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Sökning: WFRF:(Ramracheya Reshma)

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1.
  • Knudsen, J. G., et al. (författare)
  • Dysregulation of Glucagon Secretion by Hyperglycemia-Induced Sodium-Dependent Reduction of ATP Production
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cell Metabolism. - : Cell Press. - 1550-4131. ; 29:2, s. 430-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diabetes is a bihormonal disorder resulting from combined insulin and glucagon secretion defects. Mice lacking fumarase (Fh1) in their beta cells (Fh1 beta KO mice) develop progressive hyperglycemia and dysregulated glucagon secretion similar to that seen in diabetic patients (too much at high glucose and too little at low glucose). The glucagon secretion defects are corrected by low concentrations of tolbutamide and prevented by the sodium-glucose transport (SGLT) inhibitor phlorizin. These data link hyperglycemia, intracellular Na+ accumulation, and acidification to impaired mitochondrial metabolism, reduced ATP production, and dysregulated glucagon secretion. Protein succination, reflecting reduced activity of fumarase, is observed in alpha cells from hyperglycemic Fh1 beta KO and beta-V59M gain-of-function K-ATP channel mice, diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats, and patients with type 2 diabetes. Succination is also observed in renal tubular cells and cardiomyocytes from hyperglycemic Fh1 beta KO mice, suggesting that the model can be extended to other SGLT-expressing cells and may explain part of the spectrum of diabetic complications.
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2.
  • Vergari, Elisa, et al. (författare)
  • Insulin inhibits glucagon release by SGLT2-induced stimulation of somatostatin secretion
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypoglycaemia (low plasma glucose) is a serious and potentially fatal complication of insulin-treated diabetes. In healthy individuals, hypoglycaemia triggers glucagon secretion, which restores normal plasma glucose levels by stimulation of hepatic glucose production. This counterregulatory mechanism is impaired in diabetes. Here we show in mice that therapeutic concentrations of insulin inhibit glucagon secretion by an indirect (paracrine) mechanism mediated by stimulation of intra-islet somatostatin release. Insulin's capacity to inhibit glucagon secretion is lost following genetic ablation of insulin receptors in the somatostatin-secreting δ-cells, when insulin-induced somatostatin secretion is suppressed by dapagliflozin (an inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-tranporter-2; SGLT2) or when the action of secreted somatostatin is prevented by somatostatin receptor (SSTR) antagonists. Administration of these compounds in vivo antagonises insulin's hypoglycaemic effect. We extend these data to isolated human islets. We propose that SSTR or SGLT2 antagonists should be considered as adjuncts to insulin in diabetes therapy.
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3.
  • Adam, Julie, et al. (författare)
  • Fumarate Hydratase Deletion in Pancreatic β Cells Leads to Progressive Diabetes
  • Ingår i: Cell Reports. - : Cell Press. - 2211-1247. ; 20:13, s. 3135-3148
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We explored the role of the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Mice lacking Fh1 in pancreatic β cells (Fh1βKO mice) appear normal for 6–8 weeks but then develop progressive glucose intolerance and diabetes. Glucose tolerance is rescued by expression of mitochondrial or cytosolic FH but not by deletion of Hif1α or Nrf2. Progressive hyperglycemia in Fh1βKO mice led to dysregulated metabolism in β cells, a decrease in glucose-induced ATP production, electrical activity, cytoplasmic [Ca2+]i elevation, and GSIS. Fh1 loss resulted in elevated intracellular fumarate, promoting succination of critical cysteines in GAPDH, GMPR, and PARK 7/DJ-1 and cytoplasmic acidification. Intracellular fumarate levels were increased in islets exposed to high glucose and in islets from human donors with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The impaired GSIS in islets from diabetic Fh1βKO mice was ameliorated after culture under normoglycemic conditions. These studies highlight the role of FH and dysregulated mitochondrial metabolism in T2D. Adam et al. have shown that progressive diabetes develops if fumarate hydratase is deleted in mouse pancreatic β cells. Such β cells exhibit elevated fumarate and protein succination and show progressively reduced ATP production and insulin secretion. The depleted insulin response to glucose recovers when diabetic islets are cultured in reduced glucose.
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4.
