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Sökning: WFRF:(Putaala J)

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1.
  • Ederle, Joerg, et al. (författare)
  • Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X. ; 375:9719, s. 985-997
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) is a multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial with blinded adjudication of outcomes. Patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy. Randomisation was by telephone call or fax to a central computerised service and was stratified by centre with minimisation for sex, age, contralateral occlusion, and side of the randomised artery. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. Patients were followed up by independent clinicians not directly involved in delivering the randomised treatment. The primary outcome measure of the trial is the 3-year rate of fatal or disabling stroke in any territory, which has not been analysed yet. The main outcome measure for the interim safety analysis was the 120-day rate of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered, number ISRCTN25337470. Findings The trial enrolled 1713 patients (stenting group, n=855; endarterectomy group, n=858). Two patients in the stenting group and one in the endarterectomy group withdrew immediately after randomisation, and were not included in the ITT analysis. Between randomisation and 120 days, there were 34 (Kaplan-Meier estimate 4.0%) events of disabling stroke or death in the stenting group compared with 27 (3.2%) events in the endarterectomy group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.28, 95% CI 0.77-2.11). The incidence of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction was 8.5% in the stenting group compared with 5.2% in the endarterectomy group (72 vs 44 events; HR 1.69, 1.16-2.45, p=0.006), Risks of any stroke (65 vs 35 events; HR 1.92, 1.27-2.89) and all-cause death (19 vs seven events; HR 2.76, 1.16-6.56) were higher in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group. Three procedural myocardial infarctions were recorded in the stenting group, all of which were fatal, compared with four, all non-fatal, in the endarterectomy group. There was one event of cranial nerve palsy in the stenting group compared with 45 in the endarterectomy group. There were also fewer haematomas of any severity in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group (31 vs 50 events; p=0.0197). Interpretation Completion of long-term follow-up is needed to establish the efficacy of carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy. In the meantime, carotid endarterectomy should remain the treatment of choice for patients suitable for surgery.
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2.
  • Inkeri, J., et al. (författare)
  • Carotid intima-media thickness and arterial stiffness in relation to cerebral small vessel disease in neurologically asymptomatic individuals with type 1 diabetes
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Acta Diabetologica. - 0940-5429. ; 58:7, s. 929-937
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims To determine if arterial functional and structural changes are associated with underlying cerebral small vessel disease in neurologically asymptomatic individuals with type 1 diabetes. Methods We enrolled 186 individuals (47.8% men; median age 40.0, IQR 33.0-45.0 years) with type 1 diabetes (median diabetes duration of 21.6, IQR 18.2-30.3 years), and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, as part of the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study. All individuals underwent a biochemical work-up, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound of the common carotid arteries and arterial tonometry. Arterial structural and functional parameters were assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), pulse wave velocity and augmentation index. Results Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) were present in 23.7% and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in 16.7% of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Those with type 1 diabetes and CMBs had higher median (IQR) CIMT 583 (525 - 663) mu m than those without 556 (502 - 607) mu m, p = 0.016). Higher CIMT was associated with the presence of CMBs (p = 0.046) independent of age, eGFR, ApoB, systolic blood pressure, albuminuria, history of retinal photocoagulation and HbA(1c). Arterial stiffness and CIMT were increased in individuals with type 1 diabetes and WMHs compared to those without; however, these results were not independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Structural, but not functional, arterial changes are associated with underlying CMBs in asymptomatic individuals with type 1 diabetes.
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4.
  • Afifi, K., et al. (författare)
  • Features of intracranial hemorrhage in cerebral venous thrombosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology. - 0340-5354. ; 267
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is associated with intracranial hemorrhage. Aim To identify clinical and imaging features of CVT-associated intracranial hemorrhage. We hypothesized that higher clot burden would be associated with a higher risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of an international, multicenter cohort of patients with confirmed cerebral venous thrombosis who underwent computed tomography within 2 weeks of symptom onset. Clinical and imaging features were compared between patients with and without intracranial hemorrhage. Clot burden was assessed by counting the number of thrombosed venous sinuses and veins on confirmatory imaging. Results We enrolled 260 patients from 10 institutions in Europe and Mexico. The mean age was 42 years and 74% were female. Intracranial hemorrhage was found in 102 (39%). Among them parenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 64 (63%), in addition, small juxta-cortical hemorrhage was found in 30 (29%), subarachnoid hemorrhage in 24 (24%) and subdural hemorrhage in 11 (11%). Multiple concomitant types of hemorrhage occurred in 23 (23%). Older age and superior sagittal thrombosis involvement were associated with presence of hemorrhage. The number of thrombosed venous sinuses was not associated with intracranial hemorrhage (median number IQRInterquartile ratio] of sinuses/veins involved with hemorrhage 2 (1-3) vs. 2 (1-3) without hemorrhage,p = 0.4). Conclusion The high rate of intracranial hemorrhage in cerebral venous thrombosis is not explained by widespread involvement of the venous sinuses. Superior sagittal sinus involvement is associated with higher bleeding risk.
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5.
