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Sökning: WFRF:(Posada M)

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  • Burn, E., et al. (författare)
  • Deep phenotyping of 34,128 adult patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in an international network study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Comorbid conditions appear to be common among individuals hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but estimates of prevalence vary and little is known about the prior medication use of patients. Here, we describe the characteristics of adults hospitalised with COVID-19 and compare them with influenza patients. We include 34,128 (US: 8362, South Korea: 7341, Spain: 18,425) COVID-19 patients, summarising between 4811 and 11,643 unique aggregate characteristics. COVID-19 patients have been majority male in the US and Spain, but predominantly female in South Korea. Age profiles vary across data sources. Compared to 84,585 individuals hospitalised with influenza in 2014-19, COVID-19 patients have more typically been male, younger, and with fewer comorbidities and lower medication use. While protecting groups vulnerable to influenza is likely a useful starting point in the response to COVID-19, strategies will likely need to be broadened to reflect the particular characteristics of individuals being hospitalised with COVID-19. Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of COVID-19 patients helps with public health planning. Here, the authors use routinely-collected data from seven databases in three countries to describe the characteristics of >30,000 patients admitted with COVID-19 and compare them with those admitted for influenza in previous years.
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  • Baker, K., et al. (författare)
  • Performance of five pulse oximeters to detect hypoxaemia as an indicator of severe illness in children under five by frontline health workers in low resource settings- A prospective, multicentre, single-blinded, trial in Cambodia, Ethiopia, South Sudan, and Uganda
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Eclinicalmedicine. - 2589-5370. ; 38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Low blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), or hypoxaemia, is an indicator of severe illness in children. Pulse oximetry is a globally accepted, non-invasive method to identify hypoxaemia, but rarely available outside higher-level facilities in resource-constrained countries. This study aims to evaluate the performance of different types of pulse oximeters amongst frontline health workers in Cambodia, Ethiopia, South Sudan, and Uganda. Methods: Five pulse oximeters (POx) which passed laboratory testing, out of an initial 32 potential pulse oximeters, were evaluated by frontline health workers for performance, defined as agreement between the SpO2 measurements of the test device and the reference standard. The study protocol is registered with the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (Ref: ACTRrn12615000348550). Findings: Two finger-tip pulse oximeters (Contec and Devon), two handheld pulse oximeters (Lifebox and Utech), and one phone pulse oximeter (Masimo) passed the laboratory testing. They were evaluated for performance on 1,313 children under five years old by 207 frontline health workers between February and May 2015. Phone and handheld pulse oximeters had greater overall agreement with the reference standard (56%; 95% CI 0.52 - 0.60 to 68%; 95% CI 0.65 - 0.71) than the finger-tip POx (31%; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.36 and 47%; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.52). Fingertip POx performance was substantially lower in the 0-2 month olds; having just 17% and 25% agreement. The finger-tip devices more often underreported SpO2 readings (mean difference -7.9%; 95%CI -8.6,-7.2 and -3.9%; 95%CI -4.4,-3.4), and therefore over diagnosed hypoxaemia in the children assessed. Interpretation: While the Masimo phone pulse oximeter performed best, all handheld POx with age-specific probes performed well in the hands of frontline health workers, further highlighting their suitability as a screening tool of severe illness. The poor performance of the fingertip POx suggests they should not be used in children under five by frontline health workers. It is essential that POx are performance tested on children in routine settings (in vivo), not only in laboratories or controlled settings (in vitro), before being introduced at scale.
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  • Baker, K., et al. (författare)
  • Performance of Four Respiratory Rate Counters to Support Community Health Workers to Detect the Symptoms of Pneumonia in Children in Low Resource Settings: A Prospective, Multicentre, Hospital-Based, Single-Blinded, Comparative Trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: EClinicalMedicine. - 2589-5370.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in children under-five globally. The current diagnostic criteria for pneumonia are based on increased respiratory rate (RR) or chest in-drawing in children with cough and/or difficulty breathing. Accurately counting RR is difficult for community health workers (CHWs). Current RR counting devices are frequently inadequate or unavailable. This study analysed the performance of improved RR timers for detection of pneumonia symptoms in low-resource settings. Methods: Four RR timers were evaluated on 454 children, aged from 0 to 59 months with cough and/or difficulty breathing, over three months, by CHWs in hospital settings in Cambodia, Ethiopia, South Sudan and Uganda. The devices were the Mark Two ARI timer (MK2 ARI), counting beads with ARI timer, Rrate Android phone and the Respirometer feature phone applications. Performance was evaluated for agreement with an automated RR reference standard (Masimo Root patient monitoring and connectivity platform with ISA CO2 capnography). This study is registered with ANZCTR [ACTRN12615000348550]. Findings: While most CHWs managed to achieve a RR count with the four devices, the agreement was low for all; the mean difference of RR measurements from the reference standard for the four devices ranged from 0.5 (95% C.I. − 2.2 to 1.2) for the respirometer to 5.5 (95% C.I. 3.2 to 7.8) for Rrate. Performance was consistently lower for young infants (0 to < 2 months) than for older children (2 to ≤ 59 months). Agreement of RR classification into fast and normal breathing was moderate across all four devices, with Cohen's Kappa statistics ranging from 0.41 (SE 0.04) to 0.49 (SE 0.05). Interpretation: None of the four devices evaluated performed well based on agreement with the reference standard. The ARI timer currently recommended for use by CHWs should only be replaced by more expensive, equally performing, automated RR devices when aspects such as usability and duration of the device significantly improve the patient-provider experience. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation [ OPP1054367]. © 2019
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  • Prats-Uribe, A., et al. (författare)
  • Use of repurposed and adjuvant drugs in hospital patients with covid-19: Multinational network cohort study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The BMJ. - 0959-8146. ; 373
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To investigate the use of repurposed and adjuvant drugs in patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 across three continents. Design Multinational network cohort study. Setting Hospital electronic health records from the United States, Spain, and China, and nationwide claims data from South Korea. Participants 303 264 patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 from January 2020 to December 2020. Main outcome measures Prescriptions or dispensations of any drug on or 30 days after the date of hospital admission for covid-19. Results Of the 303 264 patients included, 290 131 were from the US, 7599 from South Korea, 5230 from Spain, and 304 from China. 3455 drugs were identified. Common repurposed drugs were hydroxychloroquine (used in from <5 (<2%) patients in China to 2165 (85.1%) in Spain), azithromycin (from 15 (4.9%) in China to 1473 (57.9%) in Spain), combined lopinavir and ritonavir (from 156 (<2%) in the VA-OMOP US to 2,652 (34.9%) in South Korea and 1285 (50.5%) in Spain), and umifenovir (0% in the US, South Korea, and Spain and 238 (78.3%) in China). Use of adjunctive drugs varied greatly, with the five most used treatments being enoxaparin, fluoroquinolones, ceftriaxone, vitamin D, and corticosteroids. Hydroxychloroquine use increased rapidly from March to April 2020 but declined steeply in May to June and remained low for the rest of the year. The use of dexamethasone and corticosteroids increased steadily during 2020. Conclusions Multiple drugs were used in the first few months of the covid-19 pandemic, with substantial geographical and temporal variation. Hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, lopinavir-ritonavir, and umifenovir (in China only) were the most prescribed repurposed drugs. Antithrombotics, antibiotics, H2 receptor antagonists, and corticosteroids were often used as adjunctive treatments. Research is needed on the comparative risk and benefit of these treatments in the management of covid-19. ©
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