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Sökning: WFRF:(Pokrovsky Oleg S.)

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  • Abbott, Benjamin W., et al. (författare)
  • Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire : an expert assessment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - : IOP Publishing: Open Access Journals / IOP Publishing. - 1748-9326 .- 1748-9326. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.
  • Hirst, Catherine, et al. (författare)
  • Characterisation of Fe-bearing particles and colloids in the Lena River basin, NE Russia
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The Lena River Study. - Cambridge : Elsevier. ; 213, s. 553-573
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rivers are significant contributors of Fe to theocean. However, the characteristics of chemically reactive Fe remain poorly constrained, especially in large Arctic rivers, which drain landscapes highly susceptible to climate change and carbon cycle alteration. The aim of this study was a detailed characterisation (size, mineralogy, and speciation) of riverine Fe-bearing particles (> 0.22 µm) and colloids (1 kDa – 0.22 µm) and their association with organic carbon (OC), in the Lena River and tributaries, which drain a catchment almost entirely underlain by permafrost. Samples fromthe main channel and tributaries representing watersheds that span a wide rangein topography and lithology were taken after the spring flood in June 2013 and summer baseflow in July 2012. Fe-bearing particles were identified, usingTransmission Electron Microscopy, as large (200 nm – 1 µm) aggregates of smaller (20 nm - 30 nm) spherical colloids of chemically-reactive ferrihydrite.In contrast, there were also large (500 nm – 1 µm) aggregates of clay (illite) particles and smaller (100 - 200 nm) iron oxide particles (dominantly hematite) that contain poorly reactive Fe. TEM imaging and Scanning Transmission X-raymicroscopy (STXM) indicated that the ferrihydrite is present as discrete particles within networks of amorphous particulate organic carbon (POC) and attached to the surface of primary produced organic matter and clay particles.Together, these larger particles act as the main carriers of nanoscale ferrihydrite in the Lena River basin.  The chemically reactive ferrihydrite accounts for on average 70 ± 15 % of the total suspended Fe in the Lena River and tributaries. These observations place important constraints on Fe and OC cycling in the Lena River catchment area and Fe-bearing particle transport to the Arctic Ocean.
  • Krickov, Ivan V., et al. (författare)
  • Riverine particulate C and N generated at the permafrost thaw front : case study of western Siberian rivers across a 1700km latitudinal transect
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 15:22, s. 6867-6884
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In contrast to numerous studies on the dynamics of dissolved (< 0.45 mu m) elements in permafrost-affected highlatitude rivers, very little is known of the behavior of river suspended (> 0.45 mu m) matter (RSM) in these regions. In order to test the effect of climate, permafrost and physiogeographical landscape parameters (bogs, forest and lake coverage of the watershed) on RSM and particulate C, N and P concentrations in river water, we sampled 33 small and medium-sized rivers (10-100 000 km(2) watershed) along a 1700 km N-S transect including both permafrost-affected and permafrost-free zones of the Western Siberian Lowland (WSL). The concentrations of C and N in RSM decreased with the increase in river watershed size, illustrating (i) the importance of organic debris in small rivers which drain peatlands and (ii) the role of mineral matter from bank abrasion in larger rivers. The presence of lakes in the watershed increased C and N but decreased P concentrations in the RSM. The C V N ratio in the RSM reflected the source from the deep soil horizon rather than surface soil horizon, similar to that of other Arctic rivers. This suggests the export of peat and mineral particles through suprapermafrost flow occurring at the base of the active layer. There was a maximum of both particulate C and N concentrations and export fluxes at the beginning of permafrost appearance, in the sporadic and discontinuous zone (62-64 degrees N). This presumably reflected the organic matter mobilization from newly thawed organic horizons in soils at the active latitudinal thawing front. The results suggest that a northward shift of permafrost boundaries and an increase in active layer thickness may increase particulate C and N export by WSL rivers to the Arctic Ocean by a factor of 2, while P export may remain unchanged. In contrast, within a long-term climate warming scenario, the disappearance of permafrost in the north, the drainage of lakes and transformation of bogs to forest may decrease C and N concentrations in RSM by 2 to 3 times.
