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Sökning: WFRF:(Pulkki Brännström Anni Maria)

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  • Galanti, Maria Rosaria, et al. (författare)
  • Tobacco-Free Duo Adult-Child Contract for Prevention of Tobacco Use Among Adolescents and Parents : Protocol for a Mixed-Design Evaluation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JMIR Research Protocols. - 1929-0748 .- 1929-0748. ; 9:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Universal tobacco-prevention programs targeting youths usually involve significant adults, who are assumed to be important social influences. Commitment not to use tobacco, or to quit use, as a formal contract between an adolescent and a significant adult is a preventive model that has not been widely practiced or explored and has been formally evaluated even less. In this paper, we present the rationale and protocol for the evaluation of the Swedish Tobacco-free Duo program, a multicomponent school-based program the core of which rests on a formal agreement between an adolescent and an adult. The adolescent's commitment mainly concerns avoiding the onset of any tobacco use while the adult commits to support the adolescent in staying tobacco free, being a role model by not using tobacco themselves.OBJECTIVE: To assess (1) whether Tobacco-free Duo is superior to an education-only program in preventing smoking onset among adolescents and promoting cessation among their parents, (2) whether exposure to core components (adult-child agreement) entails more positive effects than exposure to other components, (3) the impact of the program on whole school tobacco use, (4) potential negative side effects, and (5) school-level factors related to fidelity of the program's implementation.METHODS: A mixed-design approach was developed. First, a cluster randomized controlled trial was designed with schools randomly assigned to either the comprehensive multicomponent program or its educational component only. Primary outcome at the adolescent level was identified as not having tried tobacco during the 3-year junior high school compulsory grades (12-15 years of age). An intention-to-treat cohort-wise approach and an as-treated approach complemented with a whole school repeated cross-sectional approach was devised as analytical methods of the trial data. Second, an observational study was added in order to compare smoking incidence in the schools participating in the experiment with that of a convenience sample of schools that were not part of the experimental study. Diverse secondary outcomes at both adolescent and adult levels were also included.RESULTS: The study was approved by the Umeå Regional Ethics Review Board (registration number 2017/255-31) in 2017. Recruitment of schools started in fall 2017 and continued until June 2018. In total, 43 schools were recruited to the experimental study, and 16 schools were recruited to the observational study. Data collection started in the fall 2018, is ongoing, and is planned to be finished in spring 2021.CONCLUSIONS: Methodological, ethical, and practical implications of the evaluation protocol were discussed, especially the advantage of combining several sources of data, to triangulate the study questions. The results of these studies will help revise the agenda of this program as well as those of similar programs.TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) 52858080; https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN52858080.INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/21100.
  • Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Protocol for the evaluation of cost-effectiveness and health equity impact of a school-based tobacco prevention programme in a cluster randomised controlled trial (the TOPAS study)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 11:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Despite a long-term downward trend in smoking prevalence, tobacco remains the number one risk factor for death and disability in Sweden. Globally, tobacco use generates a substantial economic burden for health systems and is also a major driver of socioeconomic inequalities in health. This article describes the planned cost-effectiveness and health equity impact evaluation of a multicomponent school-based programme to prevent the onset of tobacco use in adolescents.Methods and analysis:  Cost-effectiveness of the multicomponent Tobacco-Free Duo programme will be evaluated against the educational component of the same programme only. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) will be calculated in terms of the cost per case prevented using the trial primary outcome and within-trial payer costs. If the ICER is negative, an incremental net benefit ratio will be calculated. Robustness of the results will be assessed through one-way sensitivity analyses. The slope index of inequality will be computed to assess the potential impact of the Tobacco-free Duo programme on education-related inequalities in the onset of smoking and in adult smoking cessation, comparing the two trial arms.Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval was obtained from the Regional Ethics Review Board, Umeå (registration number 2017/255-31). The Public Health Agency of Sweden commissioned the study. The findings will be disseminated internationally within academia and to national and local policy-makers.Trial registration number: ISRCTN52858080; Pre-results.
  • Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria, et al. (författare)
  • The equity impact of a universal child health promotion programme
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0143-005X .- 1470-2738. ; 74, s. 605-611
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Real-world evaluations of complex interventions are scarce. We evaluated the effect of the Salut Programme, a universal child health promotion intervention in northern Sweden, on income-related inequalities in positive birth outcomes and healthcare utilisation up to 2 years after delivery.METHODS: Using the mother's place of residence at delivery, the child and the mother were classified as belonging to either the control area (received care-as-usual) or the intervention area (where the intervention was implemented from 2006) and either the premeasure (children born between 2002 and 2004) or the postmeasure (children born between 2006 and 2008) period. Parents' earned income was used as the socioeconomic ranking variable. The Relative Concentration Index was computed for six binary birth outcome indicators and for inpatient and day patient care for children and their mothers. Changes in inequality over time were compared using a difference-in-difference approach.RESULTS: Income-related inequalities in birth outcomes and child healthcare utilisation were absent, except that full-term pregnancies were concentrated among the poor at premeasure in the intervention area. In contrast, mothers' healthcare utilisation was significantly pro-poor in the control area. The extent of inequality changed differentially between premeasure and postmeasure for two birth outcomes: full-term pregnancies and infants with normal birth weight. Inequalities in healthcare utilisation did not change significantly in either area over time.CONCLUSION: In northern Sweden, income-related inequalities in birth outcomes and child healthcare utilisation are largely absent. However, relative inequalities in mothers' healthcare utilisation are large. We found no evidence that the Salut Programme affected changes in inequality over time.
  • Hitimana, Regis, et al. (författare)
  • Cost of antenatal care for the health sector and for households in Rwanda
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMC Health Services Research. - 1472-6963 .- 1472-6963. ; 18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Rwanda has made tremendous progress in reduction of maternal mortality in the last twenty years. Antenatal care is believed to have played a role in that progress. In late 2016, the World Health Organization published new antenatal care guidelines recommending an increase from four visits during pregnancy to eight contacts with skilled personnel, among other changes. There is ongoing debate regarding the cost implications and potential outcomes countries can expect, if they make that shift. For Rwanda, a necessary starting point is to understand the cost of current antenatal care practice, which, according to our knowledge, has not been documented so far.Methods: Cost information was collected from Kigali City and Northern province of Rwanda through two cross-sectional surveys: a household-based survey among women who had delivered a year before the interview (N = 922) and a health facility survey in three public, two faith-based, and one private health facility. A micro costing approach was used to collect health facility data. Household costs included time and transport. Results are reported in 2015 USD.Results: The societal cost (household + health facility) of antenatal care for the four visits according to current Rwandan guidelines was estimated at $160 in the private health facility and $44 in public and faith-based health facilities. The first visit had the highest cost ($75 in private and $21 in public and faith-based health facilities) compared to the three other visits. Drugs and consumables were the main input category accounting for 54% of the total cost in the private health facility and for 73% in the public and faith-based health facilities.Conclusions: The unit cost of providing antenatal care services is considerably lower in public than in private health facilities. The household cost represents a small proportion of the total, ranging between 3% and 7%; however, it is meaningful for low-income families. There is a need to do profound equity analysis regarding the accessibility and use of antenatal care services, and to consider ways to reduce households’ time cost as a possible barrier to the use of antenatal care.
  • Hitimana, R., et al. (författare)
  • Health-related quality of life determinants among Rwandan women after delivery: does antenatal care utilization matter? A cross-sectional study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Health Population and Nutrition. - : BioMed Central. - 1606-0997 .- 2072-1315. ; 37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Despite the widespread use of antenatal care (ANC), its effectiveness in low-resource settings remains unclear. In this study, self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was used as an alternative to other maternal health measures previously used to measure the effectiveness of antenatal care. The main objective of this study was to determine whether adequate antenatal care utilization is positively associated with women's HRQoL. Furthermore, the associations between the HRQoL during the first year (113 months) after delivery and socio-economic and demographic factors were explored in Rwanda. Methods: In 2014, we performed a cross-sectional population-based survey involving 922 women who gave birth 1-13 months prior to the data collection. The study population was randomly selected from two provinces in Rwanda, and a structured questionnaire was used. HRQoL was measured using the EQ-5D-3L and a visual analogue scale (VAS). The average HRQoL scores were computed by demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The effect of adequate antenatal care utilization on HRQoL was tested by performing two multivariable linear regression models with the EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores as the outcomes and ANC utilization and socio-economic and demographic variables as the predictors. Results: Adequate ANC utilization affected women's HRQoL when the outcome was measured using the EQ-VAS. Social support and living in a wealthy household were associated with a better HRQoL using both the EQ-VAS and EQ-5D. Cohabitating, and single/unmarried women exhibited significantly lower HRQoL scores than did married women in the EQ-VAS model, and women living in urban areas exhibited lower HRQoL scores than women living in rural areas in the ED-5D model. The effect of education on HRQoL was statistically significant using the EQ-VAS but was inconsistent across the educational categories. The women's age and the age of their last child were not associated with their HRQoL. Conclusions: ANC attendance of at least four visits should be further promoted and used in low-income settings. Strategies to improve families' socio-economic conditions and promote social networks among women, particularly women at the reproductive age, are needed.