  • De Marinis, Yang, et al. (författare)
  • GLP-1 inhibits and adrenaline stimulates glucagon release by differential modulation of N- and L-type Ca2+ channel-dependent exocytosis.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cell Metabolism. - : Cell Press. - 1550-4131. ; 11:6, s. 543-553
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glucagon secretion is inhibited by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and stimulated by adrenaline. These opposing effects on glucagon secretion are mimicked by low (1-10 nM) and high (10 muM) concentrations of forskolin, respectively. The expression of GLP-1 receptors in alpha cells is <0.2% of that in beta cells. The GLP-1-induced suppression of glucagon secretion is PKA dependent, is glucose independent, and does not involve paracrine effects mediated by insulin or somatostatin. GLP-1 is without much effect on alpha cell electrical activity but selectively inhibits N-type Ca(2+) channels and exocytosis. Adrenaline stimulates alpha cell electrical activity, increases [Ca(2+)](i), enhances L-type Ca(2+) channel activity, and accelerates exocytosis. The stimulatory effect is partially PKA independent and reduced in Epac2-deficient islets. We propose that GLP-1 inhibits glucagon secretion by PKA-dependent inhibition of the N-type Ca(2+) channels via a small increase in intracellular cAMP ([cAMP](i)). Adrenaline stimulates L-type Ca(2+) channel-dependent exocytosis by activation of the low-affinity cAMP sensor Epac2 via a large increase in [cAMP](i).
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5.
  • Dwivedi, Om Prakash, et al. (författare)
  • Loss of ZnT8 function protects against diabetes by enhanced insulin secretion
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036. ; , s. 1-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A rare loss-of-function allele p.Arg138* in SLC30A8 encoding the zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), which is enriched in Western Finland, protects against type 2 diabetes (T2D). We recruited relatives of the identified carriers and showed that protection was associated with better insulin secretion due to enhanced glucose responsiveness and proinsulin conversion, particularly when compared with individuals matched for the genotype of a common T2D-risk allele in SLC30A8, p.Arg325. In genome-edited human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived β-like cells, we establish that the p.Arg138* allele results in reduced SLC30A8 expression due to haploinsufficiency. In human β cells, loss of SLC30A8 leads to increased glucose responsiveness and reduced KATP channel function similar to isolated islets from carriers of the T2D-protective allele p.Trp325. These data position ZnT8 as an appealing target for treatment aimed at maintaining insulin secretion capacity in T2D.
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6.
  • Hamilton, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Adrenaline Stimulates Glucagon Secretion by Tpc2-Dependent Ca2+ Mobilization From Acidic Stores in Pancreatic α-Cells
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 67:6, s. 1128-1139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adrenaline is a powerful stimulus of glucagon secretion. It acts by activation of β-adrenergic receptors, but the downstream mechanisms have only been partially elucidated. Here, we have examined the effects of adrenaline in mouse and human α-cells by a combination of electrophysiology, imaging of Ca2+ and PKA activity, and hormone release measurements. We found that stimulation of glucagon secretion correlated with a PKA- and EPAC2-dependent (inhibited by PKI and ESI-05, respectively) elevation of [Ca2+]i in α-cells, which occurred without stimulation of electrical activity and persisted in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ but was sensitive to ryanodine, bafilomycin, and thapsigargin. Adrenaline also increased [Ca2+]i in α-cells in human islets. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of the Tpc2 channel (that mediates Ca2+ release from acidic intracellular stores) abolished the stimulatory effect of adrenaline on glucagon secretion and reduced the elevation of [Ca2+]i Furthermore, in Tpc2-deficient islets, ryanodine exerted no additive inhibitory effect. These data suggest that β-adrenergic stimulation of glucagon secretion is controlled by a hierarchy of [Ca2+]i signaling in the α-cell that is initiated by cAMP-induced Tpc2-dependent Ca2+ release from the acidic stores and further amplified by Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum.
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7.
