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Sökning: WFRF:(Podio L.)

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1.
  • Coutens, A., et al. (författare)
  • VLA cm-wave survey of young stellar objects in the Oph A cluster: Constraining extreme UV- And X-ray-driven disk photoevaporation: A pathfinder for Square Kilometre Array studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Observations of young stellar objects (YSOs) in centimeter bands can probe the continuum emission from growing dust grains, ionized winds, and magnetospheric activity that are intimately connected to the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of planets. We carried out sensitive continuum observations toward the Ophiuchus A star-forming region, using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 10 GHz over a field-of-view of 6′ and with a spatial resolution of θmaj ×θmin ∼ 0.′′4 × 0.′′2. We achieved a 5 μJy beam-1 rms noise level at the center of our mosaic field of view. Among the 18 sources we detected, 16 were YSOs (three Class 0, five Class I, six Class II, and two Class III) and two were extragalactic candidates. We find that thermal dust emission generally contributed less than 30% of the emission at 10 GHz. The radio emission is dominated by other types of emission, such as gyro-synchrotron radiation from active magnetospheres, free-free emission from thermal jets, free-free emission from the outflowing photoevaporated disk material, and synchrotron emission from accelerated cosmic-rays in jet or protostellar surface shocks. These different types of emission could not be clearly disentangled. Our non-detections for Class II/III disks suggest that extreme UV-driven photoevaporation is insufficient to explain disk dispersal, assuming that the contribution of UV photoevaporating stellar winds to radio flux does not evolve over time. The sensitivity of our data cannot exclude photoevaporation due to the role of X-ray photons as an efficient mechanism for disk dispersal. Deeper surveys using the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will have the capacity to provide significant constraints to disk photoevaporation.
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2.
  • Hoare, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • The cradle of life and the SKA
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of Science - Advancing Astrophysics with the Square Kilometre Array, AASKA 2014, Giardini Naxos, Italy, 9-13 June 2014. - 1824-8039.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We provide an overview of the exciting capabilities of the SKA in the Cradle of Life theme. With the deployment of the high frequency band 5 receivers, the phase 1 of the SKA can conduct headline science in the study of the earliest stages of grain growth in proto-planetary disks. SKA1-MID can map the 2 cm continuum emission at a resolution of 4 au in the nearest systems and therefore begin to probe the distribuion of cm-sized particles across the snow line. This frequency range will also enable deep searches for pre-biotic molecules such as amino acids from pre-stellar cores to the cold, outer regions of proto-planetary disks where cometary material forms. The lowest frequency capabilities of SKA1 can be used to examine the magnetic fields of exo-planets via their auroral radio emission. This gives unique insight into their interiors and could potentially detect exo-moons. Across the full frequency range, the SKA1 will also carry out systematic, volume-limited searches of exo-planet systems for signals from technologically advanced civilizations. The sensitivity of SKA1 means that these only need to be at the level of typical airport radar signals in the nearest systems. Hence, the SKA1 can conduct high impact science from the first steps on the road to planets and life, through areas affecting the habitability of planets, and ultimately, to whether we are alone in the Galaxy. These inspirational themes will greatly help in the effort to bring SKA1 science to a wide audience and to ensure the progression to the full SKA.
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3.
  • Rigliaco, E., et al. (författare)
  • Investigating the nature of the extended structure around the Herbig star RCrA using integral field and high-resolution spectroscopy
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 632
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. We present a detailed analysis of the extended structure detected around the young and close-by Herbig Ae/Be star R CrA. This is a young triple system with an intermediate mass central binary whose separation is of the order of a few tens of the radii of the individual components, and an M-star companion at about 30 au.Aims. Our aim is to understand the nature of the extended structure by means of combining integral-field and high-resolution spectroscopy.Methods. We conducted the analysis based on FEROS archival optical spectroscopy data and adaptive optics images and integral-field spectra obtained with SINFONI and SPHERE at the VLT.Results. The observations reveal a complex extended structure that is composed of at least two components: a non-uniform wide cavity whose walls are detected in continuum emission up to 400 au, and a collimated wiggling-jet detected in the emission lines of helium and hydrogen. Moreover, the presence of [Fe II] emission projected close to the cavity walls suggests the presence of a slower moving wind, most likely a disk wind. The multiple components of the optical forbidden lines also indicate the presence of a high-velocity jet co-existing with a slow wind. We constructed a geometrical model of the collimated jet flowing within the cavity using intensity and velocity maps, finding that its wiggling is consistent with the orbital period of the central binary. The cavity and the jet do not share the same position angle, suggesting that the jet is itself experiencing a precession motion possibly due to the wide M-dwarf companion.Conclusions. We propose a scenario that closely agrees with the general expectation of a magneto-centrifugal-launched jet. These results build upon the extensive studies already conducted on R CrA.