  • Hitimana, R., et al. (författare)
  • Incremental cost and health gains of the 2016 WHO antenatal care recommendations for Rwanda: results from expert elicitation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Health Research Policy and Systems. - : BioMed Central. - 1478-4505. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: High-quality evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is rarely available and relevant for health policy decisions in low-resource settings. In such situations, innovative approaches are needed to generate locally relevant evidence. This study aims to inform decision-making on antenatal care (ANC) recommendations in Rwanda by estimating the incremental cost-effectiveness of the recent (2016) WHO antenatal care recommendations compared to current practice in Rwanda. Methods: Two health outcome scenarios (optimistic, pessimistic) in terms of expected maternal and perinatal mortality reduction were constructed using expert elicitation with gynaecologists/obstetricians currently practicing in Rwanda. Three costing scenarios were constructed from the societal perspective over a 1-year period. The two main inputs to the cost analyses were a Monte Carlo simulation of the distribution of ANC attendance for a hypothetical cohort of 373,679 women and unit cost estimation of the new recommendations using data from a recent primary costing study of current ANC practice in Rwanda. Results were reported in 2015 USD and compared with the 2015 Rwandan per-capita gross domestic product (US$ 697). Results: Incremental health gains were estimated as 162,509 life-years saved (LYS) in the optimistic scenario and 65,366 LYS in the pessimistic scenario. Incremental cost ranged between $5.8 and $11 million (an increase of 42% and 79%, respectively, compared to current practice) across the costing scenarios. In the optimistic outcome scenario, incremental cost per LYS ranged between $36 (for low ANC attendance) and $67 (high ANC attendance), while in the pessimistic outcome scenario, it ranged between $90 (low ANC attendance) and $168 (high ANC attendance) per LYS. Incremental cost effectiveness was below the GDP-based thresholds in all six scenarios. Discussion: Implementing the new WHO ANC recommendations in Rwanda would likely be very cost-effective; however, the additional resource requirements are substantial. This study demonstrates how expert elicitation combined with other data can provide an affordable source of locally relevant evidence for health policy decisions in low-resource settings.
  • Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Cost and cost effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets - a model-based analysis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. - 1478-7547 .- 1478-7547. ; 10, s. 5-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends that national malaria programmes universally distribute long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs). LLINs provide effective insecticide protection for at least three years while conventional nets must be retreated every 6-12 months. LLINs may also promise longer physical durability (lifespan), but at a higher unit price. No prospective data currently available is sufficient to calculate the comparative cost effectiveness of different net types. We thus constructed a model to explore the cost effectiveness of LLINs, asking how a longer lifespan affects the relative cost effectiveness of nets, and if, when and why LLINs might be preferred to conventional insecticide-treated nets. An innovation of our model is that we also considered the replenishment need i.e. loss of nets over time.METHODS: We modelled the choice of net over a 10-year period to facilitate the comparison of nets with different lifespan (and/or price) and replenishment need over time. Our base case represents a large-scale programme which achieves high coverage and usage throughout the population by distributing either LLINs or conventional nets through existing health services, and retreats a large proportion of conventional nets regularly at low cost. We identified the determinants of bed net programme cost effectiveness and parameter values for usage rate, delivery and retreatment cost from the literature. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to explicitly compare the differential effect of changing parameters such as price, lifespan, usage and replenishment need.RESULTS: If conventional and long-lasting bed nets have the same physical lifespan (3 years), LLINs are more cost effective unless they are priced at more than USD 1.5 above the price of conventional nets. Because a longer lifespan brings delivery cost savings, each one year increase in lifespan can be accompanied by a USD 1 or more increase in price without the cheaper net (of the same type) becoming more cost effective. Distributing replenishment nets each year in addition to the replacement of all nets every 3-4 years increases the number of under-5 deaths averted by 5-14% at a cost of USD 17-25 per additional person protected per annum or USD 1080-1610 per additional under-5 death averted.CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the World Health Organization recommendation to distribute only LLINs, while giving guidance on the price thresholds above which this recommendation will no longer hold. Programme planners should be willing to pay a premium for nets which have a longer physical lifespan, and if planners are willing to pay USD 1600 per under-5 death averted, investing in replenishment is cost effective.
