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Sökning: WFRF:(Rapp Birger)

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1.
  • Abel, I, et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET results with the ITER-like wall
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 53:10, s. 104002-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Following the completion in May 2011 of the shutdown for the installation of the beryllium wall and the tungsten divertor, the first set of JET campaigns have addressed the investigation of the retention properties and the development of operational scenarios with the new plasma-facing materials. The large reduction in the carbon content (more than a factor ten) led to a much lower Z(eff) (1.2-1.4) during L- and H-mode plasmas, and radiation during the burn-through phase of the plasma initiation with the consequence that breakdown failures are almost absent. Gas balance experiments have shown that the fuel retention rate with the new wall is substantially reduced with respect to the C wall. The re-establishment of the baseline H-mode and hybrid scenarios compatible with the new wall has required an optimization of the control of metallic impurity sources and heat loads. Stable type-I ELMy H-mode regimes with H-98,H-y2 close to 1 and beta(N) similar to 1.6 have been achieved using gas injection. ELM frequency is a key factor for the control of the metallic impurity accumulation. Pedestal temperatures tend to be lower with the new wall, leading to reduced confinement, but nitrogen seeding restores high pedestal temperatures and confinement. Compared with the carbon wall, major disruptions with the new wall show a lower radiated power and a slower current quench. The higher heat loads on Be wall plasma-facing components due to lower radiation made the routine use of massive gas injection for disruption mitigation essential.
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2.
  • Anjou, Annette, 1975- (författare)
  • Scanias framgång : Betydelsen av strategisk kongruens och integrerad styrning
  • 2008
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Att förstå orsaken till långsiktiga konkurrensfördelar har länge varit en intressant forskningsansats. Trots att tidigare forskning påvisat att såväl strategisk kongruens som integrerad styrning påverkar företags konkurrenskraft positivt finns det få studier som behandlar båda dessa områden tillsammans. I denna avhandling beskrivs och analyseras strategisk kongruens och integrerad styrning på Scania. Anledningen till att Scania valts som fallföretag är att det är ett framgångsrikt företag med en avancerad tillverkningsprocess. Inom dessa företag är ofta samordningen av verksamheten komplicerad, vilket innebär att högra krav ställs på såväl strategi som styrsystem.Studien har genomförts i form av en longitudinell fallstudie och täcker studieperioden 1992 till 2006. Information har inhämtats genom intervjuer, som har genomförts med ledande befattningshavare på såväl koncernsom funktionsnivå. Vidare har internt och externt material studerats. Den teoretiska ansatsen baseras på den av Nilsson och Rapp (2005) utvecklade tentativa modellen som beskriver hur företag kan skapa strategisk kongruens och integrerad styrning på ett framgångsrikt sätt. Studiens resultat visar att den tentativa modellen var väl lämpad som analysverktyg för att ta reda på huruvida Scania har uppnått strategisk kongruens och integrerad styrning.Scania bedriver en koncernstrategi som fokuserar på företagets kärnverksamhet - tillverkning av tunga lastbilar med hjälp av företagets modulsystem. Utifrån den väl utvecklade koncernstrategin har företaget lyckats skapa såväl en affärs- som produktionsstrategi som är anpassade till varandra samt till den omgivning som företaget är verksamt inom. Scania har dessutom genom en stark företagskultur, som karaktäriseras av att en stor del av planeringen och uppföljningen sker vid tvärfunktionella möten, lyckats skapa en integrerad styrning. Företags styrsystem hänger dessutom ihop mellan de olika organisatoriska nivåerna vilket stöder implementeringen av Scanias strategier. Företagets strategier och styrsystem har förändrats under studieperioden och anpassats till förändrade förutsättningar i omgivningen. Scania har lyckats genomföra dessa förändringar på ett sådant sätt att varken den strategiska kongruensen eller den integrerade styrningen äventyrats.
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3.
  • Anjou, Annette, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Strategi styrning och konkurrenskraft : ett pågående forskningsprogram
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nordisk workshop XII i ekonomi- och verksamhetsstyrning vid Uppsala universitet,2007.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Syftet med uppsatsen är att ge en översikt över programmet med fokus på bakgrund, forskningsfrågor och metod. Uppsatsen avslutas med några korta reflektioner över det pågående programmet (omfattning 9 sidor).
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5.
  • Carlsson, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • European industrial transformation : the effects of digitization
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th Swedish network for European studies in economics and business conference. ; , s. 1-41
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper reviews the impact of digitization and information technology over several decades in four industries representing a cross-section of the entire economy. It is based on in-depth studies of the raw material production, manufacturing, retailing, and public service sectors in Sweden. The focus is on the content of industrial transformation in the form of new and improved products, improved processes, changed organizational structures, and redefined industry boundaries. Some of these changes are measurable in terms of their economic impact, but most are not. We find that digitization has been a gradual and iterative process involving interrelated technological and organizational changes. This confirms the findings in previous studies that Sweden is the leading country in Europe in adopting IT and may help to explain Sweden’s successful economic performance over the last decade or so.
