustion in a circulating fluidized-bed boiler. The chlorine (HCl (aq)) and sulfur (SO2 (g)) were added in proportions of relevance for the potassium chemistry. The composition of the bottom and the fly ashes was analyzed. Gas and particle measurements were performed downstream of the cyclone before the convection pass and the flue gas composition was recorded in the stack with a series of standard instruments and an FTIR analyzer. At the position downstream of the cyclone, a deposit probe was situated, simulating a superheater tube. Deposits on the probe and initial corrosion were examined. It is concluded that addition of sulfur and chlorine increases the formation of submicron particles leading to deposition of potassium sulfate and chloride. The results compare well with earlier work based on laboratory-scale experiments concerning effects of chlorine and sulfur on potassium chemistry.
  • Folkeson, Nicklas, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Fireside corrosion of stainless and low alloyed steels in a waste-fired CFB boiler; The effect of adding sulphur to the fuel
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Materials Science Forum. ; 595-598, s. 289-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Corrosion field tests have been carried out in the superheater region of a commercial waste-fired 75MW CFBC boiler using air cooled probes. Exposure time was 24 and 1000 hours. The effect of adding sulphur to the fuel on the corrosion of two high alloyed steels and a low alloyed steel was studied. The fuel consisted of 50% household waste and 50% industrial waste. The exposed samples were analyzed by ESEM/EDX and XRD. Metal loss was determined after 1000 hours. Both materials suffered significant corrosion in the absence of sulphur addition and the addition of sulphur to the fuel reduced corrosion significantly. The rapid corrosion of the high alloyed steel in the absence of sulphur addition is caused by the destruction of the chromium-containing protective oxide by formation of calcium chromate. Adding sulphur to the fuel inhibited chromate formation and increased the sulphate/chloride ratio in the deposit. Iron(II) chloride formed on the low alloyed steel regardless of whether sulphur was added or not.
  • Pettersson, Jesper, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of sulphur additions on the corrosive environment in a waste-fired CFB boiler
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Materials Science Forum. - 0255-5476. ; 522-523, s. 563-570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Corrosion/deposition field tests have been carried out in the superheater region of a commercial waste-fired 75MW CFBC boiler using air cooled probes. The influence of material temperature (450-500 degrees C), flue gas temperature, temperature variations (i.e. thermal cycling) and additives to the fuel (elemental sulphur and dolomite) on deposition and corrosion was studied. The results presented here mainly consider the influence of sulphur additions to the fuel. The fuel was a mixture of 50% household waste and 50% industrial waste. After exposure the samples were analyzed by ESEM/EDX, XRD, AAS, FIB and IC. With no additional sulphur, alkali chlorides made up a large part of the deposit/corrosion product layer and in some cases chromate (VI) was detected. It is suggested that the chromate (VI) has formed by reaction of the protective oxide with alkali chlorides in the deposit. Adding sulphur to the fuel changed the composition of the deposits, alkali chlorides being largely replaced by alkali sulphates. No chromates(VI) were detected in the sulphur-added runs. It is suggested that adding sulphur to the fuel may decrease fireside corrosion because it changes the composition of the deposit. Alkali sulphates are much less corrosive than alkali chlorides partly because they do not form chromate(VI).
  • Belitsky, Victor, 1955-, et al. (författare)
  • A new 3 mm band receiver for the Onsala 20 m antenna
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A new receiver for the Onsala 20 m antenna with the possibility of being equipped with 3 mm and 4 mm bands has been built and the 3 mm channel has been commissioned during the Spring 2014. For single-dish operation, the receiver uses an innovative on-source/off-source optical switch. In combination with additional optical components and within the same optical layout, the switch provides two calibration loads (for the 3 mm and 4 mm channels), sideband rejection measurement, and tuning possibilities. The optical layout of the receiver employs all cold (4 K) offset elliptical mirrors for both channels, whereas the on-off switch employs flat mirrors only. The 3 mm channel employs a sideband separation (2SB) dual polarization receiver with orthomode transducer (OMT), 4-8 GHz intermediate frequency (IF), x? 2pol x? upper and lower sidebands (USB? +? LSB). The cryostat has four optical windows made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) with anti-reflection corrugations, two for the signal and two for each frequency band cold load. The cryostat uses a two-stage cryocooler produced by Sumitomo HI? RDK? 408D2 with anti-vibration suspension of the cold-head to minimize impact of the vibrations on the receiver stability. The local oscillator (LO) system is based on a Gunn oscillator with aphase lock loop (PLL) and four mechanical tuners for broadband operation, providing independently tunable LO power for each polarization. This paper provides a technical description of the receiver and its technology and could be useful for instrumentation engineers and observers using the Onsala 20 m telescope.