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4.
  • Taquet, V, et al. (författare)
  • Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS) VI. Chemical evolution of sulfuretted species along the outflows driven by the low-mass protostellar binary NGC1333-IRAS4A
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Low-mass protostars drive powerful molecular outflows that can be observed with millimetre and submillimetre telescopes. Various sulfuretted species are known to be bright in shocks and could be used to infer the physical and chemical conditions throughout the observed outflows. Aims. The evolution of sulfur chemistry is studied along the outflows driven by the NGC1333-IRAS4A protobinary system located in the Perseus cloud to constrain the physical and chemical processes at work in shocks. Methods. We observed various transitions from OCS, CS, SO, and SO2 towards NGC1333-IRAS4A in the 1.3, 2, and 3mm bands using the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array and we interpreted the observations through the use of the Paris-Durham shock model. Results. The targeted species clearly show different spatial emission along the two outflows driven by IRAS4A. OCS is brighter on small and large scales along the south outflow driven by IRAS4A1, whereas SO2 is detected rather along the outflow driven by IRAS4A2 that is extended along the north east-south west direction. SO is detected at extremely high radial velocity up to +25 km s 1 relative to the source velocity, clearly allowing us to distinguish the two outflows on small scales. Column density ratio maps estimated from a rotational diagram analysis allowed us to confirm a clear gradient of the OCS/SO2 column density ratio between the IRAS4A1 and IRAS4A2 outflows. Analysis assuming non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium of four SO2 transitions towards several SiO emission peaks suggests that the observed gas should be associated with densities higher than 105 cm 3 and relatively warm (T > 100 K) temperatures in most cases. Conclusions. The observed chemical differentiation between the two outflows of the IRAS4A system could be explained by a different chemical history. The outflow driven by IRAS4A1 is likely younger and more enriched in species initially formed in interstellar ices, such as OCS, and recently sputtered into the shock gas. In contrast, the longer and likely older outflow triggered by IRAS4A2 is more enriched in species that have a gas phase origin, such as SO2.
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5.
  • Ganga, P. L., et al. (författare)
  • Tensegrity rings for deployable space antennas : Concept, design, analysis, and prototype testing
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Springer Optimization and Its Applications. - : Springer Publishing Company. ; , s. 269-304
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we describe a tensegrity ring of innovative conception for deployable space antennas. Large deployable space structures are mission-critical technologies for which deployment failure cannot be an option. The difficulty to fully reproduce and test on ground the deployment of large systems dictates the need for extremely reliable architectural concepts. In 2010, ESA promoted a study focused on the pre-development of breakthrough architectural concepts offering superior reliability. This study, which was performed as an initiative of ESA Small Medium Enterprises Office by Kayser Italia at its premises in Livorno (Italy), with Università di Roma TorVergata (Rome, Italy) as sub-contractor and consultancy from KTH (Stockholm, Sweden), led to the identification of an innovative large deployable structure of tensegrity type, which achieves the required reliability because of a drastic reduction in the number of articulated joints in comparison with non-tensegrity architectures. The identified target application was in the field of large space antenna reflectors. The project focused on the overall architecture of a deployable system and the related design implications. With a view toward verifying experimentally the performance of the deployable structure, a reduced scale breadboard model was designed and manufactured. A gravity off-loading system was designed and implemented, so as to check deployment functionality in a 1-g environment. Finally, a test campaign was conducted, to validate the main design assumptions as well as to ensure the concept’s suitability for the selected target application. The test activities demonstrated satisfactory stiffness, deployment repeatability, and geometric precision in the fully deployed configuration. The test data were also used to validate a finite element model, which predicts a good static and dynamic behavior of the full-scale deployable structure.
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6.
