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Sökning: WFRF:(Rönn Tina)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 42
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1.
  • Bysani, Madhusudhan, et al. (författare)
  • ATAC-seq reveals alterations in open chromatin in pancreatic islets from subjects with type 2 diabetes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Impaired insulin secretion from pancreatic islets is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Altered chromatin structure may contribute to the disease. We therefore studied the impact of T2D on open chromatin in human pancreatic islets. We used assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) to profile open chromatin in islets from T2D and non-diabetic donors. We identified 57,105 and 53,284 ATAC-seq peaks representing open chromatin regions in islets of nondiabetic and diabetic donors, respectively. The majority of ATAC-seq peaks mapped near transcription start sites. Additionally, peaks were enriched in enhancer regions and in regions where islet-specific transcription factors (TFs), e.g. FOXA2, MAFB, NKX2.2, NKX6.1 and PDX1, bind. Islet ATAC-seq peaks overlap with 13 SNPs associated with T2D (e.g. rs7903146, rs2237897, rs757209, rs11708067 and rs878521 near TCF7L2, KCNQ1, HNF1B, ADCY5 and GCK, respectively) and with additional 67 SNPs in LD with known T2D SNPs (e.g. SNPs annotated to GIPR, KCNJ11, GLIS3, IGF2BP2, FTO and PPARG). There was enrichment of open chromatin regions near highly expressed genes in human islets. Moreover, 1,078 open chromatin peaks, annotated to 898 genes, differed in prevalence between diabetic and non-diabetic islet donors. Some of these peaks are annotated to candidate genes for T2D and islet dysfunction (e.g. HHEX, HMGA2, GLIS3, MTNR1B and PARK2) and some overlap with SNPs associated with T2D (e.g. rs3821943 near WFS1 and rs508419 near ANK1). Enhancer regions and motifs specific to key TFs including BACH2, FOXO1, FOXA2, NEUROD1, MAFA and PDX1 were enriched in differential islet ATAC-seq peaks of T2D versus non-diabetic donors. Our study provides new understanding into how T2D alters the chromatin landscape, and thereby accessibility for TFs and gene expression, in human pancreatic islets.
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2.
  • Keildson, S., et al. (författare)
  • Expression of phosphofructokinase in skeletal muscle is influenced by genetic variation and associated with insulin sensitivity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 63:3, s. 1154-1165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using an integrative approach in which genetic variation, gene expression, and clinical phenotypes are assessed in relevant tissues may help functionally characterize the contribution of genetics to disease susceptibility. We sought to identify genetic variation influencing skeletal muscle gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci [eQTLs]) as well as expression associated with measures of insulin sensitivity. We investigated associations of 3,799,401 genetic variants in expression of >7,000 genes from three cohorts (n = 104). We identified 287 genes with cis-acting eQTLs (false discovery rate [FDR] <5%; P < 1.96×1025) and 49 expression-insulin sensitivity phenotype associations (i.e., fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, and BMI) (FDR <5%; P = 1.34×1024). One of these associations, fasting insulin/phosphofructokinase (PFKM), overlaps with an eQTL. Furthermore, the expression of PFKM, a rate-limiting enzyme in glycolysis, was nominally associated with glucose uptake in skeletal muscle (P = 0.026; n = 42) and overexpressed (Bonferroni-corrected P = 0.03) in skeletal muscle of patients with T2D (n = 102) compared with normoglycemic controls (n = 87). The PFKM eQTL (rs4547172; P = 7.69 × 1026) was nominally associated with glucose uptake, glucose oxidation rate, intramuscular triglyceride content, and metabolic flexibility (P = 0.016-0.048; n = 178). We explored eQTL results using published data from genome-wide association studies (DIAGRAM and MAGIC), and a proxy for the PFKM eQTL (rs11168327; r 2 = 0.75) was nominally associated with T2D (DIAGRAM P = 2.7×1023). Taken together, our analysis highlights PFKM as a potential regulator of skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association..
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3.
  • Rönn, Tina, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of age, BMI and HbA1c levels on the genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns in human adipose tissue and identification of epigenetic biomarkers in blood.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 24:13, s. 3792-3813
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increased age, BMI and HbA1c levels are risk factors for several non-communicable diseases. However, the impact of these factors on the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in human adipose tissue remains unknown. We analyzed DNA methylation of ∼480,000 sites in human adipose tissue from 96 males and 94 females, and related methylation to age, BMI and HbA1c. We also compared epigenetic signatures in adipose tissue and blood. Age was significantly associated with both altered DNA methylation and expression of 1,050 genes (e.g. FHL2, NOX4 and PLG). Interestingly, many reported epigenetic biomarkers of ageing in blood, including ELOVL2, FHL2, KLF14 and GLRA1, also showed significant correlations between adipose tissue DNA methylation and age in our study. The most significant association between age and adipose tissue DNA methylation was found upstream of ELOVL2. We identified 2,825 genes (e.g. FTO, ITIH5, CCL18, MTCH2, IRS1 and SPP1) where both DNA methylation and expression correlated with BMI. Methylation at previously reported HIF3A sites correlated significantly with BMI in females only. HbA1c (range 28-46 mmol/mol) correlated significantly with methylation of 711 sites, annotated to e.g. RAB37, TICAM1 and HLA-DPB1. Pathway analyses demonstrated that methylation levels associated with age and BMI are overrepresented among genes involved in cancer, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our results highlight the impact of age, BMI and HbA1c on epigenetic variation of candidate genes for metabolic diseases and cancer in human adipose tissue. Importantly, we demonstrate that epigenetic biomarkers in blood can mirror age-related epigenetic signatures in target tissues for metabolic diseases such as adipose tissue.