  • Batura, Neha, et al. (författare)
  • Collecting and analysing cost data for complex public health trials : reflections on practice
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Global Health Action. - : CoAction Publishing. - 1654-9716 .- 1654-9880. ; 7, s. 23257-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for the conduct of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) are mainly applicable to facility-based interventions in high-income settings. Differences in the unit of analysis and the high cost of data collection can make these guidelines challenging to follow within public health trials in low- and middle- income settings.OBJECTIVE: This paper reflects on the challenges experienced within our own work and proposes solutions that may be useful to others attempting to collect, analyse, and compare cost data between public health research sites in low- and middle- income countries.DESIGN: We describe the generally accepted methods (norms) for collecting and analysing cost data in a single-site trial from the provider perspective. We then describe our own experience applying these methods within eight comparable cluster randomised, controlled, trials. We describe the strategies used to maximise adherence to the norm, highlight ways in which we deviated from the norm, and reflect on the learning and limitations that resulted.RESULTS: When the expenses incurred by a number of small research sites are used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of delivering an intervention on a national scale, then deciding which expenses constitute 'start-up' costs will be a nontrivial decision that may differ among sites. Similarly, the decision to include or exclude research or monitoring and evaluation costs can have a significant impact on the findings. We separated out research costs and argued that monitoring and evaluation costs should be reported as part of the total trial cost. The human resource constraints that we experienced are also likely to be common to other trials. As we did not have an economist in each site, we collaborated with key personnel at each site who were trained to use a standardised cost collection tool. This approach both accommodated our resource constraints and served as a knowledge sharing and capacity building process within the research teams.CONCLUSIONS: Given the practical reality of conducting randomised, controlled trials of public health interventions in low- and middle- income countries, it is not always possible to adhere to prescribed guidelines for the analysis of cost effectiveness. Compromises are frequently required as researchers seek a pragmatic balance between rigor and feasibility. There is no single solution to this tension but researchers are encouraged to be mindful of the limitations that accompany compromise, whilst being reassured that meaningful analyses can still be conducted with the resulting data.
  • Batura, Neha, et al. (författare)
  • Highlighting the evidence gap : how cost-effective are interventions to improve early childhood nutrition and development?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Health Policy and Planning. - : Oxford University Press. - 0268-1080 .- 1460-2237. ; 30:6, s. 813-821
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of early childhood interventions to improve the growth and development of children. Although, historically, nutrition and stimulation interventions may have been delivered separately, they are increasingly being tested as a package of early childhood interventions that synergistically improve outcomes over the life course. However, implementation at scale is seldom possible without first considering the relative cost and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. An evidence gap in this area may deter large-scale implementation, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We conduct a literature review to establish what is known about the cost-effectiveness of early childhood nutrition and development interventions. A set of predefined search terms and exclusion criteria standardized the search across five databases. The search identified 15 relevant articles. Of these, nine were from studies set in high-income countries and six in low- and middle-income countries. The articles either calculated the cost-effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions (n = 8) aimed at improving child growth, or parenting interventions (stimulation) to improve early childhood development (n = 7). No articles estimated the cost-effectiveness of combined interventions. Comparing results within nutrition or stimulation interventions, or between nutrition and stimulation interventions was largely prevented by the variety of outcome measures used in these analyses. This article highlights the need for further evidence relevant to low- and middle-income countries. To facilitate comparison of cost-effectiveness between studies, and between contexts where appropriate, a move towards a common outcome measure such as the cost per disability-adjusted life years averted is advocated. Finally, given the increasing number of combined nutrition and stimulation interventions being tested, there is a significant need for evidence of cost-effectiveness for combined programmes. This too would be facilitated by the use of a common outcome measure able to pool the impact of both nutrition and stimulation activities.
  • Beck, Simon, et al. (författare)
  • Basic income – healthy outcome? Effects on health of an Indian basic income pilot project : a cluster randomised trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Development Effectiveness. - 1943-9342 .- 1943-9407. ; 7:1, s. 111-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article evaluates the effects on health of a basic income (BI) pilot project in Madhya Pradesh, India, between 2011 and 2012. BI can be defined as a non-contributory, universal and unconditional cash transfer paid out on an individual basis. The project was conducted as a cluster randomised trial involving 2034 households. Three health outcomes were examined: minor illnesses and injuries, illness and injuries requiring hospitalisation, and child vaccination coverage. The data were analysed with multiple imputation, propensity score matching and weighted logistic regression. BI was seen to significantly reduce the odds of minor illnesses and injuries by 46 per cent. No effect was seen on more serious illnesses and injuries, at least not in the time scale given, nor on child vaccination coverage which was already exceptionally high. Policymakers are encouraged to consider BI as an equitable policy of social protection, though further research on its impact on health is desirable.
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