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Sökning: WFRF:(Raaschou Nielsen Ole)

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1.
  • Andersen, Zorana J., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in 15 European cohorts within the ESCAPE project
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Environmental Health Perspectives. - National Institute of Environmental Health Science. - 0091-6765. ; 125:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. METHODS: In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts - Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2:5 μm, ≤10 μm, and 2:5–10 μm in diameter (PM2:5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2:5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM2:5 {hazard ratio (HR) =1:08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 μg/m3 }, PM10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 μg/m3 ], PMcoarse [1.20 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 μg/m3 ], and NO2 [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 μg/m3 ], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 μg/m3, p =0:04]. CONCLUSIONS: We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women.
2.
  • Beelen, Rob, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Lancet (London, England). - 1474-547X. ; 383:9919, s. 785-795
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air pollutants. Methods We used data from 22 European cohort studies, which created a total study population of 367 251 participants. All cohorts were general population samples, although some were restricted to one sex only. With a strictly standardised protocol, we assessed residential exposure to air pollutants as annual average concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with diameters of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), less than 10 μm (PM 10), and between 10 μm and 2.5 μm (PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, and annual average concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) with land use regression models. We also investigated two traffic intensity variables-traffic intensity on the nearest road (vehicles per day) and total traffic load on all major roads within a 100 m buffer. We did cohort-specific statistical analyses using confounder models with increasing adjustment for confounder variables, and Cox proportional hazards models with a common protocol. We obtained pooled effect estimates through a random-effects metaanalysis. Findings The total study population consisted of 367 251 participants who contributed 5 118 039 person-years at risk (average follow-up 13.9 years), of whom 29 076 died from a natural cause during follow-up. A significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) for PM2.5 of 1.07 (95% CI 1.02-1.13) per 5 μg/m3 was recorded. No heterogeneity was noted between individual cohort effect estimates (I2 p value=0.95). HRs for PM2.5 remained significantly raised even when we included only participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the European annual mean limit value of 25 μg/m3 (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.12) or below 20 μg/m3 (1.07, 1.01-1.13). Interpretation Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution was associated with natural-cause mortality, even within concentration ranges well below the present European annual mean limit value.
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3.
  • Beelen, Rob, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.). - 1531-5487. ; 25:3, s. 368-378
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but it remains unclear as to whether specific pollutants are related to specific cardiovascular causes of death. Within the multicenter European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposure to several air pollutants with all cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, as well as with specific cardiovascular causes of death. Methods: Data from 22 European cohort studies were used. Using a standardized protocol, study area-specific air pollution exposure at the residential address was characterized as annual average concentrations of the following: nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); particles with diameters of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), less than 10 μm (PM10), and 10 μm to 2.5 μm (PMcoarse); PM2.5 absorbance estimated by land-use regression models; and traffic indicators. We applied cohort-specific Cox proportional hazards models using a standardized protocol. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to obtain pooled effect estimates. Results: The total study population consisted of 367,383 participants, with 9994 deaths from CVD (including 4,992 from ischemic heart disease, 2264 from myocardial infarction, and 2484 from cerebrovascular disease). All hazard ratios were approximately 1.0, except for particle mass and cerebrovascular disease mortality; for PM 2.5, the hazard ratio was 1.21 (95% confidence interval = 0.87-1.69) per 5 μg/m and for PM10, 1.22 (0.91-1.63) per 10 μg/m. Conclusion: In a joint analysis of data from 22 European cohorts, most hazard ratios for the association of air pollutants with mortality from overall CVD and with specific CVDs were approximately 1.0, with the exception of particulate mass and cerebrovascular disease mortality for which there was suggestive evidence for an association.
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4.