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5.
  • Ahmad, Shafqat, et al. (författare)
  • Telomere length in blood and skeletal muscle in relation to measures of glycaemia and insulinaemia.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1464-5491. ; 29:10, s. 377-381
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Skeletal muscle is a major metabolic organ and plays important roles in glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and insulin action. Muscle telomere length reflects the myocyte's exposure to harmful environmental factors. Leukocyte telomere length is considered a marker of muscle telomere length and is used in epidemiologic studies to assess associations with ageing-related diseases where muscle physiology is important. However, the extent to which leucocyte and muscle telomere length are correlated is unknown, as are their relative correlations with glucose and insulin concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of these relationships. Methods: Leucocyte and muscle telomere length were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in participants from the Malmö Exercise Intervention (n = 27) and the Prevalence, Prediction and Prevention of Diabetes-Botnia studies (n = 31). Participants in both studies were free from Type 2 diabetes. We assessed the association between leucocyte telomere length, muscle telomere length and metabolic traits using Spearmen correlations and multivariate linear regression. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess agreement between leucocyte and muscle telomere length. Results: In age-, study-, diabetes family history- and sex-adjusted models, leucocyte and muscle telomere length were positively correlated (r = 0.39, 95% CI 0.15-0.59). Leucocyte telomere length was inversely associated with 2-h glucose concentrations (r = -0.58, 95% CI -1.0 to -0.16), but there was no correlation between muscle telomere length and 2-h glucose concentrations (r = 0.05, 95% CI -0.35 to 0.46) or between leucocyte or muscle telomere length with other metabolic traits. Conclusions: In summary, the current study supports the use of leucocyte telomere length as a proxy for muscle telomere length in epidemiological studies of Type 2 diabetes aetiology.
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6.
  • Brøns, Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid Methylation and Gene Expression of PPARGC1A in Human Muscle Is Influenced by High-Fat Overfeeding in a Birth-Weight-Dependent Manner.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 95, s. 3048-3056
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Low birth weight (LBW) and unhealthy diets are risk factors of metabolic disease including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Genetic, nongenetic, and epigenetic data propose a role of the key metabolic regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1alpha (PPARGC1A) in the development of T2D. Objective: Our objective was to investigate gene expression and DNA methylation of PPARGC1A and coregulated oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes in LBW and normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during control and high-fat diets. Design, Subjects, and Main Outcome Measures: Twenty young healthy men with LBW and 26 matched NBW controls were studied after 5 d high-fat overfeeding (+50% calories) and after a control diet in a randomized manner. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed and skeletal muscle biopsies excised. DNA methylation and gene expression were measured using bisulfite sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Results: When challenged with high-fat overfeeding, LBW subjects developed peripheral insulin resistance and reduced PPARGC1A and OXPHOS (P < 0.05) gene expression. PPARGC1A methylation was significantly higher in LBW subjects (P = 0.0002) during the control diet. However, PPARGC1A methylation increased in only NBW subjects after overfeeding in a reversible manner. DNA methylation of PPARGC1A did not correlate with mRNA expression. Conclusions: LBW subjects developed peripheral insulin resistance and decreased gene expression of PPARGC1A and OXPHOS genes when challenged with fat overfeeding. The extent to which our finding of a constitutively increased DNA methylation in the PPARGC1A promoter in LBW subjects may contribute needs to be determined. We provide the first experimental support in humans that DNA methylation induced by overfeeding is reversible.
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7.
  • Bysani, Madhusudhan, et al. (författare)
  • Epigenetic alterations in blood mirror age-associated DNA methylation and gene expression changes in human liver
  • Ingår i: Epigenomics. - : Future Medicine Ltd.. - 1750-1911. ; 9:2, s. 105-122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To study the impact of aging on DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human liver. Experimental procedures: We analysed genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in human liver samples using Illumina 450K and HumanHT12 expression BeadChip arrays. Results: DNA methylation analysis of ∼455,000 CpG sites in human liver revealed that age was significantly associated with altered DNA methylation of 20,396 CpG sites. Comparison of liver methylation data with published methylation data in other tissues showed that vast majority of the age-associated significant CpG sites overlapped between liver and blood, whereas a smaller overlap was found between liver and pancreatic islets or adipose tissue, respectively. We identified 151 genes whose liver expression also correlated with age. Conclusions: We identified age-associated DNA methylation and expression changes in human liver that are partly reflected by epigenetic alterations in blood.
