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1.
  • Benetou, V., et al. (författare)
  • Mediterranean diet and hip fracture incidence among older adults : the CHANCES project
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - : Springer. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 29:7, s. 1591-1599
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD) and hip fracture incidence is not yet established. In a diverse population of elderly, increased adherence to MD was associated with lower hip fracture incidence. Except preventing major chronic diseases, adhering to MD might have additional benefits in lowering hip fracture risk.INTRODUCTION: Hip fractures constitute a major public health problem among older adults. Latest evidence links adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD) with reduced hip fracture risk, but still more research is needed to elucidate this relationship. The potential association of adherence to MD with hip fracture incidence was explored among older adults.METHODS: A total of 140,775 adults (116,176 women, 24,599 men) 60 years and older, from five cohorts from Europe and the USA, were followed-up for 1,896,219 person-years experiencing 5454 hip fractures. Diet was assessed at baseline by validated, cohort-specific, food-frequency questionnaires, and hip fractures were ascertained through patient registers or telephone interviews/questionnaires. Adherence to MD was evaluated by a scoring system on a 10-point scale modified to be applied also to non-Mediterranean populations. In order to evaluate the association between MD and hip fracture incidence, cohort-specific hazard ratios (HR), adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated using Cox proportional-hazards regression and pooled estimates were subsequently derived implementing random-effects meta-analysis.RESULTS: A two-point increase in the score was associated with a significant 4% decrease in hip fracture risk (pooled adjusted HR 0.96; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.92-0.99, pheterogeneity = 0.446). In categorical analyses, hip fracture risk was lower among men and women with moderate (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.87-0.99) and high (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.87-1.01) adherence to the score compared with those with low adherence.CONCLUSIONS: In this large sample of older adults from Europe and the USA, increased adherence to MD was associated with lower hip fracture incidence.
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2.
  • Eriksson, Anna L., et al. (författare)
  • Läkemedelsarbete behöver vara integrerat i klinisk utbildning : Att göra många läkemedelsgenomgångar ökar trygghet och reflektion över patientens behandling, visar enkätstudie
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - : Läkartidningen Förlag AB. - 0023-7205 .- 1652-7518. ; 116
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A prerequisite for rational use of medicines is adequate prescribing skills; drug treatment is a complex task requiring diagnostic competence combined with pharmacologic knowledge and patient communication skills. Acquiring professional confidence in the art of prescribing is essential during medical training. The results of this questionnaire study, conducted in four medical schools in Sweden after the course in internal medicine (252 respondents; response rate: 74%; median age: 24 years, 61% female), show that 45% and 62% were confident in performing medication reviews and writing medication summary reports, respectively, i.e. the basics of prescribing. The confidence increased by the number of reviews and reports performed, i.e. the extent of practice (correlation coefficients: 0.41 and 0.38, respectively, both p<0.0001), as did the extent of the students' reflection on important aspects of drug treatment such as adherence, adverse reactions, renal function, dosing, and drug interactions. In multivariate regression analyses, major predictors for confidence in performing medication reviews were extent of practice and extent of clinical supervision. The results suggest that these factors are keys to acquiring professional confidence in the art of prescribing.
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3.