  • Buechner, Frederike L., et al. (författare)
  • Consumption of vegetables and fruit and the risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 125:11, s. 2643-2651
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous epidemiologic studies found inconsistent associations between vegetables and fruit consumption and the risk of bladder cancer. We therefore investigated the association between vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of bladder cancer among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer occurrence was available for a total of 478,533 participants, who were recruited in 10 European countries. Estimates of rate ratios were obtained by Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by age at recruitment, gender and study centre, and adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, duration of smoking and lifetime intensity of smoking. A calibration study in a subsample was used to control for dietary measurement errors. After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 1015 participants were newly diagnosed with bladder cancer. Increments of 100 g/day in fruit and vegetable consumption combined did not affect bladder cancer risk (i.e., calibrated HR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.95-1.01). Borderline statistically significant lower bladder cancer risks were found among fever smokers with increased consumption of fruit and vegetables combined (HR = 0.94 95%CI: 0.87-1.00 with increments of 100 g/day; calibrate HR = 0.92 95%CI 0.79-1.06) and increased consumption of apples and pears (hard fruit; calibrated HR = 0.90 95%CI: 0.82-0.98 with increments of 25 g/day). For none of the associations a statistically significant interaction with smoking status was found. Our findings do not support an effect of fruit and vegetable consumption, combined or separately, on bladder cancer risk. (c) 2009 UICC
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5.
  • Dimakopoulou, Konstantina, et al. (författare)
  • Air pollution and nonmalignant respiratory mortality in 16 cohorts within the ESCAPE project
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. - Am Thoracic Soc. - 1073-449X. ; 189:6, s. 684-696
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Prospective cohort studies have shown that chronic exposure to particulate matter and traffic-related air pollution is associated with reduced survival. However, the effects on nonmalignant respiratory mortality are less studied, and the data reported are less consistent. Objectives: We have investigated the relationship of long-term exposure to air pollution and nonmalignant respiratory mortality in 16 cohorts with individual level data within the multicenter European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Methods: Data from 16 ongoing cohort studies from Europe were used. The total number of subjects was 307,553. There were 1,559 respiratory deaths during follow-up. Measurements and Main Results: Air pollution exposure was estimated by land use regression models at the baseline residential addresses of study participants and traffic-proximity variables were derived from geographical databases following a standardized procedure within the ESCAPE study. Cohort-specific hazard ratios obtained by Cox proportional hazard models from standardized individual cohort analyses were combined using metaanalyses. We found no significant associations between air pollution exposure and nonmalignant respiratory mortality. Most hazard ratios were slightly below unity, with the exception of the traffic-proximity indicators. Conclusions: In this study of 16 cohorts, there was no association between air pollution exposure and nonmalignant respiratorymortality.
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6.
  • Jakszyn, Paula, et al. (författare)
  • Red Meat, Dietary Nitrosamines, and Heme Iron and Risk of Bladder Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755. ; 20:3, s. 555-559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Previous epidemiologic studies found inconsistent results for the association between red meat intake, nitrosamines [NDMA: N-nitrosodimethylamine, and ENOC (endogenous nitroso compounds)], and the risk of bladder cancer. We investigated the association between red meat consumption, dietary nitrosamines, and heme iron and the risk of bladder cancer among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer occurrence were available for a total of 481,419 participants, recruited in 10 European countries. Estimates of HRs were obtained by proportional hazard models, stratified by age at recruitment, gender, and study center and adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, lifetime intensity of smoking, duration of smoking, educational level, and BMI. Results: After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 1,001 participants were diagnosed with bladder cancer. We found no overall association between intake of red meat (log(2) HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.99-1.13), nitrosamines (log(2) HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.92-1.30 and HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.92-1.05 for ENOC and NDMA, respectively) or heme iron (log(2) HR: 1.05; 95 CI: 0.99-1.12) and bladder cancer risk. The associations did not vary by sex, high-versus low-risk bladder cancers, smoking status, or occupation (high vs. low risk). Conclusions: Our findings do not support an effect of red meat intake, nitrosamines (endogenous or exogenous), or heme iron intake on bladder cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 20(3); 555-9. (C)2011 AACR.
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7.
  • Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Oncology. - 1474-5488. ; 14:9, s. 813-822
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations. Methods: This prospective analysis of data obtained by the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects used data from 17 cohort studies based in nine European countries. Baseline addresses were geocoded and we assessed air pollution by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10), less than 2·5 μm (PM2·5), and between 2·5 and 10 μm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2·5absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses. Findings: The 312-944 cohort members contributed 4-013-131 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 12·8 years), 2095 incident lung cancer cases were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed a statistically significant association between risk for lung cancer and PM10 (hazard ratio [HR] 1·22 [95% CI 1·03-1·45] per 10 μg/m3). For PM2·5 the HR was 1·18 (0·96-1·46) per 5 μg/m3. The same increments of PM10 and PM2·5 were associated with HRs for adenocarcinomas of the lung of 1·51 (1·10-2·08) and 1·55 (1·05-2·29), respectively. An increase in road traffic of 4000 vehicle-km per day within 100 m of the residence was associated with an HR for lung cancer of 1·09 (0·99-1·21). The results showed no association between lung cancer and nitrogen oxides concentration (HR 1·01 [0·95-1·07] per 20 μg/m3) or traffic intensity on the nearest street (HR 1·00 [0·97-1·04] per 5000 vehicles per day). Interpretation: Particulate matter air pollution contributes to lung cancer incidence in Europe. Funding: European Community's Seventh Framework Programme.