  • Pokrovsky, Oleg S., et al. (författare)
  • Dissolved organic matter controls seasonal and spatial selenium concentration variability in thaw lakes across a permafrost gradient
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 52:18, s. 10254-10262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Little is known about the sources and processing of selenium, an important toxicant and essential micronutrient, within boreal and sub-arctic environments. Upon climate warming and permafrost thaw, the behavior of Se in northern peatlands becomes an issue of major concern, because a sizable amount of Se can be emitted to the atmosphere from thawing soils and inland water surfaces and exported to downstream waters, thus impacting the Arctic biota. Working toward providing a first-order assessment of spatial and temporal variation of Se concentration in thermokarst waters of the largest frozen peatland in the world, we sampled thaw lakes and rivers across a 750-km latitudinal profile. This profile covered sporadic, discontinuous, and continuous permafrost regions of western Siberia Lowland (WSL), where we measured dissolved (<0.45 mu m) Se concentration during spring (June), summer (August), and autumn (September). We found maximum Se concentration in the discontinuous permafrost zone. Considering all sampled lakes, Se exhibited linear relationship (R-2 = 0.7 to 0.9, p < 0.05, n approximate to 70) with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration during summer and autumn. Across the permafrost gradient, the lakes in discontinuous permafrost regions demonstrated stronger relationship with DOC and UV-absorbance compared to lakes in sporadic/isolated and continuous permafrost zones. Both seasonal and spatial features of Se distribution in thermokarst lakes and ponds suggest that Se is mainly released during thawing of frozen peat. Mobilization and immobilization of Se within peat-lake-river watersheds likely occurs as organic and organo-Fe, Al colloids, probably associated with reduced and elemental Se forms. The increase of active layer thickness may enhance leaching of Se in the form of organic complexes with aromatic carbon from the deep horizons of the peat profile. Further, the northward shift of permafrost boundaries in WSL may sizably increase Se concentration in lakes of continuous permafrost zone.
  • Shirokova, Liudmila S., et al. (författare)
  • Humic surface waters of frozen peat bogs (permafrost zone) are highly resistant to bio- and photodegradation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 16:12, s. 2511-2526
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In contrast to the large number of studies on humic waters from permafrost-free regions and oligotrophic waters from permafrost-bearing regions, the bio- and photolability of DOM from the humic surface waters of permafrost-bearing regions has not been thoroughly evaluated. Following standardized protocol, we measured biodegradation (at low, intermediate and high temperatures) and photodegradation (at one intermediate temperature) of DOM in surface waters along the hydrological continuum (depression -> stream -> thermokarst lake -> Pechora River) within a frozen peatland in European Russia. In all systems, within the experimental resolution of 5% to 10 %, there was no bio- or photodegradation of DOM over a 1-month incubation period. It is possible that the main cause of the lack of degradation is the dominance of allochthonous refractory (soil, peat) DOM in all waters studied. However, all surface waters were supersaturated with CO2. Thus, this study suggests that, rather than bio- and photodegradation of DOM in the water column, other factors such as peat pore-water DOM processing and respiration of sediments are the main drivers of elevated pCO(2) and CO2 emission in humic boreal waters of frozen peat bogs.