  • MacDonald, Patrick E., et al. (författare)
  • A K-ATP channel-dependent pathway within alpha cells regulates glucagon release from both rodent and human islets of langerhans
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: PLoS Biology. - : Public Library of Science. - 1545-7885. ; 5:6, s. 1236-1247
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glucagon, secreted from pancreatic islet a cells, stimulates gluconeogenesis and liver glycogen breakdown. The mechanism regulating glucagon release is debated, and variously attributed to neuronal control, paracrine control by neighbouring beta cells, or to an intrinsic glucose sensing by the a cells themselves. We examined hormone secretion and Ca2+ responses of a and b cells within intact rodent and human islets. Glucose-dependent suppression of glucagon release persisted when paracrine GABA or Zn (2+) signalling was blocked, but was reversed by low concentrations (1-20 mu M) of the ATP-sensitive K+ (K-ATP) channel opener diazoxide, which had no effect on insulin release or b cell responses. This effect was prevented by the K-ATP channel blocker tolbutamide (100 mu M). Higher diazoxide concentrations (>= 30 mu M) decreased glucagon and insulin secretion, and alpha-and beta-cell Ca2+ responses, in parallel. In the absence of glucose, tolbutamide at low concentrations (< 1 mu M) stimulated glucagon secretion, whereas high concentrations (> 10 mu M) were inhibitory. In the presence of a maximally inhibitory concentration of tolbutamide (0.5 mM), glucose had no additional suppressive effect. Downstream of the K-ATP channel, inhibition of voltage-gated Na+ (TTX) and N-type Ca2+ channels (omega-conotoxin), but not L-type Ca2+ channels (nifedipine), prevented glucagon secretion. Both the N-type Ca2+ channels and alpha-cell exocytosis were inactivated at depolarised membrane potentials. Rodent and human glucagon secretion is regulated by an a-cell K-ATP channel-dependent mechanism. We propose that elevated glucose reduces electrical activity and exocytosis via depolarisation-induced inactivation of ion channels involved in action potential firing and secretion.
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8.
  • Rosengren, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Reduced Insulin Exocytosis in Human Pancreatic β-cells With Gene Variants Linked to Type 2 Diabetes.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 61:7, s. 1726-1733
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The majority of genetic risk variants for type 2 diabetes (T2D) affect insulin secretion, but the mechanisms through which they influence pancreatic islet function remain largely unknown. We functionally characterized human islets to determine secretory, biophysical, and ultrastructural features in relation to genetic risk profiles in diabetic and nondiabetic donors. Islets from donors with T2D exhibited impaired insulin secretion, which was more pronounced in lean than obese diabetic donors. We assessed the impact of 14 disease susceptibility variants on measures of glucose sensing, exocytosis, and structure. Variants near TCF7L2 and ADRA2A were associated with reduced glucose-induced insulin secretion, whereas susceptibility variants near ADRA2A, KCNJ11, KCNQ1, and TCF7L2 were associated with reduced depolarization-evoked insulin exocytosis. KCNQ1, ADRA2A, KCNJ11, HHEX/IDE, and SLC2A2 variants affected granule docking. We combined our results to create a novel genetic risk score for β-cell dysfunction that includes aberrant granule docking, decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity of exocytosis, and reduced insulin release. Individuals with a high risk score displayed an impaired response to intravenous glucose and deteriorating insulin secretion over time. Our results underscore the importance of defects in β-cell exocytosis in T2D and demonstrate the potential of cellular phenotypic characterization in the elucidation of complex genetic disorders.
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9.
  • Vergari, Elisa, et al. (författare)
  • Somatostatin secretion by Na+-dependent Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in pancreatic delta-cells.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature metabolism. - : Springer Nature. - 2522-5812. ; 2:1, s. 32-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pancreatic islets are complex micro-organs consisting of at least three different cell types: glucagon-secreting α-, insulin-producing β- and somatostatin-releasing δ-cells1. Somatostatin is a powerful paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion2. In diabetes, increased somatostatinergic signalling leads to defective counter-regulatory glucagon secretion3. This increases the risk of severe hypoglycaemia, a dangerous complication of insulin therapy4. The regulation of somatostatin secretion involves both intrinsic and paracrine mechanisms5 but their relative contributions and whether they interact remains unclear. Here we show that dapagliflozin-sensitive glucose- and insulin-dependent sodium uptake stimulates somatostatin secretion by elevating the cytoplasmic Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and promoting intracellular Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR). This mechanism also becomes activated when [Na+]i is elevated following the inhibition of the plasmalemmal Na+-K+ pump by reductions of the extracellular K+ concentration emulating those produced by exogenous insulin in vivo6. Islets from some donors with type-2 diabetes hypersecrete somatostatin, leading to suppression of glucagon secretion that can be alleviated by a somatostatin receptor antagonist. Our data highlight the role of Na+ as an intracellular second messenger, illustrate the significance of the intraislet paracrine network and provide a mechanistic framework for pharmacological correction of the hormone secretion defects associated with diabetes that selectively target the δ-cells.
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