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Sökning: WFRF:(Piccinelli Paul)

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1.
  • Ilinca, A., et al. (författare)
  • Whole-Exome Sequencing in 22 Young Ischemic Stroke Patients With Familial Clustering of Stroke
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - : American Heart Association. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 51:4, s. 1056-1063
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Backgrounds and Purpose-Although new methods for genetic analyses are rapidly evolving, there are currently knowledge gaps in how to detect Mendelian forms of stroke. Methods-We performed whole-exome sequencing in 22 probands, under 56 years at their first ischemic stroke episode, from multi-incident stroke families. With the use of a comprehensive stroke-gene panel, we searched for variants in stroke-related genes. The probands' clinical stroke subtype was related to clinical characteristics previously associated with pathogenic variants in these genes. Relatives were genotyped in 7 families to evaluate stroke-gene variants of unknown significance. In 2 larger families with embolic stroke of unknown source, whole-exome sequencing was performed in additional members to examine the possibility of identifying new stroke genes. Results-Six of 22 probands carried pathogenic or possibly pathogenic variants in genes reported to be associated with their stroke subtype. A known pathogenic variant in NOTCH3 and a possibly pathogenic variant in ACAD9 gene were identified. A novel JAK2:c.3188G>A (p.Arg1063His) mutation was seen in a proband with embolic stroke of undetermined source and prothrombotic status. However, penetrance in the family was incomplete. COL4A2:c.3368A>G (p.Glu1123Gly) was detected in 2 probands but did not cosegregate with the disease in their families. Whole-exome sequencing in multiple members of 2 pedigrees with embolic stroke of undetermined source revealed possibly pathogenic variants in genes not previously associated with stroke, GPR142:c.148C>G (p.Leu50Val), and PTPRN2:c.2416A>G (p.Ile806Val); LRRC1 c.808A>G (p.Ile270Val), SLC7A10c.1294dupG (p.Val432fs), IKBKB: c.1070C>T (p.Ala357Val), and OXGR1 c.392G>A (p.Arg131His), respectively. Conclusions-Screening with whole-exome sequencing using a comprehensive stroke-gene panel may identify rare monogenic forms of stroke, but careful evaluation of clinical characteristics and potential pathogenicity of novel variants remain important. In our study, the majority of individuals with familial aggregation of stroke lacked any identified genetic causes.
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2.
  • Mitra, Shamik, et al. (författare)
  • Amplification of ERBB2 (HER2) in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma : A potential treatment target in rare cases?
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - : Wiley. - 1045-2257 .- 1098-2264.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ERBB2 gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase also known as HER2. The gene is amplified and overexpressed in one-fifth of breast carcinomas; patients with such tumors benefit from targeted treatment with trastuzumab or other drugs blocking the receptor. In addition, ERBB2 has been shown to be amplified and/or overexpressed in a variety of other malignancies. Notably, both alveolar and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), especially in children, often show increased expression of ERBB2. Although high-level amplification of the gene has not been described in RMS, its frequent expression at the cell surface of RMS cells has been exploited for chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR T)-based treatment strategies. We here describe two cases of pediatric, fusion-negative embryonal RMS with high-level amplification of the ERBB2 gene. One patient is currently treated with conventional chemotherapy for a recently detected standard risk RMS, whereas the other patient died from metastatic disease. Both tumors displayed focal amplicons (210 and 274 Kb, respectively) in chromosome band 17q12, with proximal and distal borders corresponding to those typically seen in breast cancer. In both tumors, the ERBB2 amplicon correlated with high expression at the RNA and protein levels. Thus, breast cancer-like ERBB2 amplification is a very rare, but recurrent feature of pediatric RMS, and should be exploited as an alternative treatment target.
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3.
  • Alm Rosenblad, Magnus, 1957, et al. (författare)
  • Inventory and analysis of the protein subunits of the ribonucleases P and MRP provides further evidence of homology between the yeast and human enzymes.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nucleic acids research. - 1362-4962. ; 34:18, s. 5145-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The RNases P and MRP are involved in tRNA and rRNA processing, respectively. Both enzymes in eukaryotes are composed of an RNA molecule and 9-12 protein subunits. Most of the protein subunits are shared between RNases P and MRP. We have here performed a computational analysis of the protein subunits in a broad range of eukaryotic organisms using profile-based searches and phylogenetic methods. A number of novel homologues were identified, giving rise to a more complete inventory of RNase P/MRP proteins. We present evidence of a relationship between fungal Pop8 and the protein subunit families Rpp14/Pop5 as well as between fungal Pop6 and metazoan Rpp25. These relationships further emphasize a structural and functional similarity between the yeast and human P/MRP complexes. We have also identified novel P and MRP RNAs and analysis of all available sequences revealed a K-turn motif in a large number of these RNAs. We suggest that this motif is a binding site for the Pop3/Rpp38 proteins and we discuss other structural features of the RNA subunit and possible relationships to the protein subunit repertoire.
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4.