  • Wallgren, Ulrika Margareta, et al. (författare)
  • The predictive value of variables measurable in the ambulance and the development of the Predict Sepsis screening tools : a prospective cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. - : BioMed Central. - 1757-7241 .- 1757-7241. ; 28:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Despite sepsis being a time critical condition with a high mortality, it is often not identified in a timely fashion. The aim of the current study was to create a screening tool based on bedside measurable variables predictive of sepsis among ambulance patients with infection according to clinical judgment by ambulance personnel.Methods: Prospective cohort study of 551 adult patients presenting with suspected infection, performed in the ambulance setting of Stockholm during 2017-2018. 18 variables were measured in the ambulance (8 keywords related to medical history, 6 vital signs, 4 point-of-care blood tests, in addition to age, gender, and comorbidity. Logistic regression, area under the curve (AUC) and classification trees were used to study the association with sepsis. The AUC, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were used to evaluate the predictive ability of sepsis screening models.Results: The six variables with the strongest association with sepsis were: systolic blood pressure <= 100 mmHg, temperature > 38.5 degrees C, GCS < 15, lactate > 4 mmol/L, gastrointestinal symptoms, and a history of acute altered mental status. These were combined into thePredict Sepsis screening tool 1, with a sensitivity of 0.90, specificity 0.41, AUC 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.81, PPV 0.52, and NPV 0.86. Combining a history of acute altered mental status with GCS < 15 and excluding lactate in thePredict Sepsis screening tool 2did not noticeably affect the AUC. In addition, the AUCs of these models did not differ noticeably when compared to a model including vital signs alone, with novel calculated cut-offs; thePredict Sepsis screening tool 3.Conclusions: Systolic blood pressure <= 100 mmHg, temperature > 38.5 degrees C, GCS < 15, lactate > 4 mmol/L, gastrointestinal symptoms, and a history of acute altered mental status demonstrated the strongest association with sepsis. We present three screening tools to predict sepsis with similar sensitivity. The results indicated no noticeable increase of predictive ability by including symptom-variables and blood tests to a sepsis screening tool in the current study population.
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4.
  • Albagha, O M E, et al. (författare)
  • Association of oestrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms with postmenopausal bone loss, bone mass, and quantitative ultrasound properties of bone
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 42:3, s. 6-240
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The gene encoding oestrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) appears to regulate bone mineral density (BMD) and other determinants of osteoporotic fracture risk.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between common polymorphisms and haplotypes of the ESR1 gene and osteoporosis related phenotypes in a population based cohort of 3054 Scottish women.RESULTS: There was a significant association between a common haplotype "px", defined by the PvuII and XbaI restriction fragment length polymorphisms within intron 1 of the ESR1 gene, and femoral neck bone loss in postmenopausal women who had not received hormone replacement therapy (n = 945; p = 0.009). Annual rates of femoral neck bone loss were approximately 14% higher in subjects who carried one copy of px and 22% higher in those who carried two copies, compared with those who did not carry the px haplotype. The px haplotype was associated with lower femoral neck BMD in the postmenopausal women (p = 0.02), and with reduced calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) values in the whole study population (p = 0.005). There was no association between a TA repeat polymorphism in the ESR1 promoter and any phenotype studied, though on long range haplotype analysis subjects with a smaller number of TA repeats who also carried the px haplotype had reduced BUA values.CONCLUSIONS: The ESR1px haplotype is associated with reduced hip BMD values and increased rates of femoral neck bone loss in postmenopausal women. An association with BUA may explain the fact that ESR1 intron 1 alleles predict osteoporotic fractures by a mechanism partly independent of differences in BMD.
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5.
  • Bao, X., et al. (författare)
  • HLA and KIR Associations of Cervical Neoplasia
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Journal of infectious diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6613 .- 0022-1899. ; 218:12, s. 2006-2015
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women, and we recently reported human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles showing strong associations with cervical neoplasia risk and protection. HLA ligands are recognized by killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) expressed on a range of immune cell subsets, governing their proinflammatory activity. We hypothesized that the inheritance of particular HLA-KIR combinations would increase cervical neoplasia risk. Methods: Here, we used HLA and KIR dosages imputed from single-nucleotide polymorphism genotype data from 2143 cervical neoplasia cases and 13858 healthy controls of European decent. Results: The following 4 novel HLA alleles were identified in association with cervical neoplasia, owing to their linkage disequilibrium with known cervical neoplasia-associated HLA-DRB1 alleles: HLA-DRB3*9901 (odds ratio [OR], 1.24; P = 2.49 × 10-9), HLA-DRB5*0101 (OR, 1.29; P = 2.26 × 10-8), HLA-DRB5*9901 (OR, 0.77; P = 1.90 × 10-9), and HLA-DRB3*0301 (OR, 0.63; P = 4.06 × 10-5). We also found that homozygosity of HLA-C1 group alleles is a protective factor for human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-related cervical neoplasia (C1/C1; OR, 0.79; P = .005). This protective association was restricted to carriers of either KIR2DL2 (OR, 0.67; P = .00045) or KIR2DS2 (OR, 0.69; P = .0006). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HLA-C1 group alleles play a role in protecting against HPV16-related cervical neoplasia, mainly through a KIR-mediated mechanism.