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8.
  • Claussnitzer, Melina, et al. (författare)
  • Leveraging cross-species transcription factor binding site patterns: from diabetes risk Loci to disease mechanisms.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cell. - : Cell Press. - 1097-4172. ; 156:1-2, s. 343-358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have revealed numerous risk loci associated with diverse diseases. However, identification of disease-causing variants within association loci remains a major challenge. Divergence in gene expression due to cis-regulatory variants in noncoding regions is central to disease susceptibility. We show that integrative computational analysis of phylogenetic conservation with a complexity assessment of co-occurring transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) can identify cis-regulatory variants and elucidate their mechanistic role in disease. Analysis of established type 2 diabetes risk loci revealed a striking clustering of distinct homeobox TFBS. We identified the PRRX1 homeobox factor as a repressor of PPARG2 expression in adipose cells and demonstrate its adverse effect on lipid metabolism and systemic insulin sensitivity, dependent on the rs4684847 risk allele that triggers PRRX1 binding. Thus, cross-species conservation analysis at the level of co-occurring TFBS provides a valuable contribution to the translation of genetic association signals to disease-related molecular mechanisms.
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9.
  • Dayeh, Tasnim, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of human pancreatic islets from type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic donors identifies candidate genes that influence insulin secretion.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404. ; 10:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Impaired insulin secretion is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Epigenetics may affect disease susceptibility. To describe the human methylome in pancreatic islets and determine the epigenetic basis of T2D, we analyzed DNA methylation of 479,927 CpG sites and the transcriptome in pancreatic islets from T2D and non-diabetic donors. We provide a detailed map of the global DNA methylation pattern in human islets, β- and α-cells. Genomic regions close to the transcription start site showed low degrees of methylation and regions further away from the transcription start site such as the gene body, 3'UTR and intergenic regions showed a higher degree of methylation. While CpG islands were hypomethylated, the surrounding 2 kb shores showed an intermediate degree of methylation, whereas regions further away (shelves and open sea) were hypermethylated in human islets, β- and α-cells. We identified 1,649 CpG sites and 853 genes, including TCF7L2, FTO and KCNQ1, with differential DNA methylation in T2D islets after correction for multiple testing. The majority of the differentially methylated CpG sites had an intermediate degree of methylation and were underrepresented in CpG islands (∼7%) and overrepresented in the open sea (∼60%). 102 of the differentially methylated genes, including CDKN1A, PDE7B, SEPT9 and EXOC3L2, were differentially expressed in T2D islets. Methylation of CDKN1A and PDE7B promoters in vitro suppressed their transcriptional activity. Functional analyses demonstrated that identified candidate genes affect pancreatic β- and α-cells as Exoc3l silencing reduced exocytosis and overexpression of Cdkn1a, Pde7b and Sept9 perturbed insulin and glucagon secretion in clonal β- and α-cells, respectively. Together, our data can serve as a reference methylome in human islets. We provide new target genes with altered DNA methylation and expression in human T2D islets that contribute to perturbed insulin and glucagon secretion. These results highlight the importance of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of T2D.
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10.
  • de Mello, Vanessa, et al. (författare)
  • Human liver epigenetic alterations in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are related to insulin action
  • Ingår i: Epigenetics. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1559-2294. ; 12:4, s. 287-295
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Both genetic and lifestyle factors contribute to the risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Additionally, epigenetic modifications may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of NASH. We therefore investigated liver DNA methylation, as a marker for epigenetic alterations, in individuals with simple steatosis and NASH, and further tested if these alterations were associated with clinical phenotypes. Liver biopsies obtained from 95 obese individuals (age: 49.5 ± 7.7 years, BMI: 43 ± 5.7 kg/m2, type 2 diabetes [T2D]: 35) as a wedge biopsy during a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operation were investigated. Thirty-four individuals had a normal liver phenotype, 35 had simple steatosis, and 26 had NASH. Genome-wide DNA methylation pattern was analyzed using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. mRNA expression was analyzed from 42 individuals using the HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip. We identified 1,292 CpG sites representing 677 unique genes differentially methylated in liver of individuals with NASH (q < 0.001), independently of T2D, age, sex, and BMI. Focusing on the top-ranking 30 and another 37 CpG sites mapped to genes enriched in pathways of metabolism (q = 0.0036) and cancer (q = 0.0001) all together, 59 NASH-associated CpG sites correlated with fasting insulin levels independently of age, fasting glucose, or T2D. From these, we identified 30 correlations between DNA methylation and mRNA expression, for example LDHB (r = −0.45, P = 0.003). We demonstrated that NASH, more than simple steatosis, associates with differential DNA methylation in the human liver. These epigenetic alterations in NASH are linked with insulin metabolism.
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