  • Zolesi, V. S., et al. (författare)
  • On an innovative deployment concept for large space structures
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: 42nd International Conference on Environmental Systems 2012, ICES 2012. - : American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. - 9781600869341
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large deployable space structures are mission-critical technologies for which deployment failure cannot be an option. The difficulty to fully reproduce and test on ground the deployment of large systems dictates the need for extremely reliable architectural concepts. In 2010, ESA promoted a study focused at the pre-development of breakthrough architectural concepts offering superior reliability. The study, which was performed as an initiative of ESA Small Medium Enterprises Office (http://www.esa.int/SME/), by Kayser Italia at its premises in Livorno (Italy), with Universita' di Roma TorVergata (Rome, Italy) as sub-contractor and consultancy from KTH (Stockholm, Sweden), led to the identification of an innovative large deployable structure of "tensegrity" type, which achieves the required reliability because it permits a drastic reduction in the number of articulated joints in comparison with non-tensegrity architectures. The identified target application was in the field of large antenna reflectors. The project focused on the overall architecture of a deployable system and the related design implications. With a view toward verifying experimentally the performance of the deployable structure, a reduced-scale breadboard model was designed and manufactured. A gravity off-loading system was designed and implemented, so as to check deployment functionality in a 1-g environment. Finally, a test campaign was conducted, to validate the main design assumptions as well as to ensure the concept's suitability for the selected target application. The test activities demonstrated satisfactory stiffness, deployment repeatability, and geometric precision in the fully deployed configuration. The test data were also used to validate a finite element model, which predicts a good static and dynamic behavior of the full-scale deployable structure.
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7.
  • De Simone, M., et al. (författare)
  • Glycolaldehyde in Perseus young solar analogs
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 599
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © ESO 2017. Context. The earliest evolutionary stages of low-mass protostars are characterised by the so-called hot-corino stage, when the newly born star heats the surrounding material and enrich the gas chemically. Studying this evolutionary phase of solar protostars may help understand the evolution of prebiotic complex molecules in the development of planetary systems. Aims. In this paper we focus on the occurrence of glycolaldehyde (HCOCH 2 OH) in young solar analogs by performing the first homogeneous and unbiased study of this molecule in the Class 0 protostars of the nearby Perseus star forming region. Methods. We obtained sub-arcsec angular resolution maps at 1.3 mm and 1.4 mm of glycolaldehyde emission lines using the IRAM Plateau de Bure (PdB) interferometer in the framework of the CALYPSO IRAM large program. Results. Glycolaldehyde has been detected towards 3 Class 0 and 1 Class I protostars out of the 13 continuum sources targeted in Perseus: NGC1333-IRAS2A1, NGC1333-IRAS4A2, NGC1333-IRAS4B1, and SVS13-A. The NGC1333 star forming region looks particularly glycolaldehyde rich, with a rate of occurrence up to 60%. The glycolaldehyde spatial distribution overlaps with the continuum one, tracing the inner 100 au around the protostar. A large number of lines (up to 18), with upper-level energies E u from 37 K up to 375 K has been detected. We derived column densities ≥10 15 cm -2 and rotational temperatures T rot between 115 K and 236 K, imaging for the first time hot-corinos around NGC1333-IRAS4B1 and SVS13-A. Conclusions. In multiple systems glycolaldehyde emission is detected only in one component. The case of the SVS13-A+B and IRAS4-A1+A2 systems support that the detection of glycolaldehyde (at least in the present Perseus sample) indicates older protostars (i.e. SVS13-A and IRAS4-A2), evolved enough to develop the hot-corino region (i.e. 100 K in the inner 100 au). However, only two systems do not allow us to firmly conclude whether the primary factor leading to the detection of glycolaldehyde emission is the environments hosting the protostars, evolution (e.g. low value of L submm /L int ), or accretion luminosity (high L int ).
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8.
