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Sökning: WFRF:(Raya José G.)

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  • Ademuyiwa, Adesoji O., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ Global Health. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2059-7908. ; 1:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally.Methods: Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression.Results: This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed.Conclusions: Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas.
  • Aoyama, T., et al. (författare)
  • The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon in the Standard Model
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Physics reports. - : Elsevier. - 0370-1573 .- 1873-6270. ; 887, s. 1-166
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We review the present status of the Standard Model calculation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. This is performed in a perturbative expansion in the fine-structure constant α and is broken down into pure QED, electroweak, and hadronic contributions. The pure QED contribution is by far the largest and has been evaluated up to and including O(α5) with negligible numerical uncertainty. The electroweak contribution is suppressed by (mμ/MW)2 and only shows up at the level of the seventh significant digit. It has been evaluated up to two loops and is known to better than one percent. Hadronic contributions are the most difficult to calculate and are responsible for almost all of the theoretical uncertainty. The leading hadronic contribution appears at O(α2) and is due to hadronic vacuum polarization, whereas at O(α3) the hadronic light-by-light scattering contribution appears. Given the low characteristic scale of this observable, these contributions have to be calculated with nonperturbative methods, in particular, dispersion relations and the lattice approach to QCD. The largest part of this review is dedicated to a detailed account of recent efforts to improve the calculation of these two contributions with either a data-driven, dispersive approach, or a first-principle, lattice-QCD approach. The final result reads aμSM = 116 591 810(43) x 10-11 and is smaller than the Brookhaven measurement by 3.7 σ. The experimental uncertainty will soon be reduced by up to a factor four by the new experiment currently running at Fermilab, and also by the future J-PARC experiment. This and the prospects to further reduce the theoretical uncertainty in the near future - which are also discussed here - make this quantity one of the most promising places to look for evidence of new physics.
  • Ferizi, Uran, et al. (författare)
  • Diffusion MRI microstructure models with in vivo human brain Connectome data : Results from a multi-group comparison
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: NMR in Biomedicine. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0952-3480 .- 1099-1492. ; 30:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A large number of mathematical models have been proposed to describe the measured signal in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, model comparison to date focuses only on specific subclasses, e.g. compartment models or signal models, and little or no information is available in the literature on how performance varies among the different types of models. To address this deficiency, we organized the 'White Matter Modeling Challenge' during the International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) 2015 conference. This competition aimed to compare a range of different kinds of models in their ability to explain a large range of measurable in vivo DW human brain data. Specifically, we assessed the ability of models to predict the DW signal accurately for new diffusion gradients and b values. We did not evaluate the accuracy of estimated model parameters, as a ground truth is hard to obtain. We used the Connectome scanner at the Massachusetts General Hospital, using gradient strengths of up to 300mT/m and a broad set of diffusion times. We focused on assessing the DW signal prediction in two regions: the genu in the corpus callosum, where the fibres are relatively straight and parallel, and the fornix, where the configuration of fibres is more complex. The challenge participants had access to three-quarters of the dataset and their models were ranked on their ability to predict the remaining unseen quarter of the data. The challenge provided a unique opportunity for a quantitative comparison of diverse methods from multiple groups worldwide. The comparison of the challenge entries reveals interesting trends that could potentially influence the next generation of diffusion-based quantitative MRI techniques. The first is that signal models do not necessarily outperform tissue models; in fact, of those tested, tissue models rank highest on average. The second is that assuming a non-Gaussian (rather than purely Gaussian) noise model provides little improvement in prediction of unseen data, although it is possible that this may still have a beneficial effect on estimated parameter values. The third is that preprocessing the training data, here by omitting signal outliers, and using signal-predicting strategies, such as bootstrapping or cross-validation, could benefit the model fitting. The analysis in this study provides a benchmark for other models and the data remain available to build up a more complete comparison in the future.
  • Pierce, David M., et al. (författare)
  • DT-MRI Based Computation of Collagen Fiber Deformation in Human Articular Cartilage : A Feasibility Study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Annals of Biomedical Engineering. - 0090-6964 .- 1573-9686. ; 38:7, s. 2447-2463
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Accurate techniques for simulating the deformation of soft biological tissues are an increasingly valuable tool in many areas of biomechanical analysis and medical image computing. To model the complex morphology and response of articular cartilage, a hyperviscoelastic (dispersed) fiber-reinforced constitutive model is employed to complete two specimen-specific finite element (FE) simulations of an indentation experiment, with and without considering fiber dispersion. Ultra-high field Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (17.6 T DT-MRI) is performed on a specimen of human articular cartilage before and after indentation to similar to 20% compression. Based on this DT-MRI data, we detail a novel FE approach to determine the geometry (edge detection from first eigenvalue), the meshing (semi-automated smoothing of DTI measurement voxels), and the fiber structural input (estimated principal fiber direction and dispersion). The global and fiber fabric deformations of both the un-dispersed and dispersed fiber models provide a satisfactory match to that estimated experimentally. In both simulations, the fiber fabric in the superficial and middle zones becomes more aligned with the articular surface, although the dispersed model appears more consistent with the literature. In the future, a multi-disciplinary combination of DT-MRI and numerical simulation will allow the functional state of articular cartilage to be determined in vivo.
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  • Resultat 1-4 av 4

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