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Sökning: WFRF:(Regan Lynne)

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1.
  • Anney, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide scan for common alleles affecting risk for autism.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906. ; 19:20, s. 4072-4082
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). To identify common risk variation, the Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium genotyped 1558 rigorously defined ASD families for 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and analyzed these SNP genotypes for association with ASD. In one of four primary association analyses, the association signal for marker rs4141463, located within MACROD2, crossed the genome-wide association significance threshold of P < 5 × 10(-8). When a smaller replication sample was analyzed, the risk allele at rs4141463 was again over-transmitted; yet, consistent with the winner's curse, its effect size in the replication sample was much smaller; and, for the combined samples, the association signal barely fell below the P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold. Exploratory analyses of phenotypic subtypes yielded no significant associations after correction for multiple testing. They did, however, yield strong signals within several genes, KIAA0564, PLD5, POU6F2, ST8SIA2 and TAF1C.
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2.
  • Liberles, David A., et al. (författare)
  • The interface of protein structure, protein biophysics, and molecular evolution
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Protein Science. - 0961-8368 .- 1469-896X. ; 21:6, s. 769-785
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The interface of protein structural biology, protein biophysics, molecular evolution, and molecular population genetics forms the foundations for a mechanistic understanding of many aspects of protein biochemistry. Current efforts in interdisciplinary protein modeling are in their infancy and the state-of-the art of such models is described. Beyond the relationship between amino acid substitution and static protein structure, protein function, and corresponding organismal fitness, other considerations are also discussed. More complex mutational processes such as insertion and deletion and domain rearrangements and even circular permutations should be evaluated. The role of intrinsically disordered proteins is still controversial, but may be increasingly important to consider. Protein geometry and protein dynamics as a deviation from static considerations of protein structure are also important. Protein expression level is known to be a major determinant of evolutionary rate and several considerations including selection at the mRNA level and the role of interaction specificity are discussed. Lastly, the relationship between modeling and needed high-throughput experimental data as well as experimental examination of protein evolution using ancestral sequence resurrection and in vitro biochemistry are presented, towards an aim of ultimately generating better models for biological inference and prediction.
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3.
  • Pinto, Dalila, et al. (författare)
  • Functional impact of global rare copy number variation in autism spectrum disorders.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 466:7304, s. 368-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of conditions characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviours. Individuals with an ASD vary greatly in cognitive development, which can range from above average to intellectual disability. Although ASDs are known to be highly heritable ( approximately 90%), the underlying genetic determinants are still largely unknown. Here we analysed the genome-wide characteristics of rare (<1% frequency) copy number variation in ASD using dense genotyping arrays. When comparing 996 ASD individuals of European ancestry to 1,287 matched controls, cases were found to carry a higher global burden of rare, genic copy number variants (CNVs) (1.19 fold, P = 0.012), especially so for loci previously implicated in either ASD and/or intellectual disability (1.69 fold, P = 3.4 x 10(-4)). Among the CNVs there were numerous de novo and inherited events, sometimes in combination in a given family, implicating many novel ASD genes such as SHANK2, SYNGAP1, DLGAP2 and the X-linked DDX53-PTCHD1 locus. We also discovered an enrichment of CNVs disrupting functional gene sets involved in cellular proliferation, projection and motility, and GTPase/Ras signalling. Our results reveal many new genetic and functional targets in ASD that may lead to final connected pathways.
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4.
  • Yu, Feifan, 1983- (författare)
  • Generating Affinity Proteins for Biotechnological, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Protein engineering is a powerful tool to modify proteins to generate novel and desired properties that could be applied in biotechnological, diagnostics and therapeutic areas. In this thesis, both rational design and library based engineering principles have been exploited to develop affinity proteins with desired traits.One study was focused on the use of site-directed mutagenesis to obtain variants of the staphylococcal protein A-derived 58-residue immunoglobulin binding Z domain with improved affinity for mouse IgG1 Fc. Screening of ca. 170 constructed variants revealed one variant with a single F5I amino acid substitution, denoted ZF5I, with a ten-fold higher affinity. The Fc binding ZF5I variant was further investigated for use in affinity-driven site-specific covalent photoconjugation to mIgG1 monoclonal antibodies. Here, nine candidate positions in the domain were investigated for introduction of a UV-activatable maleimide benzophenone (MBP) group via conjugation to an introduced cysteine residue. The best photo-conjugation results were obtained for a variant in which the MBP was introduced at position 32, denoted ZF5I-Q32C-MBP, which could be conjugated at high yields to all nineteen mouse IgG1s tested. The use of a biotinylated Z-based probe for biotinylation via photoconjugation of a monoclonal anti-interferon gamma antibody resulted in a higher antigen binding activity than if a conventional amine directed biotinylation strategy was used.In a second study, the goal was to develop a new homogeneous immunoassay for quick antigen detection, based on split-protein complementation and pairs of antigen recognizing proteins. In one of the formats investigated, separate fragments of a split-beta-lactamase enzyme reporter were genetically linked to ZF5I-Q32C-MBP units which were individually photo-conjugated to two different mAbs recognizing different epitopes on a human interferon gamma model target analyte. Simultaneous binding of the two mAb-enzyme half probes to the analyte resulted in an analyte concentration-dependent enzyme fragment complementation which could be spectrophotometrically detected using a nitrocefin substrate.Using ribosome display technology, Z-domain based binders to mouse IgG1 were selected from an affibody library. One binder denoted Zmab25 was shown capable of selective binding to mouse IgG in a background of bovine IgG, and could be used for species-selective recovery of monoclonal antibodies from complex samples, resembling hybridoma culture supernatants. Epitope mapping experiments showed that that the binding site on mouse IgG was located in the Fab fragment and was overlapping with that of streptococcal protein G.In a final study, phage display technology was used to select affibodies binding to human interleukin 6 (IL-6), for potential use in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapy via blocking of the signaling involving the ternary complex between IL-6, the IL-6 receptor α (IL-6R α) and the gp130 co-receptor. Several affibodies were shown to be capable of blocking the interaction between gp130 and preformed complexes of IL-6 and soluble IL-6R α (IL-6/sIL-6R α) in vitro, corresponding to the so-called trans-signaling interaction. One of these affibody variants denoted ZIL-6_13 showed a KD of approx. 500 pM for IL-6 and was genetically fused to different chain ends of the monoclonal anti-TNF antibody adalimumab to build bi-specific “AffiMab” constructs. One construct, ZIL-6_13-HCAda,in which the affibody was fused to the N-terminus of the adalimumab heavy chain had the most optimal properties in different cell assays and was also evaluated in vivo in an acute serum amyloid A (SAA) mouse RA model, involving a dual challenge of animals with both IL-6 and TNF. Compared to adalimumab that could only reduce SAA levels to 50% at the highest dose, the bi-functional AffiMab reduced SAA levels to below the detection level. 
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