  • Ilinca, Andreea, et al. (författare)
  • A stroke gene panel for whole-exome sequencing
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1018-4813. ; 27:2, s. 317-324
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Extensive analyses of known monogenic causes of stroke by whole-exome/genome sequencing are technically possible today. We here aimed to compile a comprehensive panel of genes associated with monogenic causes of stroke for use in clinical and research situations. We systematically searched the publically available database Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, and validated the entries against original peer-reviewed publications in PubMed. First, we selected known pathogenic or putatively pathogenic stroke genes reported in at least one person with stroke, and classified the stroke phenotype for each gene into eight subgroups: (1) large artery atherosclerotic, (2) large artery non-atherosclerotic (tortuosity, dolichoectasia, aneurysm, non-atherosclerotic dissection, occlusion), (3) cerebral small-vessel diseases, (4) cardioembolic (arrhythmia, heart defect, cardiomyopathy), (5) coagulation dysfunctions (venous thrombosis, arterial thrombosis, bleeding tendency), (6) intracerebral hemorrhage, (7) vascular malformations (cavernoma, arteriovenous malformations), and (8) metabolism disorders. Second, we selected other genes that may plausibly cause stroke through diseases related to stroke, but without any documented stroke patient description. A third section comprised SNPs associated with stroke in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We identified in total 214 genes: 120 associated with stroke, 62 associated with diseases that may cause stroke, and 32 stroke-related genes from recent GWAS. We describe these 214 genes and the clinical stroke subtype(s) associated with each of them. The resulting gene panel can be used to interpret exome sequencing results regarding monogenic stroke. Based on the panel’s clinical phenotype description, the pathogenicity of novel variants in these genes may be evaluated in specific situations.
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5.
  • Piccinelli, Paul, 1975 (författare)
  • Computational identification of non-coding RNAs
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A large amount of genomic information is now becoming available. Suitable bioinformatic tools to organize and analyze this vast amount of information are therefore important. In the case of protein genes, the majority of these may be correctly identified using standard search methods that are based on sequence alignment. However, a different problem is presented when analysing non-coding RNA genes, since for their identification it is essential to take into consideration secondary structure features. Secondary structure is not only important for non-coding RNA genes, but it is also important in the regulation of gene expression. This work is concerned with the development of methods for ncRNA prediction and the application of these methods to identify specific ncRNA families. In a variety of organisms we report on several ncRNA sequences not previously reported. These novel RNA sequences make it possible to better predict the structure of these RNAs as well as to better understand their evolution and function. To further understand the structure and evolution of the RNases P and MRP we also analyzed the protein composition of these enzymes. Together, these new predictions aid to better understand the structure, function and evolution of RNase P and MRP.
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6.
  • Piccinelli, Paul, 1975, et al. (författare)
  • Evolution of the iron-responsive element.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: RNA (New York, N.Y.). - 1355-8382. ; 13:7, s. 952-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An RNA hairpin structure referred to as the iron-responsive element (IRE) and iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) are key players in the control of iron metabolism in animal cells. They regulate translation initiation or mRNA stability, and the IRE is found in a variety of mRNAs, such as those encoding ferritin, transferrin receptor (Tfr), erythroid aminolevulinic acid synthase (eALAS), mitochondrial aconitase (mACO), ferroportin, and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). We have studied the evolution of the IRE by considering all mRNAs previously known to be associated with this structure and by computationally examining its occurrence in a large variety of eukaryotic organisms. More than 100 novel sequences together with approximately 50 IREs that were previously reported resulted in a comprehensive view of the phylogenetic distribution of this element. A comparison of the different mRNAs shows that the IREs of eALAS and mACO are found in chordates, those of ferroportin and Tfr1 are found in vertebrates, and the IRE of DMT1 is confined to mammals. In contrast, the IRE of ferritin occurs in a majority of metazoa including lower metazoa such as sponges and Nematostella (sea anemone). These findings suggest that the ferritin IRE represents the ancestral version of this type of translational control and that during the evolution of higher animals the IRE structure was adopted by other genes. On the basis of primary sequence comparison between different organisms, we suggest that some of these IREs developed by "convergent evolution" through stepwise changes in sequence, rather than by recombination events.
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7.
  • Piccinelli, Paul, 1975, et al. (författare)
  • Identification and analysis of ribonuclease P and MRP RNA in a broad range of eukaryotes.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Nucleic acids research. - 1362-4962. ; 33:14, s. 4485-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RNases P and MRP are ribonucleoprotein complexes involved in tRNA and rRNA processing, respectively. The RNA subunits of these two enzymes are structurally related to each other and play an essential role in the enzymatic reaction. Both of the RNAs have a highly conserved helical region, P4, which is important in the catalytic reaction. We have used a bioinformatics approach based on conserved elements to computationally analyze available genomic sequences of eukaryotic organisms and have identified a large number of novel nuclear RNase P and MRP RNA genes. For MRP RNA for instance, this investigation increases the number of known sequences by a factor of three. We present secondary structure models of many of the predicted RNAs. Although all sequences are able to fold into the consensus secondary structure of P and MRP RNAs, a striking variation in size is observed, ranging from a Nosema locustae MRP RNA of 160 nt to much larger RNAs, e.g. a Plasmodium knowlesi P RNA of 696 nt. The P and MRP RNA genes appear in tandem in some protists, further emphasizing the close evolutionary relationship of these RNAs.
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8.
  • Sydow, Saskia, et al. (författare)
  • Genomic and transcriptomic characterization of desmoplastic small round cell tumors
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Genes Chromosomes and Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1045-2257. ; 60:9, s. 595-603
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a highly aggressive soft tissue tumor primarily affecting children and young adults. Most cases display a pathognomonic EWSR1-WT1 gene fusion, presumably constituting the primary driver event. Little is, however, known about secondary genetic changes that may affect tumor progression. We here studied 25 samples from 19 DSRCT patients using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and found that all samples had copy number alterations. The most common imbalances were gain of chromosomes/chromosome arms 1/1q and 5/5p and loss of 6/6q and 16/16q, all occurring in at least eight of the patients. Five cases showed homozygous deletions, affecting a variety of known tumor suppressor genes, for example, CDKN2A and NF1. As almost all patients died of their disease, the impact of individual imbalances on survival could not be evaluated. Global gene expression analysis using mRNA sequencing on fresh-frozen samples from seven patients revealed a distinct transcriptomic profile, with enrichment of genes involved in neural differentiation. Two genes - GJB2 and GAL - that showed higher expression in DSRCT compared to control tumors could be further investigated for their potential as diagnostic markers at the protein level.
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