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8.
  • Neasham, David, et al. (författare)
  • Occupation and risk of lymphoma : a multicentre prospective cohort study (EPIC)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - 1351-0711 .- 1470-7926. ; 68:1, s. 77-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The findings in this current study of a higher risk of NHL among car repair workers and butchers and a higher risk of HL among gasoline station workers suggest a possible role from occupationally related exposures, such as solvents and zoonotic viruses, as risk factors for malignant lymphoma.</p>
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9.
  • Neasham, David, et al. (författare)
  • Occupation and risk of lymphoma: a multicentre prospective cohort study (EPIC)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 1470-7926. ; 68:1, s. 77-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Evidence suggests that certain occupations and related exposures may increase the risk of malignant lymphoma. Farming, printing and paper industry, wood processing, meat handling and processing, welding, shoe and leather manufacturing and teaching profession are among the categories that have been implicated in previous studies. The relationship between occupation and malignant lymphoma has been investigated in a large European prospective study. Methods We investigated occupational risks for lymphomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The mean follow-up time for 348 555 subjects was 9 years (SD: 2 years). The analysis was based on 866 and 48 newly diagnosed cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). These were identified in the EPIC subcohorts with occupational data. Data on 52 occupations were collected through standardised questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the association between occupation and risk of malignant lymphoma. Results The following occupations were positively associated with malignant NHL after adjustment for study centre, age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), smoking and alcohol: butchers (HR=1.53, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.48, including multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma; HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.66, excluding multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma) and car repair workers (HR=1.50, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.00, including multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma; HR=1.51, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.31, excluding multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma). HL was associated with gasoline station occupation (HR=4.59, 95% CI 1.08 to 19.6). Conclusion The findings in this current study of a higher risk of NHL among car repair workers and butchers and a higher risk of HL among gasoline station workers suggest a possible role from occupationally related exposures, such as solvents and zoonotic viruses, as risk factors for malignant lymphoma.
10.
  • Andersen, Zorana J., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Brain Tumor the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neuro-Oncology. - Oxford University Press. - 1522-8517 .- 1523-5866. ; 20:3, s. 420-432
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and brain tumor risk is sparse and inconsistent.</p><p>Methods: In 12 cohorts from 6 European countries, individual estimates of annual mean air pollution levels at the baseline residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5–10 μm in diameter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>, PM<sub>10</sub>, and PM<sub>coarse</sub>), PM<sub>2.5</sub> absorbance, nitrogen oxides (NO<sub>2</sub> and NO<sub>x</sub>) and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations of air pollutant concentrations and traffic intensity with total, malignant, and nonmalignant brain tumor, in separate Cox regression models, adjusting for risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses.</p><p>Results: Of 282194 subjects from 12 cohorts, 466 developed malignant brain tumors during 12 years of follow-up. Six of the cohorts also had data on nonmalignant brain tumor, where among 106786 subjects, 366 developed brain tumor: 176 nonmalignant and 190 malignant. We found a positive, statistically nonsignificant association between malignant brain tumor and PM<sub>2.5</sub> absorbance (hazard ratio and 95% CI: 1.67; 0.89–3.14 per 10<sup>–5</sup>/m<sup>3</sup>), and weak positive or null associations with the other pollutants. Hazard ratio for PM<sub>2.5</sub> absorbance (1.01; 0.38–2.71 per 10<sup>–5</sup>/m<sup>3</sup>) and all other pollutants were lower for nonmalignant than for malignant brain tumors.</p><p>Conclusion: We found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to PM<sub>2.5</sub> absorbance indicating traffic-related air pollution and malignant brain tumors, and no association with overall or nonmalignant brain tumors.</p>
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