  • Buyck, P. J., et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic accuracy of noncontrast CT imaging markers in cerebral venous thrombosis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - 0028-3878. ; 92:8, s. E841-E851
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To assess the added diagnostic value of semiquantitative imaging markers on noncontrast CT scans in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). Methods In a retrospective, multicenter, blinded, case-control study of patients with recent onset (<2 weeks) CVT, 3 readers assessed (1) the accuracy of the visual impression of CVT based on a combination of direct and indirect signs, (2) the accuracy of attenuation values of the venous sinuses in Hounsfield units (with adjustment for hematocrit levels), and (3) the accuracy of attenuation ratios of affected vs unaffected sinuses in comparison with reference standard MRI or CT angiography. Controls were age-matched patients with (sub)acute neurologic presentations. Results We enrolled 285 patients with CVT and 303 controls from 10 international centers. Sensitivity of visual impression of thrombosis ranged from 41% to 73% and specificity ranged from 97% to 100%. Attenuation measurement had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-0.81). After adjustment for hematocrit, the AUC remained 0.78 (95% CI 0.74-0.81). The analysis of attenuation ratios of affected vs unaffected sinuses had AUC of 0.83 (95% CI 0.8-0.86). Adding this imaging marker significantly improved discrimination, but sensitivity when tolerating a false-positive rate of 20% was not higher than 76% (95% CI 0.70-0.81). Conclusion Semiquantitative analysis of attenuation values for diagnosis of CVT increased sensitivity but still failed to identify 1 out of 4 CVT. Classification of evidence This study provides Class II evidence that visual analysis of plain CT with or without attenuation measurements has high specificity but only moderate sensitivity for CVT.
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6.
  • Ilinca, A., et al. (författare)
  • Whole-Exome Sequencing in 22 Young Ischemic Stroke Patients With Familial Clustering of Stroke
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - : American Heart Association. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 51:4, s. 1056-1063
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Backgrounds and Purpose-Although new methods for genetic analyses are rapidly evolving, there are currently knowledge gaps in how to detect Mendelian forms of stroke. Methods-We performed whole-exome sequencing in 22 probands, under 56 years at their first ischemic stroke episode, from multi-incident stroke families. With the use of a comprehensive stroke-gene panel, we searched for variants in stroke-related genes. The probands' clinical stroke subtype was related to clinical characteristics previously associated with pathogenic variants in these genes. Relatives were genotyped in 7 families to evaluate stroke-gene variants of unknown significance. In 2 larger families with embolic stroke of unknown source, whole-exome sequencing was performed in additional members to examine the possibility of identifying new stroke genes. Results-Six of 22 probands carried pathogenic or possibly pathogenic variants in genes reported to be associated with their stroke subtype. A known pathogenic variant in NOTCH3 and a possibly pathogenic variant in ACAD9 gene were identified. A novel JAK2:c.3188G>A (p.Arg1063His) mutation was seen in a proband with embolic stroke of undetermined source and prothrombotic status. However, penetrance in the family was incomplete. COL4A2:c.3368A>G (p.Glu1123Gly) was detected in 2 probands but did not cosegregate with the disease in their families. Whole-exome sequencing in multiple members of 2 pedigrees with embolic stroke of undetermined source revealed possibly pathogenic variants in genes not previously associated with stroke, GPR142:c.148C>G (p.Leu50Val), and PTPRN2:c.2416A>G (p.Ile806Val); LRRC1 c.808A>G (p.Ile270Val), SLC7A10c.1294dupG (p.Val432fs), IKBKB: c.1070C>T (p.Ala357Val), and OXGR1 c.392G>A (p.Arg131His), respectively. Conclusions-Screening with whole-exome sequencing using a comprehensive stroke-gene panel may identify rare monogenic forms of stroke, but careful evaluation of clinical characteristics and potential pathogenicity of novel variants remain important. In our study, the majority of individuals with familial aggregation of stroke lacked any identified genetic causes.
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7.
  • Ken-Dror, G., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies First Locus Associated with Susceptibility to Cerebral Venous Thrombosis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - 0364-5134.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon form of stroke affecting mostly young individuals. Although genetic factors are thought to play a role in this cerebrovascular condition, its genetic etiology is not well understood. Methods A genome-wide association study was performed to identify genetic variants influencing susceptibility to CVT. A 2-stage genome-wide study was undertaken in 882 Europeans diagnosed with CVT and 1,205 ethnicity-matched control subjects divided into discovery and independent replication datasets. Results In the overall case-control cohort, we identified highly significant associations with 37 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the 9q34.2 region. The strongest association was with rs8176645 (combined p = 9.15 x 10(-24); odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.76-2.31). The discovery set findings were validated across an independent European cohort. Genetic risk score for this 9q34.2 region increases CVT risk by a pooled estimate OR = 2.65 (95% CI = 2.21-3.20, p = 2.00 x 10(-16)). SNPs within this region were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with coding regions of the ABO gene. The ABO blood group was determined using allele combination of SNPs rs8176746 and rs8176645. Blood groups A, B, or AB, were at 2.85 times (95% CI = 2.32-3.52, p = 2.00 x 10(-16)) increased risk of CVT compared with individuals with blood group O. Interpretation We present the first chromosomal region to robustly associate with a genetic susceptibility to CVT. This region more than doubles the likelihood of CVT, a risk greater than any previously identified thrombophilia genetic risk marker. That the identified variant is in strong LD with the coding region of the ABO gene with differences in blood group prevalence provides important new insights into the pathophysiology of CVT. ANN NEUROL 2021
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8.