  • Vorobyev, Sergey N., et al. (författare)
  • Biogeochemistry of dissolved carbon, major, and trace elements during spring flood periods on the Ob River
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Hydrological Processes. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0885-6087 .- 1099-1085. ; 33:11, s. 1579-1594
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Detailed knowledge of the flood period of Arctic rivers remains one of the few factors impeding rigorous prediction of the effect of climate change on carbon and related element fluxes from the land to the Arctic Ocean. In order to test the temporal and spatial variability of element concentration in the Ob River (western Siberia) water during flood period and to quantify the contribution of spring flood period to the annual element export, we sampled the main channel year round in 2014-2017 for dissolved C, major, and trace element concentrations. We revealed high stability (approximately <= 10% relative variation) of dissolved C, major, and trace element concentrations in the Ob River during spring flood period over a 1-km section of the river channel and over 3 days continuous monitoring (3-hr frequency). We identified two groups of elements with contrasting relationship to discharge: (a) DIC and soluble elements (Cl, SO4, Li, B, Na, Mg, Ca, P, V, Cr, Mn, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ba, W, and U) negatively correlated (p < 0.05) with discharge and exhibited minimal concentrations during spring flood and autumn high flow and (b) DOC and particle-reactive elements (Al, Fe, Ti, Y, Zr, Nb, Cs, REEs, Hf, Tl, Pb, and Th), some nutrients (K), and metalloids (Ge, Sb, and Te), positively correlated (p < 0.05) with discharge and showed the highest concentrations during spring flood. We attribute the decreased concentration of soluble elements with discharge to dilution by groundwater feeding and increased concentration of DOC and particle-reactive metals with discharge to leaching from surface soil, plant litter, and suspended particles. Overall, the present study provides first-order assessment of fluxes of major and trace elements in the middle course of the Ob River, reveals their high temporal and spatial stability, and characterizes the mechanism of river water chemical composition acquisition.
  • Vorobyev, Sergey N., et al. (författare)
  • Permafrost Boundary Shift in Western Siberia May Not Modify Dissolved Nutrient Concentrations in Rivers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 9:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identifying the landscape and climate factors that control nutrient export by rivers in high latitude regions is one of the main challenges for understanding the Arctic Ocean response to ongoing climate change. This is especially true for Western Siberian rivers, which are responsible for a significant part of freshwater and solutes delivery to the Arctic Ocean and are draining vast permafrost-affected areas most vulnerable to thaw. Forty-nine small- and medium-sized rivers (10-100,000 km(2)) were sampled along a 1700 km long N-S transect including both permafrost-affected and permafrost-free zones of the Western Siberian Lowland (WSL) in June and August 2015. The N, P, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC, respectively), particular organic carbon (POC), Si, Ca, K, Fe, and Mn were analyzed to assess the role of environmental parameters, such as temperature, runoff, latitude, permafrost, bogs, lake, and forest coverage on nutrient concentration. The size of the watershed had no influence on nutrient concentrations in the rivers. Bogs and lakes retained nutrients whereas forests supplied P, Si, K, Ca, DIC, and Mn to rivers. The river water temperature was negatively correlated with Si and positively correlated with Fe in permafrost-free rivers. In permafrost-bearing rivers, the decrease in T northward was coupled with significant increases in PO4, P-tot, NH4, pH, DIC, Si, Ca, and Mn. North of the permafrost boundary (61 degrees N), there was no difference in nutrient concentrations among permafrost zones (isolated, sporadic, discontinuous, and continuous). The climate warming in Western Siberia may lead to a permafrost boundary shift northward. Using a substituting space for time scenario, this may decrease or maintain the current levels of N, P, Si, K, Ca, DIC, and DOC concentrations in rivers of continuous permafrost zones compared to the present state. As a result, the export flux of nutrients by the small- and medium-sized rivers of the Western Siberian subarctic to the Arctic Ocean coastal zone may remain constant, or even decrease.
  • Zabelina, Svetlana A., et al. (författare)
  • Carbon emission from thermokarst lakes in NE European tundra
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0024-3590 .- 1939-5590.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from inland waters is recognized as highly important and an understudied part of the terrestrial carbon (C) biogeochemical cycle. These emissions are still poorly quantified in subarctic regions that contain vast amounts of surface C in permafrost peatlands. This is especially true in NE European peatlands, located within sporadic to discontinuous permafrost zones which are highly vulnerable to thaw. Initial measurements of C emissions from lentic waters of the Bolshezemelskaya Tundra (BZT; 200,000 km2) demonstrated sizable CO2 and CH4 concentrations and fluxes to the atmosphere in 98 depressions, thaw ponds, and thermokarst lakes ranging from 0.5 × 106 to 5 × 106 m2 in size. CO2 fluxes decreased by an order of magnitude as waterbody size increased by > 3 orders of magnitude while CH4 fluxes showed large variability unrelated to lake size. By using a combination of Landsat‐8 and GeoEye‐1 images, we determined lakes cover 4% of BZT and thus calculated overall C emissions from lentic waters to be 3.8 ± 0.65 Tg C yr−1 (99% C‐CO2, 1% C‐CH4), which is two times higher than the lateral riverine export. Large lakes dominated GHG emissions whereas small thaw ponds had a minor contribution to overall water surface area and GHG emissions. These data suggest that, if permafrost thaw in NE Europe results in disappearance of large thermokarst lakes and formation of new small thaw ponds and depressions, GHG emissions from lentic waters in this region may decrease.