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6.
  • Cäker, Mikael, 1972- (författare)
  • Vad kostar kunden? : modeller för intern redovisning
  • 2000
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Allt fler industriella företag erbjuder kundanpassade produkter. Produkterna utvecklas inom ramen för långvariga relationer med kunder. Detta har betydelse för hur de ekonomiska informationssystemen bör utformas. I uppsatsen föreslås modeller för den interna redovisningen som stödjer fokusering av både kunder och produkter. Därtill studeras hur kunder påverkar företagets kostnader. Litteraturen om redovisning och kalkylering, som har utvecklats för att i första hand fördela kostnader på produkter, analyseras utifrån att både produkter och kunder är väsentliga för uppföljningen. De föreslagna modellerna illustreras via en analys av kostnadsdata från Paroc AB. Dessutom diskuteras hur de föreslagna modellerna kan stödja kalkylering inför olika kundrelaterade handlingssituationer.Både kund och produkt bör användas som kostnadsbärare i redovisningen för industriella företag som arbetar med en hög grad av kundanpassning. Detta ökar möjligheterna att analysera kostnaderna, jämfört med att enbart produkter fokuseras. Vidare kan kategorisering av kostnader efter hur resurser som förbrukas har anskaffats ge värdefull information, som inte är beroende av analysobjekt. I uppsatsen skiljs mellan prestationsberoende, kapacitetsberoende och nedlagda kostnader. Att använda kund och produkt som kostnadsbärare i redovisningssystem komplicerar dock att etablera nivåer av kostnadsställen i redovisningen som föreslagits i ABC-litteraturen. Det är bättre att använda den traditionella nivåindelningen av kostnadsbärare enligt stegkalkylsmetoden.Kundrelaterade aktiviteter är ofta avsedda att skapa värden i senare tidsperioder. Framåtriktade aktiviteter kan redovisas som ’goda kostnader’, om de inte anses vara investeringar i formell bemärkelse. Detta medför att kostnaderna kan analyseras i senare tidsperioder utan att värdering av investeringar eller avskrivningar av tillgångar behöver göras. Investeringar i kunder skapar ofta immateriella tillgångar. För att värdera immateriella tillgångar är det väsentligt att studera möjligheterna till alternativ användning. I uppsatsen föreslås en kategorisering av tillgångar i specifika, begränsade och icke begränsade tillgångar.
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7.
  • Cöster, Mathias, 1969- (författare)
  • Beyond IT and Productivity : How Digitization Transformed the Graphic Industry
  • 2005
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis examines how IT and the digitization of information have transformed processes of the graphic industry. The aim is to show how critical production processes have changed when information in these processes have been digitized. Furthermore it considers if this has influenced changes in productivity while also identifying other significant benefits that have occurred as a result of the digitization. The debate concerning the productivity paradox is one important starting point for the thesis. Previous research on this phenomenon has mainly used different types of statistical databases as empirical sources. In this thesis though, the graphic industry is instead studied from a mainly qualitative and historical process perspective.The empirical study shows that digitization of information flows in the graphic industry began in the 1970s, but the start of the development and use of digitized information happened in the early 1980s. Today almost all types of materials in the industry, for example text and pictures, have developed into a digital form and the information flows are hereby more or less totally digitized. A common demand in the industry is that information produced should be adaptable to the different channels in which it may be presented. The consequences from use of IT and the digitization of information flows are identified in this thesis as different outcomes, effects, and benefits. The outcomes are identified directly from the empirical material, whilst the resulting effects are generated based on theories about IT and business value. The benefits are in turn generated from a summarization of the identified effects.Identified effects caused by IT and digitization of information include integration and merging of processes; vanishing professions; reduced number of operators involved; decreased production time; increased production capacity; increased amount and quality of communication; and increased quality in produced originals. One conclusion drawn from the analysis is that investments and use of IT have positively influenced changes in productivity. The conclusion is based on the appearance of different automational effects, which in turn have had a positive influence on factors that may be a part of a productivity index. In addition to productivity other benefits, based on mainly informational effects, are identified. These benefits include increased capacity to handle and produce information, increased integration of customers in the production processes, increased physical quality in produced products, and options for management improvements in the production processes. The conclusions indicate that it is not always the most obvious benefit, such as productivity, that is of greatest significance when IT is implemented in an industry.
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8.