  • Rannikmäe, K., et al. (författare)
  • Reliability of intracerebral hemorrhage classification systems: A systematic review
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Stroke. - 1747-4930 .- 1747-4949. ; 11:6, s. 626-636
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Accurately distinguishing non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) subtypes is important since they may have different risk factors, causal pathways, management, and prognosis. We systematically assessed the inter- and intra-rater reliability of ICH classification systems. Methods: We sought all available reliability assessments of anatomical and mechanistic ICH classification systems from electronic databases and personal contacts until October 2014. We assessed included studies’ characteristics, reporting quality and potential for bias; summarized reliability with kappa value forest plots; and performed meta-analyses of the proportion of cases classified into each subtype. Summary of review: We included 8 of 2152 studies identified. Inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were substantial to perfect for anatomical and mechanistic systems (inter-rater kappa values: anatomical 0.78–0.97 [six studies, 518 cases], mechanistic 0.89–0.93 [three studies, 510 cases]; intra-rater kappas: anatomical 0.80–1 [three studies, 137 cases], mechanistic 0.92–0.93 [two studies, 368 cases]). Reporting quality varied but no study fulfilled all criteria and none was free from potential bias. All reliability studies were performed with experienced raters in specialist centers. Proportions of ICH subtypes were largely consistent with previous reports suggesting that included studies are appropriately representative. Conclusions: Reliability of existing classification systems appears excellent but is unknown outside specialist centers with experienced raters. Future reliability comparisons should be facilitated by studies following recently published reporting guidelines. © 2016, © 2016 World Stroke Organization.
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9.
  • Claesson, T. B., et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of Manual Cross-Sectional Measurements and Automatic Volumetry of the Corpus Callosum, and Their Clinical Impact: A Study on Type 1 Diabetes and Healthy Controls
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Neurology. - 1664-2295. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: Degenerative change of the corpus callosum might serve as a clinically useful surrogate marker for net pathological cerebral impact of diabetes type 1. We compared manual and automatic measurements of the corpus callosum, as well as differences in callosal cross-sectional area between subjects with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study on 188 neurologically asymptomatic participants with type 1 diabetes and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects, recruited as part of the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. All participants underwent clinical work-up and brain MRI. Callosal area was manually measured and callosal volume quantified with FreeSurfer. The measures were normalized using manually measured mid-sagittal intracranial area and volumetric intracranial volume, respectively. Results: Manual and automatic measurements correlated well (callosal area vs. volume: ρ = 0.83, p < 0.001 and mid-sagittal area vs. intracranial volume: ρ = 0.82, p < 0.001). We found no significant differences in the callosal measures between cases and controls. In type 1 diabetes, the lowest quartile of normalized callosal area was associated with higher insulin doses (p = 0.029) and reduced insulin sensitivity (p = 0.033). In addition, participants with more than two cerebral microbleeds had smaller callosal area (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Manually measured callosal area and automatically segmented are interchangeable. The association seen between callosal size with cerebral microbleeds and insulin resistance is indicative of small vessel disease pathology in diabetes type 1. © Copyright © 2020 Claesson, Putaala, Shams, Salli, Gordin, Liebkind, Forsblom, Summanen, Tatlisumak, Groop, Martola and Thorn.
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10.
  • Laurell, Katarina, et al. (författare)
  • Migrainous infarction : a Nordic multicenter study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1351-5101 .- 1468-1331. ; 18:10, s. 1220-1226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Migrainous infarction (MI), i.e., an ischemic stroke developing during an attack of migraine with aura is rare and the knowledge of its clinical characteristics is limited. Previous case series using the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) included <10 cases which make conclusions less valid. This study aimed to describe characteristics and outcome of MI in a larger sample.METHODS: We analyzed demographic data, risk factors, migraine medication, stroke localization, symptoms, and outcome in a sample of 33 patients with MI according to second edition of the ICHD criteria collected from seven Nordic headache clinics.RESULTS: Amongst 33 patients with MI, there were 20 (61%) women and 13 (39%) men with the median age for stroke of 39 (range 19-76) years. Traditional risk factors for stroke were rare compared with Scandinavian young ischemic stroke populations. During the acute phase, 12 (36%) patients used ergotamines or triptans. Stroke was located in the posterior circulation in 27 (82%) patients and cerebellum was involved in 7 (21%). Except in two patients with brainstem infarctions, the outcome was favorable with total recovery or limited residual symptoms.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of traditional risk factors was low and the infarctions were predominantly located in posterior circulation territory, supporting theories of migraine specific mechanisms. The outcome was in general favorable.
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