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6.
  • Bejnö, Hampus, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-Cultural Content Validity of the Autism Program Environment Rating Scale in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders. - 0162-3257 .- 1573-3432. ; 49:5, s. 1853-1862
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increasing rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and younger age at diagnosis pose a challenge to preschool intervention systems. In Sweden, most young autistic children receive intervention service in community-based preschool programs, but no tool is yet available to assess the quality of the preschool learning environment. This study adapted the Autism Program Environment Rating Scale Preschool/Elementary to Swedish community context (APERS-P-SE). Following translation and a multistep modification process, independent experts rated the content validity of the adaptation. Findings indicate high cross-cultural validity of the adapted APERS-P-SE. The cultural adaption process of the APERS-P-SE highlights similarities and differences between the American and Swedish preschool systems and their impact on early ASD intervention.
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7.
  • Benetou, V., et al. (författare)
  • Education, marital status, and risk of hip fractures in older men and women : the CHANCES project
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 26:6, s. 1733-1746
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of socioeconomic status in hip fracture incidence is unclear. In a diverse population of elderly, higher education was found to be associated with lower, whereas living alone, compared to being married/cohabiting, with higher hip fracture risk. Educational level and marital status may contribute to hip fracture risk.INTRODUCTION: The evidence on the association between socioeconomic status and hip fracture incidence is limited and inconsistent. We investigated the potential association of education and marital status with hip fracture incidence in older individuals from Europe and USA.METHODS: A total of 155,940 participants (79 % women) aged 60 years and older from seven cohorts were followed up accumulating 6456 incident hip fractures. Information on education and marital status was harmonized across cohorts. Hip fractures were ascertained through telephone interviews/questionnaires or through record linkage with registries. Associations were assessed through Cox proportional hazard regression adjusting for several factors. Summary estimates were derived using random effects models.RESULTS: Individuals with higher education, compared to those with low education, had lower hip fracture risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.84, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.95]. Respective HRs were 0.97 (95 % CI 0.82-1.13) for men and 0.75 (95 % CI 0.65-0.85) for women. Overall, individuals living alone, especially those aged 60-69 years, compared to those being married/cohabiting, tended to have a higher hip fracture risk (HR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.02-1.22). There was no suggestion for heterogeneity across cohorts (P heterogeneity > 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: The combined data from >150,000 individuals 60 years and older suggest that higher education may contribute to lower hip fracture risk. Furthermore, this risk may be higher among individuals living alone, especially among the age group 60-69 years, when compared to those being married/cohabiting.
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8.
  • Benetou, Vassiliki, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Hip Fracture Incidence in Older Men and Women : The CHANCES Project
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 31:9, s. 1743-1752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of fruit and vegetable intake in relation to fracture prevention during adulthood and beyond is not adequately understood. We investigated the potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and hip fracture incidence in a large sample of elderly from Europe and United States. A total of 142,018 individuals (among which 116,509 women), aged ≥60 years old, from five cohorts, were followed-up prospectively for 1,911,482 person-years accumulating 5,552 hip fractures. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed by validated, cohort-specific, food-frequency questionnaires. Ηip fractures were ascertained through national patient registers or telephone interviews/questionnaires. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) derived by Cox proportional-hazards regression were estimated for each cohort and subsequently pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Intake of ≤ 1 servings/day of fruit and vegetables combined was associated with 39% higher hip fracture risk [pooled adjusted HR:1.39, 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs): 1.20, 1.58] in comparison to moderate intake (>3 and ≤5 servings/day) (pfor heterogeneity  = 0.505), whereas higher intakes (>5 servings/day) were not associated with lower risk in comparison to the same reference. Associations were more evident among women. We concluded that a daily intake of one or less servings of fruits and vegetables was associated with increased hip fracture risk in relation to moderate daily intakes. Older adults with such low fruit and vegetable consumption may benefit from raising their intakes to moderate amounts in order to reduce their hip fracture risk. 
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