  • Dent, W. R. F., et al. (författare)
  • GASPS-A Herschel Survey of Gas and Dust in Protoplanetary Disks: Summary and Initial Statistics
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. - 0004-6280 .- 1538-3873. ; 125:927, s. 477-505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We describe a large-scale far-infrared line and continuum survey of protoplanetary disk through to young debris disk systems carried out using the ACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. This Open Time Key program, known as GASPS (Gas Survey of Protoplanetary Systems), targeted similar to 250 young stars in narrow wavelength regions covering the [OI] fine structure line at 63 mu m the brightest far-infrared line in such objects. A subset of the brightest targets were also surveyed in [OI]145 mu m, [CII] at 157 mu m, as well as several transitions of H2O and high-excitation CO lines at selected wavelengths between 78 and 180 mu m. Additionally, GASPS included continuum photometry at 70, 100 and 160 mu m, around the peak of the dust emission. The targets were SED Class II-III T Tauri stars and debris disks from seven nearby young associations, along with a comparable sample of isolated Herbig AeBe stars. The aim was to study the global gas and dust content in a wide sample of circumstellar disks, combining the results with models in a systematic way. In this overview paper we review the scientific aims, target selection and observing strategy of the program. We summarise some of the initial results, showing line identifications, listing the detections, and giving a first statistical study of line detectability. The [OI] line at 63 mu m was the brightest line seen in almost all objects, by a factor of similar to 10. Overall [OI]63 mu m detection rates were 49%, with 100% of HAeBe stars and 43% of T Tauri stars detected. A comparison with published disk dust masses (derived mainly from sub-mm continuum, assuming standard values of the mm mass opacity) shows a dust mass threshold for [OI] 63 mu m detection of similar to 10(-5) M-circle dot. Normalising to a distance of 140 pc, 84% of objects with dust masses >= 10(-5) M-circle dot can be detected in this line in the present survey; 32% of those of mass 10(-6)-10(-5) M-circle dot, and only a very small number of unusual objects with lower masses can be detected. This is consistent with models with a moderate UV excess and disk flaring. For a given disk mass, [OI] detectability is lower for M stars compared with earlier spectral types. Both the continuum and line emission was, in most systems, spatially and spectrally unresolved and centred on the star, suggesting that emission in most cases was from the disk. Approximately 10 objects showed resolved emission, most likely from outflows. In the GASPS sample, [OI] detection rates in T Tauri associations in the 0.3-4 Myr age range were similar to 50%. For each association in the 5-20 Myr age range, similar to 2 stars remain detectable in [OI]63 mu m, and no systems were detected in associations with age >20 Myr. Comparing with the total number of young stars in each association, and assuming a ISM-like gas/dust ratio, this indicates that similar to 18% of stars retain a gas-rich disk of total mass similar to 1 M-Jupiter for 1-4 Myr, 1-7% keep such disks for 5-10 Myr, but none are detected beyond 10-20 Myr. The brightest [OI] objects from GASPS were also observed in [OI]145 mu m, [CII]157 mu m and CO J = 18 - 17, with detection rates of 20-40%. Detection of the [CII] line was not correlated with disk mass, suggesting it arises more commonly from a compact remnant envelope.
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9.
  • Mathews, G. S., et al. (författare)
  • GAS in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS) I. First results
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518:Article Number: L127
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Circumstellar discs are ubiquitous around young stars, but rapidly dissipate their gas and dust on timescales of a few Myr. The Herschel Space Observatory allows for the study of the warm disc atmosphere, using far-infrared spectroscopy to measure gas content and excitation conditions, and far-IR photometry to constrain the dust distribution. Aims. We aim to detect and characterize the gas content of circumstellar discs in four targets as part of the Herschel science demonstration phase. Methods. We carried out sensitive medium resolution spectroscopy and high sensitivity photometry at gimel similar to 60-190 mu m using the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. Results. We detect [OI] 63 mu m emission from the young stars HD 169142, TW Hydrae, and RECX 15, but not HD 181327. No other lines, including [CII] 158 and [OI] 145, are significantly detected. All four stars are detected in photometry at 70 and 160 mu m. Extensive models are presented in associated papers.
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10.
  • Meeus, G., et al. (författare)
  • Gas in the protoplanetary disc of HD 169142: Herschel's view
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518:Article Number: L124
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In an effort to simultaneously study the gas and dust components of the disc surrounding the young Herbig Ae star HD 169142, we present far-IR observations obtained with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. This work is part of the open time key program GASPS, which is aimed at studying the evolution of protoplanetary discs. To constrain the gas properties in the outer disc, we observed the star at several key gas-lines, including [OI] 63.2 and 145.5 mu m, [CII] 157.7 mu m, CO 72.8 and 90.2 mu m, and o-H2O 78.7 and 179.5 mu m. We only detect the [OI] 63.2 mu m line in our spectra, and derive upper limits for the other lines. We complement our data set with PACS photometry and (CO)-C-12/13 data obtained with the Submillimeter Array. Furthermore, we derive accurate stellar parameters from optical spectra and UV to mm photometry. We model the dust continuum with the 3D radiative transfer code MCFOST and use this model as an input to analyse the gas lines with the thermo-chemical code ProDIMo. Our dataset is consistent with a simple model in which the gas and dust are well-mixed in a disc with a continuous structure between 20 and 200 AU, but this is not a unique solution. Our modelling effort allows us to constrain the gas-to-dust mass ratio as well as the relative abundance of the PAHs in the disc by simultaneously fitting the lines of several species that originate in different regions. Our results are inconsistent with a gas-poor disc with a large UV excess; a gas mass of 5.0 +/- 2.0 x 10(-3) M-circle dot is still present in this disc, in agreement with earlier CO observations.
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