  • Bergsten, Eva, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Physical and psychosocial work conditions among baggage handlers in six Swedish airports
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Flight baggage handlers are mainly engaged in sorting luggage or cargo, loading and unloading it to and from the airplanes. The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council, TYA - formed by employer’s and employee’s organizations in the transportation sector - initiated a scientific study in 2009 to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and their suspected determinants in six Swedish airports involving a total of about 1000 handlers in 14 cargo- and handling companies. Encouraged by an initial literature review, the present field study was designed to contain qualitative, questionnaire-based, and observational surveys of working conditions, as well as extensive direct measurements of postures using full-shift inclinometry. This paper reports the design and results of the questionnaire part of the study.MethodAll baggage handlers working at least half-time (n=1044) were encouraged to fill in an extensive questionnaire handed out at the workplace by a research team member. In general the researcher collected the questionnaires at the same occasion. The questionnaire addressed general health, work capacity and physical exposures in relevant handling tasks. It also included a modified version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), the Nordic Council of Minister’s Questionnaire (NMQ) on disorders, and the SOFI-questionnaire measuring perceived fatigue.ResultsThe response rate was 73%. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in the back, shoulders and wrists during the last 12 months was 70%, 60% and 45%. Positive effects of devices used for reducing perceived physical load were confirmed. The handlers expressed a low confidence in the leadership, and insufficient feedback, information and influence at work. Fatigue particularly occurred in the dimensions lack of energy and physical discomfort.DiscussionThe observed prevalence of low back pain (70%) is high, and in parity with results among nurses in Sweden (64%; Josephson et al. 1997) and China (56%; Smith et al. 2004). Further examination of questionnaires, interviews and direct posture measurements will identify determinants to consider for intervention to reduce the prevalence of disorders among the baggage handlers.Josephson M, et al. Occup Environ Med 1997;54:681-685.Smith DR, et al. Occup Med 2004;54:579-582
  • Bergsten, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Skadefria cargo- och flygplanslastare - slutrapport
  • 2012
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • SammanfattningArbetsmiljöprojektet Skadefria cargo- och flygplanslastare har utförts på uppdrag av Svenska Transportarbetareförbundet och Svenska Flygbranschen med syfte att kartlägga flygplanslastarnas arbetsförhållanden och att komma med förslag på förbättringsåtgärder för att minska belastningsrelaterade skador och sjukdomar i branschen.Projektledningsgruppen har bestått av fem personer: Eva Bergsten, ergonom, anställd av projektet; Erik Alphonse, projektledare, TYA; Reidar Pettersson, arbetsmiljökonsult, Arbetsmiljölotsen; Svend Erik Mathiassen, professor, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning vid Högskolan i Gävle; och Dan Holmberg, regionalt skyddsombud, Transportarbetareförbundet.Projektet som omfattade 14 bolag (11 handling, 3 cargo) på sex flygplatser (Arlanda, Malmö, Göteborg, Växjö, Skavsta och Arvidsjaur) startades våren 2010 och avslutades våren 2012, efter en inledande pilotstudie våren 2010 som finansierades av TYA. Inom projektet har 1 039 enkäter distribuerats med frågor om psykosociala arbetsförhållanden, upplevd arbetsbelastning, trötthet och besvär. Svarsfrekvensen var 72 procent. Heldagsmätningar av arbetsställningar för rygg och armar har genomförts på 5-6 lastare per flygplats samtidigt som lastarna filmats och fyllt i dagböcker. Fokusgrupper har intervjuats och data om till exempel sjukskrivningar och olyckstillbud har samlats in från företagen.Parallellt med den vetenskapliga delen har projektet haft en praktisk del med fyra arbetsgrupper bestående av representanter från både arbetsgivar- och arbetstagarsidan. Grupperna har träffats två gånger per termin och jobbat inom områdena: I) fysisk belastning och arbetsskadestatistik, II) arbetsorganisation, schemaläggning och psykosocial arbetsmiljö, III) hjälpmedel och metoder samt IV) utbildning och utveckling.Våra resultat visar att besvärsfrekvenserna i muskler och leder är relativt höga. Det finns arbetsmoment i lastaryrket som är ogynnsamma och som ökar risken för besvär, framför allt i axlar/skuldra, rygg och handleder/händer. De arbetsuppgifter som en lastare har skiljer sig inte så mycket åt mellan de olika flygplatserna, men det finns betydande skillnader i hur ofta och hur länge uppgifterna förekommer. Vid vissa flygplatser är således flyglastararbetet mera varierat än vid andra, vilket förmodligen har en betydelse för risken att utveckla besvär.Överlag fanns det hjälpmedel för de mest belastande arbetsmomenten, men också brister i hur dessa används.Inom den psykosociala arbetsmiljön visade projektet på ett behov av att förbättra ledarskapet och lastarnas inflytande i planering och genomförande av det egna arbetet. Bättre feedback i form av stöd och uppmuntran från ledare efterfrågades också.Arbetsgrupperna, som löpande delgavs resultaten från den vetenskapliga kartläggningen, utvecklade i enlighet med projektets målsättning ett antal åtgärdsförslag, med stöd i kartläggningen. Förslagen, som presenteras i denna rapport, är av generell natur. Flera av förslagen omfattar ett flertal möjliga delåtgärder och initiativ, som naturligtvis måste anpassas för och prioriteras av det enskilda bolaget utifrån dess egna förutsättningar. Mot bakgrund av våra projektresultat vill vi dock generellt rekommendera samtliga bolag att lägga en viss prioritet på de psykosociala arbetsförhållandena i sitt förbättringsarbete. Det fanns även uppenbara möjligheter att förbättra den fysiska belastningsprofilen, särskilt genom att bredda arbetsinnehållet på vissa flygplatser, och genom en mera effektiv användning av tekniska hjälpmedel. Samtidigt är det viktigt att framhålla att lastaryrket även har många goda sidor i form av ett rörligt och spännande arbete med ett bra socialt klimat.Vår bedömning är att de förslag till förändringar i arbetsmiljö och arbetsvillkor som föreslås i denna rapport skulle leda till en bättre arbetsmiljö men sannolikt också kunna påverka effektiviteten i arbetet i positiv riktning.Projektet Skadefria cargo- och flygplanlastare är föremål för en avhandling vilket betyder att vidare analyser av insamlade data kommer att ske. Resultaten kommer framöver att publiceras i vetenskapliga tidsskrifter.
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