  • Flodström, Raquel, 1965- (författare)
  • A Framework for the Strategic Management of Information Technology
  • 2006
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Strategy and IT research has been extensively discussed during the past 40 years. Two scientific disciplines Management Science (MS) and Management Information Science (MIS) investigate the importance of IT as a competitive factor. However, although much research is available in both disciplines, it is still difficult to explain how to manage IT to enable competitive advantages. One reason is that MS research focuses on strategies and competitive environments but avoids the analysis of IT. Another reason is that MIS research focuses on IT as a competitive factor but avoids the analysis of the competitive environment. Consequently, there is a gap of knowledge in the understanding of the strategic management of information technology (SMIT).The strategic analysis of IT as a competitive factor is important for achieving the competitive advantages of IT. This thesis explores factors related to strategy and IT that should be considered for the strategic analysis of IT as a competitive factor, and proposes a framework for SMIT. The research is conducted by means of a qualitative analysis of theoretical data from the disciplines of MS and MIS. Data is explored to find factors related to SMIT.The results of the analysis show that the strategic management of information technology is a continuous process of evaluation, change, and alignment between factors such as competitive environment, competitive strategies (business and IT strategies), competitive outcome, and competitive factors (IT). Therefore, the understanding of the relationships between these factors is essential in order to achieve the competitive advantages of using IT.This thesis contributes to strategic management research by clarifying the relationships between strategic management, competitive environment, and IT as competitive factor into a holistic framework for strategic analysis. The framework proposed is valuable not only for business managers and for IT managers, but also for academics. The framework is designed to understand the relationship between competitive elements during the process of strategic analysis prior to the formulation of competitive strategies. Moreover, it can also be used as a communication tool between managers, in order to achieve alignment among company strategies. To academics, this thesis presents the state-of-the-art related to strategic management research; it can also be a valuable reference for strategic managers, as well as researchers interested in the strategic management of IT.
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9.
  • Fryk, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Differentiation of IT-strategy in health care: beyond IT alignment
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Uppsala Public Management seminar.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Information systems are playing a key role in the public management of health care as they have the potential to improve quality, efficiency, and patient care. Researchers as well as practitioners recurrently contend that a health care organization’s IS strategy should be aligned with the organization’s objectives and strategy, a notion commonly known as IT-alignment. This paper argues that such studies often views IT as one single and monolithic technological artefact and disregards that there are many types of IT depending of context, purpose and functionality. This perspective was also evident in the empirical data in our study. Therefore, this paper tries to develop a conceptualisation of different kinds of IT in health care that can used as a “sensitizing device” during corporate discussions of IT-investments. The findings are based on a longitudinal study of six health care organizations in the Stockholm metropolitan area. The empirical data collection was conducted during the years 2005-2010 through interviews, focus groups, observations, and archival data. The theoretical contribution is that this paper provides a new perspective beyond the IT alignment perspective in health care. The empirical contribution is constituted by showing how hospitals can re-think their approach to their IT-strategy and in doing so improve its service quality, efficiency, and patient care.
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10.
  • Fryk, Pontus, 1979- (författare)
  • Modern Perspectives on the Digital Economy : With Insights From the Health Care Sector
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • During the last decades, extensive investments in IT have been made more or less within the majority of the existing industries. This development presents both opportunities and risks with regard to organization and change. The main purpose of this thesis is to investigate these new conditions spawned by digitization, and to examine why many of the anticipated benefits have failed to come about. This is done through historical and contemporary studies – together with informed speculations about the future – with health care as the empirical setting. The research presented here consists of four articles and a revised licentiate thesis. The findings from the studies suggest that despite both academic and practical calls for research that simultaneously considers IT, digitization, organization and organizational change – there is still a lack of such efforts. Furthermore, the results indicate that IT has to be contextualized and broken down into sub-types, a taxonomy or typology, depending on the specific situation. Also, the present stage of digitization determines the conditions for utilization of IT. This also has to be considered. Another conclusion is that digitization, in fact, has lead to increases in productivity. But traditional financial measures are not always suitable for measuring the impact of IT on productivity. The first steps towards being able to really measure the effects from IT and digitization are to establish common standards and nomenclatures in organizations, and to consolidate existing IT systems so that they generate compatible and informative data and information. By doing this organizations are also better suited to define, visualize, measure and evaluate important processes. In turn, they can start becoming truly process oriented. The thesis presents some possible modern implications from IT and digitization as well. For instance, simulation and digital reward systems can be fruitful management tools. They do however demand a compatible and well thought through IT infrastructure and that the generated data and information is aligned with the overall strategies and visions. The empirical component of this research is based on the health care sector in Sweden, which is one area. However, it is argued that the findings are relevant to other industries as well. This because most large and complex organizations that deal with IT and change run into the problems and opportunities discussed in the presented studies. If we really come to understand how IT-implementations affect organization and change – and vice versa – huge benefits can be realized. The treatment of patients and the situation for medical staff can be improved. Also, the national economy can be boosted due to various export advantages and better public health. Similar benefits can also be achieved in other types of organizations. Through its holistic and pluralistic approach regarding research and methodology, together with the rich empirical descriptions, the thesis presents original and valuable insights for both academics and practitioners. It primarily puts forth investigations of the implications of the reciprocal relationship between IT and digitization on the one hand, and organization and organizational change on the other.
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