  • Pokrovsky, Oleg S., et al. (författare)
  • Freeze-thaw cycles of Arctic thaw ponds remove colloidal metals and generate low-molecular-weight organic matter
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 137:3, s. 321-336
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-latitude boreal and arctic surface/inland waters contain sizeable reservoirs of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and trace elements (TE), which are subject to seasonal freezing. Specifically, shallow ponds and lakes in the permafrost zone often freeze solid, which can lead to transformations in the colloidal and dissolved fractions of DOM and TE. Here, we present results from experimental freeze-thaw cycles using iron (Fe)- and DOM-rich water from thaw ponds situated in Stordalen and Storflaket palsa mires in northern Sweden. After ten cycles of freezing, 85% of Fe and 25% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were removed from solution in circumneutral fen water (pH 6.9) but a much smaller removal of Fe and DOC (< 7%) was found in acidic bog water (pH 3.6). This removal pattern was consistent with initial supersaturation of fen water with respect to Fe hydroxide and a lack of supersaturation with any secondary mineral phase in the bog water. There was a nearly two- to threefold increase in the low-molecular-weight (LMW) fraction of organic carbon (OC) and several TEs caused by the repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Future increases in the freeze-thaw frequency of surface waters with climate warming may remove up to 25% of DOC in circumneutral organic-rich waters. Furthermore, an increase of LMW OC may result in enhanced carbon dioxide losses from aquatic ecosystems since this fraction is potentially more susceptible to biodegradation.
  • Serikova, Svetlana, 1989- (författare)
  • Carbon Emissions from Western Siberian Inland Waters
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Inland waters (i.e. rivers, streams, lakes, ponds) emit carbon (C) into the atmosphere. The magnitude of global inland water C emission has been estimated to equal the global ocean C sink, thus making inland waters an important component of the global C cycle. Yet, the data used in estimating the magnitude of global inland water C emission lacks measurements of inland water C emissions from permafrost-affected regions in general and from Russia in particular, despite permafrost covering ~25% of the Northern Hemisphere and ~65% of Russia. This lack of data questions the accuracy of the current estimate of global inland water C emission and its predictive power in assessing changes in the global C cycle following permafrost thaw.In this thesis, we conducted detailed measurements of river and lake C emissions across ~1000 km permafrost gradient of Western Siberia (from permafrost-free to continuous permafrost zone) and assessed the magnitude of the total C emission from Western Siberian inland waters. We found that river and lake C emissions varied across the permafrost gradient with river C emissions being greatest in areas where permafrost is actively degrading, and lake C emissions being greatest in areas where permafrost is still intact. We also found that river and lake C emissions are likely driven by different factors with river C emissions being mainly controlled by temperature and hydrological conditions, whereas lake C emissions by sediment respiration and availability of recently thawed organic C. Further, we estimated the total C emission from Western Siberian inland waters to be greater than previously thought and exceeding the C export from this region to the Arctic Ocean. Such finding implies that a major part of the terrestrially-derived C is lost in Western Siberian inland waters, making this region a hotspot for inland water C emission following permafrost thaw. We also showed that apart from C emissions measurements across different inland water types and across the landscape, estimates of inland water surface areas are needed for accurate assessments of the total inland water C emission of any given region. Particularly, water surface areas of streams and ponds as well as inundated floodplains, especially in years of extreme flood events, are important for quantifying the total inland water C emission. Overall, this thesis presents new data related to C emissions from rivers and lakes in an area that undergoes rapid permafrost thaw, and urges to account for all inland water types and their respective water surface areas when attempting to achieve unbiased estimates of the inland water contribution to the atmospheric C budget.
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